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High performance solar control office windows

Description: Investigations conducted over a 9 month period on the use of ion beam sputtering methods for the fabrication of solar control windows for energy conservation are described. Principal emphasis was placed on colored, reflecting, heat rejecting, office building windows for reducing air conditioning loads and to aid in the design of energy conserving buildings. The coating techniques were developed primarily for use with conventional absorbing plate glass such as PPG solarbronze, but were also demonstrated on plastic substrates for retrofit applications. Extensive material investigations were conducted to determine the optimum obtainable characteristics, with associated weathering studies as appropriate aimed at achieving a 20 year minimum life. Conservative estimates indicate that successful commercialization of the windows developed under this program would result in energy savings of 16,000,000 barrels of oil/year by 1990 if installation were only 10 percent of new commercial building stock. These estimates are relative to existing design for energy conserving windows. Installation in a greater percentage of new stock and for retrofit applications could lead to proportionately greater energy savings. All such installations are projected as cost effective as well as energy effective. A secondary program was carried out to modify the techniques to yield thermal control windows for residential applications. These windows were designed to provide a high heat retention capability without seriously affecting their transmission of incident solar radiation, thereby enhancing the greenhouse effect. This part of the program was successful in producing a window form which could be interchanged for standard residential window material in a cost and energy effective manner. The only variation from standard stock in appearance is a very light rose or neutral gray coloring.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: King, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of simplified process for environmentally resistant cells. Final report

Description: A program to develop a simple, foolproof, all-vacuum solar cell manufacturing process which can be completely automated and which results in medium efficiency cells which are inherently environmentally resistant is described. All components of the completed cells are integrated into a monolithic structure with no material interfaces. The exposed materials (Si, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al, Ni) are all resistant to atmospheric attack and the junction, per se, is passivated to prevent long term degradation. Such cells are intended to be incorporated into a simple module consisting basically of a press-formed metallic superstructure with a separated glass cover for missile, etc., protection. A 5 cm x 5 cm test cell configuration was designed in which the various efficiency loss factors were adjusted to yield a 10% AMI cell. Each of the cell elements was individually optimized for combination with the others. The basic cell consists of alloyed front (Al) and back (Ag plus Ni) contacts, a multi-purpose (AR, hermetic seal, implantation oxide) front surface coating of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and an implanted front junction. Implantation damage annealing and contact alloying are carried out in a simple one step thermal treatment at 870/sup 0/C using a resistance heated furnace in vacuum. The use of non-analyzed and semi-analyzed beams for fabricating these cells was developed by KCI. A final lot of 50 cells made using the semi-analyzed beam method had an average efficiency of 10.4% at AMI (28 +- 1/sup 0/C). An economic analysis predicts a manufacturing cost of $.45/peak-watt for these cells using a one machine automatic method.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: King, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description of LLNL AERIN code revision to include ICRP30 concepts

Description: The AERIN code was written in 1976 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to calculate the internal dose to several organs of the body resulting from inhalation of transuranic radioactive materials. A major revision of the code was made in 1982 to incorporate the concepts of ICRP30 and to expand the model to include additional body organs. The code was compiled to run on a CDC7600 computer. In 1987 the code was revised in order that it could be compiled to run on a CRAY-1 computer. This document will describe the AERIN code as it exists now. The current version of the code will compute the time transport of a radioisotope from an initial site of deposition through the various organs of the body and calculate the dose equivalent to those organs using the ICRP30 concepts. The model described by the code can be used to study inhalation, ingestion and wounds either singly or in any combination of depositions. 5 refs., 3 figs.
Date: December 1, 1987
Creator: King, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description and application of the AERIN Code at LLNL

Description: The AERIN code was written at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1976 to compute the organ burdens and absorbed dose resulting from a chronic or acute inhalation of transuranic isotopes. The code was revised in 1982 to reflect the concepts of ICRP-30. This paper will describe the AERIN code and how it has been used at LLNL to study more than 80 cases of internal deposition and obtain estimates of internal dose. A comparison with the computed values of the committed organ dose is made with ICRP-30 values. The benefits of using the code are described. 3 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: January 2, 1986
Creator: King, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Empirical technique to measure x-ray production and detection efficiencies in the analytical electron microscope

Description: In the present work, a technique is proposed to experimentally measure the effective x-ray production and detection efficiency in pure element standards. This technique supplements and in some cases is preferable to the multi-element standard technique. Measurements of effective x-ray production and detection efficiencies are expected to be preferable to the standardless technique in cases where pure element samples can be prepared since the most uncertain parameters in the standardless technique are measured in the proposed technique.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: King, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation safety and health effects related to low-level radioactive wastes

Description: The hazards associated with low-level radioactive waste, one of the nation's greatest concerns, are discussed from a health physicist's perspective. Potential biological hazards, four stages of the low-level radioactive waste disposal process, and suggested methods of reducing the risks of handling and disposal, based on previous studies, are defined. Also discussed are potential pathways of human exposure and two scenarios designed to demonstrate the complexity of modeling exposure pathways. The risks of developing a fatal cancer from exposure to the radioactive material, should it occur, is compared to other more commonly accepted risks.
Date: September 17, 1979
Creator: King, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological safety evaluation report for NUWAX-79 exercise. [Simulation of nuclear weapons accident]

Description: An analysis of the radiological safety of the NUWAX-79 exercise to be conducted on the Nevada Test Site in April 1979 is given. An evaluation of the radiological safety to the participants is made using depleted uranium (D-38) in mock weapons parts, and /sup 223/Ra and its daughters as a radioactive contaminant of equipment and terrain. The radiological impact to offsite persons is also discussed, particularly for people living at Lathrop Wells, Nevada, which is located 7 miles south of the site proposed for the exercise. It is the conclusion of this evaluation that the potential radiological risk of this exercise is very low, and that no individual should receive exposure to radioactivity greater than one-tenth of the level permitted under current federal radiation exposure guidelines.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: King, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioassay at uranium mills: a discussion of Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guide 8. 22

Description: this report is a study of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for bioassay at uranium mills, using the AERIN Code developed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. It demonstrates that the minimum levels of detection required by the NRC in urinalysis and in in vivo lung counts are reasonable and than the frequency of sampling is adequate.
Date: January 17, 1979
Creator: King, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of methods for the detection of 10 nCi/g of transuranic isotopes in solid waste

Description: The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission has defined transuranic-contaminated waste as material that is contaminated with greater than 10 nCi/g of long-lived and highly toxic radionuclides. The analyses and techniques that show potential for detection at this low level are reviewed. The physics involved with the methods described is relatively straightforward, but difficulties arise in the actual application of the techniques. Therefore, discussion is concentrated on the application of the analyses, including the necessary calculational considerations and the potential problems that may be encountered. No simple method presently exists for measuring transuranic isotopes in solid waste material at the low level of 10 nCi/g. In the absence of an interfering background (< 1 mR/hr), gamma-ray spectroscopy is the best method available. Monitoring helium production in sealed waste material shows good potential for detection at the 10-nCi/g level. The only other viable method involves a complex procedure of counting spontaneous-fission neutrons, neutron irradiation, and counting delayed neutrons. However, if the minimum detectable level permitted in waste material were raised to ..mu..Ci/g, we would be able to use several more measurement methods detect almost all the transuranic isotopes present in solid waste.
Date: January 7, 1977
Creator: King, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of AERIN code for determining internal doses of transuranic isotopes

Description: The AERIN computer code is a mathematical expression of the ICRP Lung Model. The code was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to compute the body organ burdens and absorbed radiation doses resulting from the inhalation of transuranic isotopes and to predict the amount of activity excreted in the urine and feces as a function of time. Over forty cases of internal exposure have been studied using the AERIN code. The code, as modified, has proven to be extremely versatile. The case studies presented demonstrate the excellent correlation that can be obtained between code predictions and observed bioassay data. In one case study a discrepancy was observed between an in vivo count of the whole body and the application of the code using urine and fecal data as input. The discrepancy was resolved by in vivo skull counts that showed the code had predicted the correct skeletal burden.
Date: June 13, 1980
Creator: King, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technique for reduction of coherence function bias error

Description: The bias error in the coherence function is found to arise from the calculation of the square magnitude of the cross-power spectral density when the real and imaginary components are not converged. Therefore, the bias error of the coherence function can be decreased significantly without averaging more data blocks if the variance of the real and imaginary components are reduced by fitting the spectra of these separate components to an appropriate model.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: King, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular-dynamics simulation of displacement cascades in Cu: analysis of replacement sequences

Description: Molecular-dynamics computer simulations of displacement cascades in copper have been performed for recoil energies up to 450 eV. Statistical analyses of the atomic replacements are presented. Linear replacement sequence lengths are extremely short on the average. The effect of the cooling phase of the cascade is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: King, W.E. & Benedek, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technetium Removal from Hanford and Savannah River Site Actual Tank Waste Supernates with SuperLig(R) 639 Resin

Description: SuperLig(R) 639 elutable, organic resin has been selected for technetium (as pertechnetate ion) removal from Hanford Site radioactive waste samples as part of the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) design. In support of the RPP-WTP flow sheet development, column tests have been performed at the Savannah River Technology Center with SuperLig(R) 639 resin using actual Hanford Site tank waste samples. The resin was shown to be highly effective at pertechnetate removal from these caustic, high-sodium, aqueous waste samples. Pertechnetate ion was subsequently eluted from the columns with water. An additional column test conducted on a Savannah River Site waste sample revealed exceptional performance, presumably due to the fact that lower concentrations of competing anions (primarily nitrate) were present in the sample.
Date: September 5, 2002
Creator: King, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank 241-AZ-102 SuperLig 639 Technetium Ion Exchange Eluate Evaporation Study

Description: As part of the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP), the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has conducted tests on the pretreatment and vitrification of a radioactive waste sample from Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102. The original, AZ-102 sample which was received at SRTC was characterized and filtered to remove entrained solids.1 The sample was then passed sequentially through ion exchange columns containing SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 and 639 resins for the removal of cesium and technetium ions (Tc removed as pertechnetate, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), respectively.2 The cesium and technetium absorbed to the resins was then eluted to give separate eluate solutions containing relatively high concentrations of Cs{sup +} and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. According to the current plant design, the decontaminated Tank 241-AZ-102 sample and the eluate solutions will be subjected to separate evaporation and vitrification processes to give low- and high-activity waste glasses, respectively. This report describes evaporation testing of the Tc eluate solution derived from ion exchange processing of the Tank 241-AZ-102 sample with SuperLig 639 resin.
Date: February 15, 2001
Creator: King, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Technetium from Savannah River Site Tank 44 F Supernate Solution

Description: As part of the Hanford River Protection Project waste Treatment facility design contracted to BNFL, Inc., a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 4 F waste solution was treated for the removal of technetium (as pertechnetate ion). Interest in treating the SRS sample for Tc removal resulted from the similarity between the Tank 44 F supernate composition and Hanford Envelope A supernate solutions. The Tank 44 F sample was available as a by-product of tests already conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as part of the Alternative Salt Disposition Program for treatment of SRS wastes. Testing of the SRS sample resulted in considerable cost-savings since it was not necessary to ship a sample of Hanford supernate to SRS.
Date: August 23, 2000
Creator: King, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

Description: Ion exchange tests have been completed at the Savannah River Technology Center for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. as part of the Hanford River Protection Project. Radioactive cesium and technetium (pertechnetate form only) were removed by ion exchange from a sample of Envelope C salt solution from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 (sample volume: approximately 17 L at 4.8 M Na plus). The original sample was diluted and subjected to strontium/transuranics (Sr/TRU) precipitation and filtration processes before ion exchange processing was performed. Batch contact and column tests for the ion exchange removal of cesium and technetium were then completed on the Sr/TRU-decontaminated product. Previous ion exchange tests were conducted on a smaller portion (0.5 L) of the Tank 241-AN-102 supernate sample, which had been similarly pretreated, and the results were reported in a separate document.
Date: February 15, 2001
Creator: King, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Envelope B Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

Description: The pretreatment process for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to provide decontaminated Low-Activity Waste and concentrated elute streams for vitrification into low- and high-activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, strontium, transuranics, cesium, and technetium.
Date: February 15, 2001
Creator: King, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of SuperLig 639 Ion Exchange Resin for the Removal of Rhenium from Hanford Envelope A Simulant

Description: Hanford Radioactive Waste materials have been categorized into four envelopes labeled A through D as specified in the Tank Waste Remediation Contract between BNFL and DOE. 1 Envelopes A, B and C contain only solubilized species and are specified as Low-Activity Waste (LAW). Each envelope is defined based on compositional maximums of chemical and radioactive constituents. Envelopes A and B contain low concentrations of organic species and the primary form of technetium is pertechnetate (TcO4-). Envelope C contains higher levels of organic species and technetium which is primarily in the nonpertechnetate form (presumably complexed TcO2). Envelope D is sludge which has been separated from the supernate and is referred to as High Activity Waste. The current plant design utilizes SuperLig ion exchange resins to remove cesium and technetium (the primary radioactive constituents) from the Hanford LAW. The process is designed to produce a decontaminated waste stream and a concentrated eluate waste stream for vitrification into low and high activity glasses, respectively.
Date: July 27, 2000
Creator: King, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of Cesium Removal from Hanford Envelope A Simulant with SuperLig 639 Ion Exchange Resin

Description: Hanford RadioactiveWaste materials have been categorized into four envelopes labeled A through D as specified in the Tank Waste Remediation Contract between BNFL and DOE. 1 Envelopes A, B and C contain only solubilized species and are specified as Low-Activity Waste (LAW). Each envelope is defined based on compositional maximums of chemical and radioactive constituents. Envelopes A and B contain low concentrations of organic species and the primary form of technetium is pertechnetate (TcO4-). Envelope C contains higher levels of organic species and technetium which is primarily in the nonpertechnetate form (presumably complexed TcO2). Envelope D is sludge which has been separated from the supernate and is referred to as High Activity Waste. The current plant design utilizes SuperLig ion exchange resins to remove cesium and technetium (the primary radioactive constituents) from the Hanford LAW. The process is designed to produce a decontaminated waste stream and a concentrated eluate waste stream for vitrification into low and high activity glasses, respectively.
Date: July 27, 2000
Creator: King, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

Description: Ion exchange tests have been completed at the Savannah River Technology Center for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. as part of the Hanford River Protection Project. Radioactive cesium and technetium (pertechnetate form only) were removed by ion exchange from a sample of Envelope C salt solution from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 (sample volume: approximately 18 L at 4.8 M Na plus). The original sample was diluted and subjected to strontium/transuranics (Sr/TRU) precipitation and filtration processes before ion exchange processing was performed. Batch contact and column tests for the ion exchange removal of cesium and technetium were then completed on the Sr/TRU-decontaminated product. Previous ion exchange tests were conducted on a smaller portion (0.5 L) of the Tank 241-AN-102 supernate sample, which had been similarly pretreated, and the results were reported in a separate document.
Date: September 10, 2001
Creator: King, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Absolute subcriticality measurement without calibration and detection efficiency dependence by the /sup 252/Cf source-driven noise method

Description: The /sup 252/Cf-source-driven noise analysis method determines the subcriticality of a system containing fissionable material from the ratio of cross power spectral densities between the detectors that detect particles from the fission process and between these detectors and an ionization chamber containing a spontaneously fissioning neutron source which provides neutrons to induce fission in the system. This method has two advantages: (1) a calibration is not required and thus subcriticality can be determined from measurements only on the subcritical system of interest, and (2) the subcriticality is independent of the type of detector or its efficiency. These properties of this technique are illustrated by measurements.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Mihalczo, J.T. & King, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power spectral density measurements with /sup 252/Cf for a light-water-moderated research reactor

Description: A method of determining the reactivity of far-subcritical systems from neutron noise power spectral density measurements with /sup 252/Cf has previously been tested in fast reactor critical assemblies: a mockup of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor and a uranium metal sphere. Calculations indicated that this measurement was feasible for a pressurized water reactor (PWR).
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: King, W.T. & Mihalczo, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power spectral density measurements with /sup 252/Cf for a light water moderated research reactor

Description: A method of determining the reactivity of far subcritical systems from neutron noise power spectral density measurements with /sup 252/Cf has previously been tested in fast reactor critical assemblies: a mockup of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor and a uranium metal sphere. Calculations indicated that this measurement was feasible for a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In order to evaluate the ability to perform these measurements with moderated reactors which have long prompt neutron lifetimes, measurements were performed with a small plate-type research reactor whose neutron lifetime (57 microseconds) was about a factor of three longer than that of a PWR and approx. 50% longer than that of a boiling water reactor. The results of the first measurements of power spectral densities with /sup 252/Cf for a water moderated reactor are presented.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: King, W.T. & Mihalczo, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department