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Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

Description: This proceedings is the compilation of papers presented at the ninth PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Sheraton Denver West Hotel on September 4--6, 1996. This years workshop included presentations from 25 speakers and had over 100 attendees. All of the presentations that were given are included in this proceedings. Topics of the papers included: defining service lifetime and developing models for PV module lifetime; examining and determining failure and degradation mechanisms in PV modules; combining IEEE/IEC/UL testing procedures; AC module performance and reliability testing; inverter reliability/qualification testing; standardization of utility interconnect requirements for PV systems; need activities to separate variables by testing individual components of PV systems (e.g. cells, modules, batteries, inverters,charge controllers) for individual reliability and then test them in actual system configurations; more results reported from field experience on modules, inverters, batteries, and charge controllers from field deployed PV systems; and system certification and standardized testing for stand-alone and grid-tied systems.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Kroposki, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the 1998 Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop; Cocoa Beach, Florida; November 3-5, 1998

Description: This proceedings is the compilation of all papers presented at the 11th PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Doubletree Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida, on November 3-5, 1998. The workshop was hosted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. This year's workshop included presentations from 29 speakers and had 110 attendees.
Date: December 17, 1998
Creator: Kroposki, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems, Part 2: Modeling, Development, and Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Control Functions for Single-Phase Utility-Connected Inverter

Description: Integrating renewable energy and distributed generations into the Smart Grid architecture requires power electronic (PE) for energy conversion. The key to reaching successful Smart Grid implementation is to develop interoperable, intelligent, and advanced PE technology that improves and accelerates the use of distributed energy resource systems. This report describes the simulation, design, and testing of a single-phase DC-to-AC inverter developed to operate in both islanded and utility-connected mode. It provides results on both the simulations and the experiments conducted, demonstrating the ability of the inverter to provide advanced control functions such as power flow and VAR/voltage regulation. This report also analyzes two different techniques used for digital signal processor (DSP) code generation. Initially, the DSP code was written in C programming language using Texas Instrument's Code Composer Studio. In a later stage of the research, the Simulink DSP toolbox was used to self-generate code for the DSP. The successful tests using Simulink self-generated DSP codes show promise for fast prototyping of PE controls.
Date: November 1, 2008
Creator: Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B. & Kramer, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technologies for the new millennium: Photovoltaics as a distributed resource

Description: Photovoltaics (PV) is emerging as an important distributed resource. PV gives both the benefits of a distributed resource and a clean power source. Because PV can be installed at both residential and commercial locations, it can be used to reduce peak demand when its output is properly matched with power demand. It can also improve asset utilization by requiring less large capital generation spending and delaying some equipment replacement. With the price of some grid-connected PV systems expected to reach $3/W in the next 5 years, PV will become an economical option for distributed power generation. One of the most important aspects of establishing PV as a distributed resource is standardizing the requirements for grid connection. IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee (SCC) 21 has recently published IEEE Std 929 ''Recommend Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic Systems.'' This recommended practice details power quality, safety, and protection requirements for connection to the utility grid. This paper describes what types of PV systems are available, what the benefits are for PV systems, and what the interconnection issues and solutions are for using PV as a distributed resource.
Date: March 22, 2000
Creator: Kroposki, B. & DeBlasio, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., CdTe modules and array at NREL

Description: The Engineering and Technology Validation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules and arrays. This paper focuses on the technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., (SCI) cadmium telluride (CdTe) module and array performance by attempting to correlate individual module and array performance. This is done by examining the performance and stability of the modules and array over a period of more than one year. Temperature coefficients for module and array parameters (P{sub max}V{sub oc}, V{sub max}, I{sub sc}, I{sub max}) are also calculated.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Kroposki, B.; Strand, T. & Hansen, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance and Modeling of Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaics for Building-Integrated Applications (Preprint prepared for Solar 99)

Description: Amorphous silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules offer several advantages for building-integrated applications. The material can be deposited on glass or flexible substrates, which allows for products like roofing shingles and integrated PV/building glass. The material also has a uniform surface, which is ideal for many architectural applications. Amorphous silicon modules perform well in warm weather and have a small temperature coefficient for power. Depending on the building load, this may be beneficial when compared to crystalline systems. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, we are monitoring the performance of a triple-junction a-Si system. The system consists of 72 roofing shingles mounted directly to simulated roofing structures. This paper examines the performance of the building-integrated amorphous silicon PV system and applicability for covering residential loads. A simple model of system performance is also developed and is presented.
Date: June 7, 1998
Creator: Kroposki, B. & Hansen, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop Summary: August 24, 2006, Sacramento, California

Description: The Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop, sponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research program and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, was held Aug. 24, 2006, in Sacramento, Calif. The workshop provided a forum for industry stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience about technologies, manufacturing approaches, markets, and issues in power electronics for a range of distributed energy resources. It focused on the development of advanced power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications and included discussions of modular power electronics, component manufacturing, and power electronic applications.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Treanton, B.; Palomo, J.; Kroposki, B. & Thomas, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Standardized Power Electronic Components, Subsystems, and Systems for Increased Modularity and Scalability

Description: Power electronics devices hold substantial promise for making distributed energy applications more efficient and cost effective. This project is motivated towards developing and testing inverters that will allow distributed energy systems to provide ancillary services such as voltage and VAR regulation, and increased grid reliability by seamlessly transitioning between grid-tied and stand-alone operation modes. The objectives of this project are to identify system integration and optimization issues and technologies and to provide solutions through research, analysis, and testing of power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications that are cost-competitive and have substantially faster response times than conventional technologies. In addition, the testing of power electronics interfaces will develop a technical basis for performance assessment for distributed energy systems, subsystems, and components that will finally create a foundation for standardized measurements and test procedures. The ultimate goal for this research is to advance the potential benefits of distributed energy to provide ancillary services, enhance power system reliability, and allow customer choice.
Date: November 1, 2007
Creator: Chakraborty, S.; Pink, C.; Price, J.; Kroposki, B. & Kern, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability of CIS/CIGS Modules at the Outdoor Test Facility over Two Decades: Preprint

Description: This paper discusses examining the status and question of long-term stability of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic (PV) module performance for numerous modules that are deployed in the array field, or on the roof of, the outdoor test facility (OTF) at NREL, acquired from two manufacturers.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S.; Kroposki, B.; Osterwald, C. & Anderberg, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities for Electric Power Utilities

Description: Recent advancements in hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications show promise for economical near- to mid-term conversion to a hydrogen-based economy. As the use of hydrogen for the electric utility and transportation sectors of the U.S. economy unfolds, electric power utilities need to understand the potential benefits and impacts. This report provides a historical perspective of hydrogen, discusses the process of electrolysis for hydrogen production (especially from solar and wind technologies), and describes the opportunities for electric power utilities.
Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Kroposki, B.; Levene, J.; Harrison, K.; Sen, P.K. & Novachek, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

Description: This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J. & Kroposki, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

From the Building to the Grid: An Energy Revolution and Modeling Challenge; Workshop Proceedings

Description: This report summarizes the workshop entitled: From the Building to the Grid: An Energy Revolution and Modeling Challenge. The first workshop was held May 1-2, 2012 on NREL's campus in Golden, Colorado. The second was held June 6-7, 2012 at the University College Dublin, in Dublin, Ireland.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Kroposki, B.; Komomua, C. & O'Malley, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SunEdison Photovoltaic Grid Integration Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-302

Description: Under this Agreement, NREL will work with SunEdison to monitor and analyze the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems as they relate to grid integration. Initially this project will examine the performance of PV systems with respect to evaluating the benefits and impacts on the electric power grid.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Kroposki, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems Part 1: Systems and Topologies

Description: This report summarizes power electronic interfaces for DE applications and the topologies needed for advanced power electronic interfaces. It focuses on photovoltaic, wind, microturbine, fuel cell, internal combustion engine, battery storage, and flywheel storage systems.
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B. & Thomas, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department