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Permanent Magnet Skew Quadrupoles for the Low Emittance LER Lattice of PEP-II

Description: The vertical emittance of the low energy ring (LER) in the PEP-II B-Factory was reduced by using skew quadrupoles consisting of permanent magnet material. The advantages over electric quadrupoles or rotating existing normal quadrupoles are discussed. To assure a high field quality, a Biot-Savart calculation was used to cancel the natural 12-pole component by using different size poles over a few layers. A magnetic measurement confirmed the high quality of the magnets. After installation and adjusting the original electric 12 skew and 16 normal quadrupoles the emittance contribution from the region close to the interaction point, which was the biggest part in the original design, was considerably reduced. To strengthen the vertical behavior of the LER beam, a low emittance lattice was developed. It lowered the original vertical design emittance from 0.54 nm-rad to 0.034 nm-rad. In order to achieve this, additional skew quadrupoles were required to bring the coupling correction out of the arcs and closer to the detector solenoid in the straight (Fig. 1). It is important, together with low vertical dispersion, that the low vertical emittance is not coupled into the horizontal, which is what we get if the coupling correction continues into the arcs. Further details of the lattice work is described in another paper; here we concentrate on the development of the permanent skew (PSK) quadrupole solution. Besides the permanent magnets there are two other possibilities, using electric magnets or rotating normal quadrupoles. Electric magnets would have required much more additional equipment like magnets stands, power supply, and new vacuum chamber sections. Rotating existing quadrupoles was also not feasible since they are mostly mounted together with a bending magnet on the same support girder.
Date: July 5, 2011
Creator: Decker, F.-J.; Anderson, S.; Kharakh, D.; Sullivan, M. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SLAC Linac Preparations for FACET

Description: The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been cut at the two-thirds point to provide beams to two independent programs. The last third provides the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), leaving the first two-thirds available for FACET, the new experimental facility for accelerator science and test beams. In this paper, we describe this separation and projects to prepare the linac for the FACET experimental program.
Date: February 7, 2011
Creator: Erickson, R.; Bentson, L.; Kharakh, D.; Owens, A.; Schuh, P.; Seeman, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of Magnetic Resonances in Electron Clouds in a Positron Storage Ring

Description: The first experimental observation of magnetic resonances in electron clouds is reported. The resonance was observed as a modulation in cloud intensity for uncoated as well as TiN-coated aluminum surfaces in the positron storage ring of the PEP-II collider at SLAC. Electron clouds frequently arise in accelerators of positively charged particles, and severely impact the machines performance. The TiN coating was found to be an effective remedy, reducing the cloud intensity by three orders of magnitude.
Date: August 24, 2011
Creator: Pivi, M.T.F.; Ng, J.S.T.; Cooper, F.; Kharakh, D.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Current Effects in The PEP-II Storage Rings

Description: High beam currents in PEP-II have been a challenge for vacuum system and ring components. For the {approx} 1 cm long bunches peak currents exceed 100 A and modest impedance can give rise to voltage spikes and discharges. During the last two runs, difficulties arose from rf seals at the 'flex flanges' in the HER. High temperatures were seen and the seals turned out to be severely damaged by discharges. In the LER, the horizontal stripline kickers of the bunch-by-bunch feedback system experiences breakdown at high bunch current-Macor pins installed for mechanical stability turned out to be a weak spot causing discharges. Finally, in the HER an experiment to shorten the ion-clearing gap in the beam revealed signs of ion-induced instability indicating that the HER has been operating quite close to the stability limit. The effects shown here are relevant to future high-intensity electron and positron rings like SuperB and PEP-X.
Date: June 19, 2009
Creator: Wienands, U.; Sullivan, M.K.; Akre, R.; Cheng, W.; Colocho, W.; DeBarger, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A New Chicane Experiment in PEP-II to Test Mitigations of the Electron Cloud Effect for Linear Colliders

Description: Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings, and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of future colliders [1-3]. The effect is expected to be particularly severe in magnetic field regions. To test possible mitigation methods in magnetic fields, we have installed a new 4-dipole chicane experiment in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring (LER) at SLAC with both bare and TiN-coated aluminum chambers. In particular, we have observed a large variation of the electron flux at the chamber wall as a function of the chicane dipole field. We infer this is a new high order resonance effect where the energy gained by the electrons in the positron beam depends on the phase of the electron cyclotron motion with respect to the bunch crossing, leading to a modulation of the secondary electron production. Presumably the cloud density is modulated as well and this resonance effect could be used to reduce its magnitude in future colliders. We present the experimental results obtained during January 2008 until the April final shut-down of the PEP-II machine.
Date: June 11, 2008
Creator: Pivi, M. T.; Pivi, M.T.F.; Ng, J.S.T.; Arnett, D.; Cooper, F.; Kharakh, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A New Chicane Experiment In PEP-II to Test Mitigations of the Electron Cloud Effect for Linear Colliders

Description: Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings, and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of future colliders [1-3]. The effect is expected to be particularly severe in magnetic field regions. To test possible mitigation methods in magnetic fields, we have installed a new 4-dipole chicane experiment in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring (LER) at SLAC with both bare and TiN-coated aluminum chambers. In particular, we have observed a large variation of the electron flux at the chamber wall as a function of the chicane dipole field. We infer this is a new high order resonance effect where the energy gained by the electrons in the positron beam depends on the phase of the electron cyclotron motion with respect to the bunch crossing, leading to a modulation of the secondary electron production. Presumably the cloud density is modulated as well and this resonance effect could be used to reduce its magnitude in future colliders. We present the experimental results obtained during January 2008 until the April final shut-down of the PEP-II machine.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Pivi, M.T.F.; Ng, J.S.T.; Arnett, D.; Cooper, F.; Kharakh, D.; King, F.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ideas for a Future PEP-X Light Source

Description: SLAC is developing a long-range plan to transfer the evolving scientific programs at SSRL from the SPEAR3 light source to a much higher performing synchrotron source -- PEP-X -- a new storage ring that would occupy the existing PEP-II tunnel and support two experimental halls, each containing 16 x-ray beam lines. Operating at 4.5 GeV and 1.5 A with a horizontal emittance of 0.14 nm-rad, reached using 90 m of damping wigglers, PEP-X would have an order of magnitude higher average brightness and flux in the 1-{angstrom} x-ray range than any existing or planned future storage ring sources. Higher brightness in the soft x-ray regime might be reached with partial lasing in long undulators, and high peak brightness could be reached with seeded FEL emission. The status of preliminary studies of PEP-X is presented.
Date: November 2, 2011
Creator: Hettel, R.O.; Bane, K.L.F.; Bentson, L.D.; Bertsche, Kirk J.; Brennan, S.M.; Cai, Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

Description: The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department