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A Study by Means of a Dynamic-Model Investigation of the Use of Canard Surfaces as an Aid in Recovering From Spins and as a Means for Preventing Directional Divergence Near the Stall

Description: Memorandum presenting an aircraft modification involving the incorporation of small canard surfaces into the design, which is meant to compensate for eliminating ailerons. Results of testing in the 20-foot free-spinning tunnel of dynamic models of two sweptback-wing fighter airplanes showed that canard surfaces were very effective in aiding termination of spins of these models. A discussion of the spin tests, catapult and force tests, and effect of jet-engine angular momentum is provided.
Date: May 23, 1956
Creator: Klinar, Walter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-spinning-tunnel investigation to determine the effect on spins and recoveries of wing leading-edge chord-extensions and drooped leading-edge flaps on scale models of two sweptback-wing fighter airplanes

Description: Report discussing an investigation to determine the effect of wing leading-edge chord-extensions and drooped leading-edge flaps on the spin and spin-recovery characteristics of models of two swept-wing fighter airplanes. The investigation included chord-extensions in the plane of the wing and chord-extensions deflected in combination with drooped leading-edge flaps. The chord extensions were not found to have an appreciable effect on spin or spin-recovery characteristics when installed in the plane of the wing.
Date: May 6, 1953
Creator: Wilson, Jack H. & Klinar, Walter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of effects of ailerons and combinations of spoiler-slot-deflector arrangements on spin recovery of sweptback-wing model having mass distributed along the fuselage

Description: Report presenting an investigation in the free-spinning tunnel to determine the effect of lateral-control systems using various combinations of spoilers, slots, and deflectors as compared with ailerons on the spin-recovery characteristics of a model of a 35 degree swept-wing fighter loaded heavily along the fuselage. Testing indicated that the ailerons were favorable for recovery when they were deflected full with the spin. Results regarding the effect of ailerons and two spoiler-slot-deflector configurations are provided.
Date: November 24, 1954
Creator: Healy, Frederick M. & Klinar, Walter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin Investigation of a 1/29-Scale Model of the Republic XF-91 Airplane with a Conventional Tail Installed

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel of a 1/29-scale model of the Republic XF-91 airplane with a.conventional-tail arrangement installed. Previously, tests were made on the model with a vee tail installed. The erect spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal loading with the wing installed at various amounts of incidence. The spin investigation also included inverted-spin tests, spin-recovery-parachute tests, tests with the center of gravity moved rearward, and tests with external fuel tanks added to the model. In addition, several tail.modifications were tested,on the model in an attempt, to improve the model's spin-recovery characteristics. The results indicate that any fully developed spin obtained on the airplane with the conventional tail installed will be satisfactorily terminated if rudder reversal is accompanied by moving the ailerons with the spin (stick right in a right spin).Decreasing the wing incidence from 6deg to -2deg should have a beneficial effect on the recovery characteristics of the airplane. Recovery characteristics by normal use of controls (full rudder reversal followed by moving the elevators down) will be satisfactory if the wing incidence,of the airplane is -2deg. Installation of external fuel tanks (with or without fuel) will have a somewhat adverse effect on the recovery characteristics of the airplane, but if the recovery technique includes movement of the ailerons to full with the spin, the spin rotation will be terminated rapidly. Varying the position of the center of gravity within the limits indicated to be possible on the airplane should not affect the recovery characteristics.
Date: May 5, 1949
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Jones, Ira P., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of the spinning characteristics of a model of a twin-tail low-wing personal-owner-type airplane with linked and unlinked rudder and aileron controls

Description: Report presenting a spin investigation in the 20-foot free-spinning tunnel of a model of a twin-tail low-wing personal-owner-type airplane with linked and unlinked rudder and aileron controls. The model was tested for two wing loadings and three mass distributions. When the rudders and ailerons were linked for two-control operation, the model generally would not spin.
Date: January 1949
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Gale, Lawrence J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin-tunnel investigation of a model of a 60 degree delta-wing airplane to determine the spin, recovery, and longitudinal trim characteristics throughout an extensive range of mass loadings

Description: Report presenting an investigation to determine the spin, recovery, and longitudinal-trim characteristics of a 60 degree delta-wing model through an extensive range of mass loadings. Variations in the relative density, center-of-gravity position, and inertia parameters were included in testing. Results regarding the single-vertical-tail and multiple-vertical-tail configurations are provided.
Date: February 15, 1950
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Jones, Ira P., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin-tunnel investigation to determine the effect on spin recoveries of reducing the opening shock load of spin-recovery parachutes

Description: Report presenting an investigation in the 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine whether the effectiveness of a spin-recovery parachute would be influenced by a reduction, through the use of a shock absorber, or the opening shock load. The results indicated that a given spin-recovery parachute was effective with or without a rubber shock absorber installed in the parachute towline. Results regarding the effect of the shock absorber on spin-recovery characteristics and effect of porosity and towline length on shock load are provided.
Date: March 1950
Creator: Jones, Ira P., Jr. & Klinar, Walter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic model investigation of two tail-sitter vertically rising airplanes to determine the altitude required to approach normal flight conditions under power failure in hovering flight

Description: From Summary: "An investigation has been undertaken on two dynamic models simulating 1/20-scale and 1/25-scale models of propeller-driven tail-sitter vertically rising airplanes to determine the altitude required to approach normal-flight conditions after power failure in hovering flight. The results of the investigation indicated that, for the two models investigated, an altitude of 3,600 to 5,400 feet may be required to attain normal gliding flight."
Date: November 9, 1956
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Wilkes, L. Faye
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of Tail Length Upon the Spin-Recovery Characteristics of a Trainer-Type-Airplane Model

Description: Note presenting the results of an investigation conducted to determine the effect of tail length on the spin and recovery characteristics of a model typical of a trainer-type airplane. The model used in the investigation was tested with two tail lengths, and the model with the shorter tail was tested with several ventral fins. Results indicated that the model with the longer tail length had the better recovery characteristics even when the short tail model had comparable or higher levels of tail-damping power factor.
Date: December 1948
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Snyder, Thomas L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-spinning tunnel investigation of the 1/21-scale model of the Chance Vought F7U-3 airplane: TED No. NACA DE 362

Description: Report presenting an investigation of a 1/21-scale model of the Chance Vought F7U-3 airplane in the 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics for combat loading in the clean condition. Results regarding erect spins, inverted spins, spin-recovery parachutes, and recommended recovery technique are provided.
Date: November 9, 1951
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Healy, Frederick M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplementary Investigation in the Langley Free-Spinning Tunnel of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Douglas XF4D-1 Airplane Including Spin-Recovery Parachute Tests of the Model Loaded to Simulate the Douglas F5D-1 Airplane

Description: A supplementary investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel of a l/20-scale model of the Douglas XF4D-1 airplane to determine the effect of only neutralizing the rudder for recovery from an inverted spin, and the effect of partial aileron deflection with the spin for recovery from an erect spin. An estimation of the size parachute required for satisfactory recovery from a spin with the model ballasted to represent the Douglas F5D-1 (formerly the Douglas XF4D-2) airplane was also made. Results of the original investigation on the XF4D-1 design are presented in NACA RM SL50K30a. The results indicated that satisfactory recoveries from inverted spins of the airplane should be obtained by rudder neutralization when the longitudinal stick position is neutral or forward. Recoveries from erect spins from the normal-spin control configuration should be satisfactory by full rudder reversal with simultaneous movement of the ailerons to two-thirds with the spin. For the parachute tests with the model loaded to represent the F5D-1 airplane, the tests indicated that a 16.7-foot-diameter hemispherical-tail parachute (drag coefficient of 1.082 based on the projected area) with a towline 20.0 feet long (full- scale values) should be satisfactory for an emergency spin-recovery device during demonstration spins of the airplane.
Date: November 21, 1955
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Lee, Henry A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplementary Investigation in the Free-Spinning Tunnel of a 1/24-Scale Model of the Grumman F9F-6 Airplane Incorporating only Flaperons for Lateral Control, TED No. NACA DE 364

Description: A supplementary investigation was conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/24-scale model of the Grumman F9F-6 airplane. The primary purpose of the investigation was to reevaluate the spin-recovery characteristics of the airplane in view of the fact that the ailerons had been eliminated from the flaperon-aileron lateral control system of the airplane. A spin-tunnel investigation on a model of the earlier version of the F9F-6 airplane had indicated that use of ailerons with the spin (stick right in a right spin) was essential to insure recovery. The results indicate that with.ailerons eliminated, it may be difficult to obtain an erect developed spin but if a fully developed spin is obtained on the airplane, recovery therefrom may be difficult or impossible. Flaperon deflection should have little effect on spins or recoveries.
Date: November 18, 1954
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Lee, Henry A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/24-Scale Model of the Grumman AF-2S, -2W Airplane

Description: An investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/24-scale model of the Grumman AF-2S, -2W airplane was conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The effects of controls on the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics for a range of possible loadings of the.airplane were determined. The effect of a revised-tail installation (small dual fins added to the stabilizer of the original tail and the vertical-tail height of the original tail increased) and the effect of various ventral-fin and antispin-fillet installations were determined. The investigation also included spin-recovery parachute tests.
Date: March 12, 1950
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Wilson, Jack H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplementary Free-Spinning-Tunnel Tests of a 1/16-Scale Model of the McDonnell XB-85 Airplane Equipped with a Conventional-Tail Arrangement

Description: Spin tests have been conducted in the Langley free-spinning tunnel on a 1/16-scale model of the McDonnell XP-85 airplane with the normal X-tail replaced with a short-coupled conventional tail arrangement. The effect of the conventional tail arrangement and the effects of various modifications upon the spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined. The results of the tests indicated that installation of the conventional tail arrangement wil not provide satisfactory recoveries from spins of the airplane. Satisfactory recoveries will be obtainable, however, either by installing in addition a very large ventral fin (17.94 sq ft, full-scale) below the tail or by decreasing the width of the fuselage and making it flat sided rearward of the wing trailing edge.
Date: October 13, 1947
Creator: Klinar, Walter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin Tests of 1/20-Scale Models of the Chance Vought Revised XF6U-1 and F6U-1 Airplanes, TED No. NACA 2390

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on the 1/20-scale model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 airplane altered to represent the XF6U-1 airplane as it will be spin-tested in flight, and also altered to represent the F6U-1 airplane as it will be produced for service use. Spin tests were made to determine the effects of control settings and movements at the normal loading. The results show that the spins obtained on the revised XF6U-1 airplane will be oscillatory in roll and yaw and that recoveries by rudder reversal will be rapid. Model test results indicate that the F6U-1 airplane will probably not spin. Inasmuch as the results of this investigation show that the new designs are as good as or better than the original XF6U-1 design in regard to spin recovery, it is felt that the conclusions and recommendations reached for the original design can be applied to the new designs for all loading conditions.
Date: June 28, 1948
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning and Tumbling Tests of a 1/16-Scale Model of the McDonnell XP-85 Airplane

Description: The teat results showed that with either of the three tail arrangements, the model usually spun in flat attitudes with oscillations about the lateral and longitudinal axes. In general, full reversal of the rudder pedals did not stop the spinning rotation. To make the model satisfactorily meet-the spin-recovery requirements it was found that installation of either a very large ventral fin (l7.9 square feet, full scale) below the tail or a somewhat smaller ventral fin and rudder (12.4 square feet, total . full-scale area) with a rudder throw of at least +/-22deg was required. Either a 21.3-foot tail parachute or a 6.4-foot wing-tip parachute (drag coefficient approximately 0.70) appears necessary as an emergency spin-recovery device during demonstration spins.
Date: March 6, 1947
Creator: Klinar, Walter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning Tunnel Tests of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA 2390

Description: A spin investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/20-scale model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 airplane, The effects of control settings and movements upon the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal-fighter condition. The investigation also included tests for the take-off fighter condition (wing-tip tanks plus fuel added) spin-recovery parachutes, and simulated pilot escape. In general, for the normal-fighter condition, the model was extremely oscillatory in roll, pitch, and yaw. The angles of the fuselage varied from extremely flat to inverted attitudes, and the model rotated with the rudder in a series of short turns and glides. Recoveries by rudder reversal were rapid but the model would immediately go into a spin in the other direction. Recoveries by merely neutralizing the rudder were satisfactory when the elevator and ailerons were set to neutral, the ensuing flight path being a steep glide. Thus, it is recommended that all controls be neutralized for safe recovery from spins obtained on the airplane. With the external wing-tip tanks installed, the spins were somewhat less oscillatory in roll but recovery could not be obtained unless full-down elevator was used in conjunction with the rudder. If a spin is entered inadvertently with the full-scale airplane with external wing-tip tanks installed and if recovery is not imminent after a recovery attempt is made, it is recommended that the tanks be jettisoned and the controls neutralized.
Date: November 5, 1946
Creator: Klinar, Walter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/24-Scale Model of the Grumman F9F-6 Airplane: TED No. NACA DE 364

Description: From Summary: "An investigation of a 1/24-scale model of the Grumman F9F-6 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal flight loading with the model in the clean condition. The effect of loading variations was investigated briefly. Spin-recovery parachute tests were also performed."
Date: 1952
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Healy, Frederick M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 0.034-Scale Model of the Production Version of the Chance Vought F7U-3 Airplane, TED No. NACA AD 3103

Description: From Summary: "An investigation of a 0.034-scale model of the production version of the Chance Vought F7U-3 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The inverted and erect spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the combat loading with the model in the clean condition and the effect of extending slats was investigated. A brief investigation of pilot ejection was also performed."
Date: July 6, 1955
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Healy, Frederick M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of spin research for recent airplane designs

Description: Report presenting the status of spin research for recent airplane designs as interpreted. Some of the major problem areas discussed include interpretation of results of spin-model research, analytical spin studies, techniques involved int he measurement of various parameters in the spin, effectiveness of controls during spins and recoveries, influence of long noses, strakes, and canards on spin and recovery characteristics, and correlation of airplane and model spin and recovery characteristics.
Date: August 16, 1957
Creator: Neilhouse, Anshal I.; Klinar, Walter J. & Scher, Stanley H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-spinning-tunnel investigation of a 1/20-scale model of the Douglas A4D-1 airplane: TED No. NACA DE 389

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/20-scale dynamic model of the Douglas A4D-1 attack airplane in the 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. Erect spins and recoveries were investigated with the model in the clean condition and the loading condition, which includes a center external store with and without two external wing fuel tanks installed. Results regarding several conditions, including erect spins, no external stores, horizontal-tail incidence, 4 degrees leading edge up; erect spins, stores installed; landing conditions, inverted spins, spin-recovery parachute tests, and recommended recovery technique and control forces are provided.
Date: January 19, 1955
Creator: Klinar, Walter J.; Scher, Stanley H. & Healy, Frederick M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplementary Investigation to Determine the Effects of Center-of-Gravity Position on the Spin, Longitudinal-Trim, and Tumbling Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee 7002 Airplane (Flying Mock-up of XF-92)

Description: A supplementary wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of rearward positions of the center of gravity on the spin, longitudinal-trim, and tumbling characteristics of the 1/20-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee 7002 airplane equipped with the single vertical tail. A few tests were also made with dual vertical tails added to the model. The model was ballasted to represent, the airplane in its approximate design gross weight for two center-of-gravity positions, 3O and 35 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The original tests previously reported were for a center-of-gravity position of 24 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.
Date: 1948
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Jones, Ira P., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department