47 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Effective dielectric constants of photonic crystal of aligned anisotropic cylinders and the optical response of a periodic array of carbon nanotubes

Description: This article discusses effective dielectric constants of photonic crystal of aligned anisotropic cylanders and the optical response of a periodic array of carbon nanotubes.
Date: October 25, 2005
Creator: Reyes, E.; Krokhin, Arkadii A. & Roberts, James A.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

How Cooperative Systems Respond to External Forces

Description: Cooperative interactions permeate through nature, bringing about emergent behavior and complexity. Using a simple cooperative model, I illustrate the mean field dynamics that occur at the critical point of a second order phase transition in the framework of Langevin equations. Through this formalism I discuss the response, both linear and nonlinear, to external forces. Emphasis is placed on how information is transferred from one individual to another in order to facilitate the collective response of the cooperative network to a localized perturbation. The results are relevant to a wide variety of systems, ranging from nematic liquid crystals, to flocks and swarms, social groups, and neural networks.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Svenkeson, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cooperation-induced Criticality in Neural Networks

Description: The human brain is considered to be the most complex and powerful information-processing device in the known universe. The fundamental concepts behind the physics of complex systems motivate scientists to investigate the human brain as a collective property emerging from the interaction of thousand agents. In this dissertation, I investigate the emergence of cooperation-induced properties in a system of interacting units. I demonstrate that the neural network of my research generates a series of properties such as avalanche distribution in size and duration coinciding with the experimental results on neural networks both in vivo and in vitro. Focusing attention on temporal complexity and fractal index of the system, I discuss how to define an order parameter and phase transition. Criticality is assumed to correspond to the emergence of temporal complexity, interpreted as a manifestation of non-Poisson renewal dynamics. In addition, I study the transmission of information between two networks to confirm the criticality and discuss how the network topology changes over time in the light of Hebbian learning.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Zare, Marzieh
Partner: UNT Libraries

Oligonucleotide guanosine conjugated to gallium nitride nano-structures for photonics.

Description: In this work, I studied the hybrid system based on self-assembled guanosine crystal (SAGC) conjugated to wide-bandgap semiconductor gallium nitride (GaN). Guanosine is one of the four bases of DNA and has the lowest oxidation energy, which favors carrier transport. It also has large dipole moment. Guanosine molecules self-assemble to ribbon-like structure in confined space. GaN surface can have positive or negative polarity depending on whether the surface is Ga- or N-terminated. I studied SAGC in confined space between two electrodes. The current-voltage characteristics can be explained very well with the theory of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure. I-V curves also show strong rectification effect, which can be explained by the intrinsic polarization along the axis of ribbon-like structure of SAGC. GaN substrate property influences the properties of SAGC. So SAGC has semiconductor properties within the confined space up to 458nm. When the gap distance gets up to 484nm, the structure with guanosine shows resistance characteristics. The photocurrent measurements show that the bandgap of SAGC is about 3.3-3.4eV and affected by substrate properties. The MSM structure based on SAGC can be used as photodetector in UV region. Then I show that the periodic structure based on GaN and SAGC can have photonic bandgaps. The bandgap size and the band edges can be tuned by tuning lattice parameters. Light propagation and emission can be tuned by photonic crystals. So the hybrid photonic crystal can be potentially used to detect guanosine molecules. If guanosine molecules are used as functional linker to other biomolecules which usually absorb or emit light in blue to UV region, the hybrid photonic crystal can also be used to tune the coupling of light source to guanosine molecules, then to other biomolecules.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Li, Jianyou
Partner: UNT Libraries

Emergence of Complexity from Synchronization and Cooperation

Description: The dynamical origin of complexity is an object of intense debate and, up to moment of writing this manuscript, no unified approach exists as to how it should be properly addressed. This research work adopts the perspective of complexity as characterized by the emergence of non-Poisson renewal processes. In particular I introduce two new complex system models, namely the two-state stochastic clocks and the integrate-and-fire stochastic neurons, and investigate its coupled dynamics in different network topologies. Based on the foundations of renewal theory, I show how complexity, as manifested by the occurrence of non-exponential distribution of events, emerges from the interaction of the units of the system. Conclusion is made on the work's applicability to explaining the dynamics of blinking nanocrystals, neuron interaction in the human brain, and synchronization processes in complex networks.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Geneston, Elvis L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Emergence of Cooperation and Homeodynamics as a Result of Self Organized Temporal Criticality: From Biology to Physics

Description: This dissertation is an attempt at establishing a bridge between biology and physics leading naturally from the field of phase transitions in physics to the cooperative nature of living systems. We show that this aim can be realized by supplementing the current field of evolutionary game theory with a new form of self-organized temporal criticality. In the case of ordinary criticality, the units of a system choosing either cooperation or defection under the influence of the choices done by their nearest neighbors, undergo a significant change of behavior when the intensity of social influence has a critical value. At criticality, the behavior of the individual units is correlated with that of all other units, in addition to the behavior of the nearest neighbors. The spontaneous transition to criticality of this work is realized as follows: the units change their behavior (defection or cooperation) under the social influence of their nearest neighbors and update the intensity of their social influence spontaneously by the feedback they get from the payoffs of the game (environment). If units, which are selfish, get higher benefit with respect to their previous play, they increase their interest to interact with other units and vice versa. Doing this, the behavior of single units and the whole system spontaneously evolve towards criticality, thereby realizing a global behavior favoring cooperation. In the case when the interacting units are oscillators with their own periodicity, homeodynamics concerns, the individual payoff is the synchronization with the nearest neighbors (i.e., lowering the energy of the system), the spontaneous transition to criticality generates fluctuations characterized by the joint action of periodicity and crucial events of the same kind as those revealed by the current analysis of the dynamics of the brain. This result is expected to explain the efficiency of enzyme catalyzers, on the basis ...
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Mahmoodi, Korosh
Partner: UNT Libraries

Resonant excitation of coupled Rayleigh waves in a short and narrow fluid channel clad between two identical metal plates

Description: This article studies the transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures.
Date: July 14, 2014
Creator: Garcia-Chocano, Victor M.; Lopez-Rios, Tomas; Krokhin, Arkadii A. & Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Fractional Calculus and Dynamic Approach to Complexity

Description: Fractional calculus enables the possibility of using real number powers or complex number powers of the differentiation operator. The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation for a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. With an ensemble average perspective, the explanation of the behavior of fractional chaotic systems changes dramatically. Before now what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction is actually a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. Nonlinear Langevin equation describes the mean field of a finite size complex network at criticality. Critical phenomena and temporal complexity are two very important issues of modern nonlinear dynamics and the link between them found by the author can significantly improve the understanding behavior of dynamical systems at criticality. The subject of temporal complexity addresses the challenging and especially helpful in addressing fundamental physical science issues beyond the limits of reductionism.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Beig, Mirza Tanweer Ahmad
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Precise Few-nucleon Size Difference by Isotope Shift Measurements of Helium

Description: We perform high precision measurements of an isotope shift between the two stable isotopes of helium. We use laser excitation of the 2^3 S_1-2^3 P_0 transition at 1083 nm in a metastable beam of 3He and 4He atoms. A newly developed tunable laser frequency selector along with our previous electro-optic frequency modulation technique provides extremely reliable, adaptable, and precise frequency and intensity control. The intensity control contributes negligibly to overall experimental uncertainty by stabilizing the intensity of the required sideband and eliminating the unwanted frequencies generated during the modulation of 1083 nm laser carrier frequency. The selection technique uses a MEMS based fiber switch and several temperature stabilized narrow band (~3 GHz) fiber gratings. A fiber based optical circulator and an inline fiber amplifier provide the desired isolation and the net gain for the selected frequency. Also rapid (~2 sec.) alternating measurements of the 2^3 S_1-2^3 P_0 interval for both species of helium is achieved with a custom fiber laser for simultaneous optical pumping. A servo-controlled retro-reflected laser beam eliminates residual Doppler effects during the isotope shift measurement. An improved detection design and software control makes negligible subtle potential biases in the data collection. With these advances, combined with new internal and external consistency checks, we are able to obtain results consistent with the best previous measurements, but with substantially improved precision. Our measurement of the 2^3 S_1-2^3 P_0 isotope shift between 3He and 4He is 31 097 535.2 (5) kHz. The most recent theoretic calculation combined with this measurement yields a new determination for nuclear size differences between 3He and 4He: ∆r_c=0.292 6 (1)_exp (8)_th (52)_exp fm, with a precision of less than a part in 〖10〗^4 coming from the experimental uncertainty (first parenthesis), and a part in 〖10〗^3 coming from theory. This value is consistent with electron scattering ...
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Hassan Rezaeian, Nima
Partner: UNT Libraries

Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Peg Based Thermo Sensitive Hydro Microgel

Description: Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) based microgels were synthesized and investigated. The PEG microgel has the same phase transition as the traditional poly N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM). As a good substitute of PNIPAM, PEG microgel exhibits many advantages: it is easier to control the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the microgel by changing the component of copolymers; it has a more solid spherical core-shell structure to have a double thermo sensitivity; it is straightforward to add other sensitivities such as pH, magnetic field or organic functional groups; it readily forms a photonic crystal structure exhibiting Bragg diffraction; and, most importantly, the PEG microgel is biocompatible with human body and has been approved by FDA while PNIPAM has not. PEG microgels with core-shell structure are synthesized with a two-step free radical polymerization and characterized with DLS, SLS and UV–Vis. The dynamic mechanics of melting and recrystallizing of the PEG core-shell microgel are presented and discussed. Photonic crystals of PEG microgels were synthesized and characterized. The crystal can be isolated in a thin film or a bulk column. The phase transition of PEG microgel was simulated with the mean field theory. The enthalpy and entropy of phase transition can be estimated from the best fit to theoretical calculation with experimental data.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Chi, Chenglin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interacting complex systems: theory and application to real-world situations

Description: The interest in complex systems has increased exponentially during the past years because it was found helpful in addressing many of today's challenges. The study of the brain, biology, earthquakes, markets and social sciences are only a few examples of the fields that have benefited from the investigation of complex systems. Internet, the increased mobility of people and the raising energy demand are among the factors that brought in contact complex systems that were isolated till a few years ago. A theory for the interaction between complex systems is becoming more and more urgent to help mankind in this transition. The present work builds upon the most recent results in this field by solving a theoretical problem that prevented previous work to be applied to important complex systems, like the brain. It also shows preliminary laboratory results of perturbation of in vitro neural networks that were done to test the theory. Finally, it gives a preview of the studies that are being done to create a theory that is even closer to the interaction between real complex systems.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Piccinini, Nicola
Partner: UNT Libraries