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The Effect of Learning-Set Acquisition on the IQs of Disadvantaged Preschool Children

Description: General learning ability is a combination of many relatively independent abilities, some of which have not yet been identified and studied experimentally. The acquisition of learning sets, a learning ability which has received considerable attention in the literature, involves the ability to solve single problems, generalize their solutions, transfer such information from one problem to another, and form concepts. Learning set is the acquired ability to solve a particular kind of problem. Discrimination learning set problems have different stimuli but a common basis for solution. The identification by the S of the characteristic which these problems have in common is the discrimination learning set. Harlow (1949) wrote that learning set acquisition depends upon a higher level of thought than is required for single problem learning. The particular set learned determines in large part which stimuli will be generalized in future problem solving.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Carreker, Helen L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relative Effectiveness of Parental Positive Reinforcement and Punishment in Reducing Oppositional Behavior in Children and in Increasing the Frequency of Parent-Child Interaction

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of the reinforcement and punishment techniques in the natural environment, and the effect of their use upon the social interaction between parent and child. It was hypothesized that punishment would be more effective than reward in controlling oppositional behavior, but that reinforcement would be more effective in increasing child-initiated interaction with the parents.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Detrich, Ronnie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Contingency of Parental Rewards and Punishments as Antecedents of Locus of Control

Description: The study investigated the relationships between perceived contingency of parental rewarding and punishing behaviors and locus. of control. Scores on Levenson's Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance locus of control scales were correlated with scores on Yates, Kennelly, and Cox's (1975) Perceived Contingency of Rewards and Punishments Questionnaire. Few significant correlations were obtained. Maternal non-contingent reward related negatively and significantly to internality for males. Paternal non-contingent reward related positively and significantly to males' perception of control by powerful others. And paternal contingent reward related negatively and significantly to females' perceptions of control by chance. Results are discussed relative to learned helplessness research interpretations.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Patterson, David Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learned Helplessness, Locus of Control, and Academic Achievement

Description: To determine the relationship among learned helplessness, locus of control, and academic achievement, data from 86 sixth graders were gathered and intercorrelated. Contingency of teacher-administered rewards and punishments as perceived by school children, and helpless behavior of students as judged by their teachers were measured. The Children's Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale was used to measure locus of control orientation. A positive relationship between academic achievement and locus of control was found. The contingency of reward scale was found to be predictive of academic achievement and helpless behavior. Virtually no significant relationships were found between any of the other variables and the contingency of punishment scale. Helpless behavior was found to be predictive of low academic success and an external locus of control.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Mount, Suzanne Amidon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Amount of Postshift Training on Resistance to Extinction

Description: The investigation sought to examine resistance to extinction (Rn) as a function of previous experience with downward shifts in reward magnitude. It was suggested that previous research conducted within the framework of the Spence-Amsel frustration hypothesis and the sequential hypothesis failed to administer sufficient postshift trials to adequately establish the relationships that may exist. Under one condition, four groups of rats received twenty extinction trials following forty postshift trials. Under another condition, four groups were extinguished following eighty postshift trials. An inverse magnitude of reward effect occurred in the preshift phases, however, which prevented an adequate analysis of either the shift or the Rn data, This unexpected effect was discussed within the framework of Black's incentive-motivation interpretation of reinforcement.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Wheeler, Royce Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Context and Degree of Learning in Cue Selection and Transfer of Training

Description: The present study examined the effect of first-list stimulus context (color versus no color) and two degrees of first-list learning (twenty trials versus five trials) on cue selection and transfer of training. College students learned two paired-associate lists consisting of highly similar trigrams as the stimulus terms and nouns as the response terms. The second list consisted of twelve items presented on homogeneous white backgrounds for eighteen trials. Four secondlist items represented each of three transfer paradigms--A -B,A-B; A-B,A-C; and A-BC-D. It was concluded that color context draws attention to the color-backed items during the early stages of learning but is not selected for encoding until the later stages of learning.
Date: August 1974
Creator: LaBarge, Deborah Donahue
Partner: UNT Libraries

Identification of Ego States and Early Parent-Child Relationships

Description: The purpose was to verify ego states as objectively identifiable phenomena and the influence of early parent-child relationships on their identification using an audio tape of recorded examples of ego states, Thompson's Ego State Tape (EST), and the Roe-Siegleman Parent-Child Relations Questionaire (PCR). No relationship was found between SAT scores and scores on the EST, nor between PCR and EST scores. It was concluded that possibly (1) no relationship existed between how children perceive their parents and the identification of ego states, and (2) that the PCR might not be sampling child rearing practices relevant to the identification of ego states.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Munday, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries

Internal-External Locus of Control, Perception of Teacher Intermittency of Reinforcement and Achievement

Description: This study measured the relationships between locus of control, students' perception of the schedule of teacher reinforcement, and academic achievement. The Intellectual Achievement Responsibility questionnaire, Perception of Teacher Reinforcement scale, and Wide Range Achievement Test were used to measure these variables. All subscores of the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility questionnaire correlated significantly with achievement for the females, but no relationships were found for the males. Perception of the teacher as partially rewarding was significantly correlated with reading, spelling, and total achievement for the males and with reading and arithmetic achievement for the females. Perception of the teacher as partially punishing was significantly correlated with arithmetic achievement for the males, but was not related to achievement for the females.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Welch, Linda N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationships of Locus of Control and Perceived Contingency of Teacher Rewards and Punishments to Academic Achievement

Description: The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the relationships among the contingency of teachers' reactions as perceived by the pupils, the pupils' academic performance, and internality. One might expect that children who perceive their teacher as contingently rewarding and punishing would achieve higher grades and test scores than those who view their teachers' reactions as unrelated to their behavior. It is believed that children's perceptions of the contingencies of their teacher's responses may be more highly related to achievement behavior than the teacher's actual distribution of rewards and punishments. Perceived contingency of punishments and rewards may be important determiners of achievement. The perception of punishments as noncontingent is likely to be negatively related to achievement; however, the same may not be true of noncontingent reward. Indiscriminate dispersion of rewards could have a motivating effect or, as one might infer from Paris & Cairns (1972), no effect at all. Internality and achievement are expected to be positively related, perhaps more so for boys than for girls, as the trend of previous evidence suggests. Because of conflicting reports, no firm expectation can be formulated with regard to sex differences and the effectiveness of IAR+ versus IAR- scores.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Kinley, Shirley J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Paranoid Schizophrenics and Schizo-Affective, Depressed Type Schizophrenics, Utilizing Gittinger's Personality Assessment System

Description: This study hypothesized that paranoid schizophrenia and schizo-affective, depressed type schizophrenia could be differentiated by the Internalizer-Externalizer, Regulated- Flexible, and Role Uniform-Role Adaptable dimensions of the Personality Assessment System. The Personality Assessment System methodology utilizes the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to measure these dimensions. All hypotheses were statistically confirmed. The difficulty of applying the Personality Assessment System to psychopathological regressive states is cited. Recommendations include utilizing the Personality Assessment System with other groups in the institutional setting and within diagnostic categories.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Harlan, Teresa A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of Susceptibility to Learned Helplessness

Description: A fifty-item questionnaire, representing personality attributes related to behaviors used to index the phenomenon of learned helplessness, was administered to 152 undergraduate students. Based upon factor analysis of the results, six subscales were developed to predict latency of response, failures to solve, and trials to task criterion of anagram solving, this being used to index the phenomenon of learned helplessness. The subscales comprised a ninety-item questionnaire given to seventy-seven undergraduate students three days before participation in the experiment proper. The subjects attempted to solve Levine (1971) discrimination problems (designed to be insolvable) and then attempted to solve patterned anagrams. Contrary to the learned helpless model of depression (Miller and Seligman, 1973), depression was curvilinearly related to latency of response and failures to solve in the anagram task. In addition, internal locus of control was linearly related to trials to criterion.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Foelker, George A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Memory Load on the Accuracy of Recognition of Stimuli

Description: The purpose of this study was to find if memory load significantly affects the performance of the subjects in the before condition of a before versus after technique experiment. In order to accomplish this the alternatives were presented either before or after the stimulus, with the alternatives and stimuli being either of high-complexity or low-complexity.
Date: June 1968
Creator: Harris, Jerry Lon
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Experimental Analysis of the Efficacy of Anxiety-Relief Conditioning

Description: One of the newer techniques to be utilized in the treatment of a variety of behavioral disorders is anxiety-relief conditioning (Thorpe, Schmidt, Brown, and Castell, 1964; Solyom and Miller, 1967; Wolpe and Lazarus, 1966). In its theoretical formulation, reciprocal inhibition by anxiety-relief is similar to Wolpe's reciprocal inhibition by progressive relaxation (Solyom and Miller, 1967). Whereas Wolpe's method utilizes Jacobsonian relaxation principles to provide the medium through which anxiety is reciprocally inhibited, the procedure employed in anxiety-relief conditioning utilizes the relief following termination of an aversive stimulus to set an occasion which will permit reciprocal inhibition to take place. Many of the problems encountered in relaxation induction and control are thus avoided (Wolpe, 1958; Thorpe et al., 1964). Anxiety-relief conditioning appears to have been successful in patients that previously had been unsuccessfully treated by psychotherapy and chemotherapy for as long as 20 years (Myers, 1957; Thorpe et al., 1964; Solyom and Miller, 1967). Solyom and Miller reported successfully treating six of seven phobic patients who complained of severe depression, difficulty in interpersonal relationships and anxiety attacks when meeting people, as well as excessive fear of crowded places. These patients had an average length of illness of 11.1 years, ranging from 2 to 20 years. Patients were treated for a mean of 19.5 sessions with no evidence of symptom substitution or reappearance of the phobic fear upon follow-up (Solyom and Miller, 1967). Although the authors cited above have all reported case studies of successful therapeutic applications of anxiety-relief conditioning techniques, there have been few experimental studies of the efficacy of this technique. A recent experiment failed to refute the hypothesis that noxious stimulation and/or habituation, rather than aversion-relief, contribute to the beneficial therapeutic effects noted. This study left unanswered the question of which variables contribute to aversion-relief conditioning (Solyom, L., McClure, ...
Date: December 1973
Creator: Vance, Ivan Noel
Partner: UNT Libraries

Chronological Age as a Factor in Motor Learning in the Mentally Retarded

Description: The problem investigated is that of determining if there are differences in the ability of mentally retarded persons over age 21 to learn motor skills as opposed to those under 21. Data were gathered at the Denton State School on 110 subjects. The first chapter is concerned with the theoretical background, purpose, and the hypothesis. The second chapter contains information on subjects, materials, method, and statistical treatment. The third chapter covers presentation and discussion of the data, and the fourth chapter includes the summary, conclusions and recommendations. Results of the study indicated that there were few differences between the two groups. Future studies should be run with samples from individual age groups extending from 6 through 21. This would be realistic in establishing a motor learning curve for this population.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Farrar, William Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Four Different Conditions of Mental Practice on the Performance of Beginning and Intermediate Bowlers

Description: This study investigated the effects of four different types of mental practice (free imagery, directed visual, directed reading, and directed audio) on the performance of 45 beginning and 40 intermediate college bowlers. The groups bowled six games with two sets of five minutes of mental practice prior to the first frame and the sixth frame of each game. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. No significant differences existed between treatment groups at either the beginning or intermediate levels. Conclusions were that no one technique of mental practice was more effective than another in increasing bowling performance.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Reading, Rosemary
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Self-Concept of the Hearing-Impaired Child

Description: This study was an investigation of the relationship between the self-concepts of hearing-impaired children and the self-concepts of normal hearing children. Sixty-four hearing-impaired children and nineteen normal hearing children were given the Primary Self- Concept Inventory, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, and were rated by a teacher using the Bristol Social Adjustment Guide. The differences between means were analyzed and tested for significance. It was concluded that there is no difference between the self concept of the hearing-impaired child and the self-concept of the normal hearing child. It was further concluded that the instruments currently available for measuring self-concept are poor and inadequate. Further research on the self-concept of the hearing impaired child was recommended.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Chew, Ronnie L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Encoding Variability and Differential Negative Transfer and Retroactive Interference in Children

Description: Second-graders were tested for negative transfer and retroactive interference using an A-B, A-D paradigm. Four-pair, word-number lists were aurally presented to the children. Subjects were classified as being whole-only encoders or multiple encoders by the use of a recall test presented after list one. Significant negative transfer and retroactive interference were found. The multiple encoders experiences less difficulty in learning the second list that did the whole-only encoders, but these two groups did no differ with regard to transfer or retroactive interference effects. The results were considered in the context of Martin's encoding variability hypothesis.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Fleming, Frederick G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learned Helplessness: The Result of the Uncontrollability of Reinforcement or the Result of the Uncontrollability of Aversive Stimuli?

Description: This research demonstrates that experience with uncontrollable reinforcement, here defined as continuous non-contingent positive feedback to solution attempts of insoluble problems, fails to produce the proactive interference phenomenon, learned helplessness, while uncontrollable aversive events, here defined as negative feedback to solution attempts of insoluble problems, produces that phenomenon. These results partially support the "learned helplessness" hypothesis of Seligman (1975) which predicts that experience with uncontrollable reinforcement, the offset of negative events or the onset of positive ones, results in learning that responding is independent of reinforcement and that learning transfers to subsequent situations. This research further demonstrates that experience with controllability, here defined as solubility, results in enhanced competence.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Benson, James S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Mastery, Competitive and Cooperative Goals on Performance in Simple and Complex Sport Skills

Description: The present study investigated the effects of different goal and feedback conditions on performance of a basketball field goal shooting task and a more complex one-on-one offensive basketball task. Subjects (N = 100) were matched, based on pre-test performance, into one of five conditions: competitive goal, cooperative goal, mastery goal, "do your best" with feedback, and "do your best" without feedback. Results indicated the competitive group was significantly better than the "do your best" without feedback group in one-on-one performance. No other between group differences were significant, although some consistent group trends were present. Subjects' goal orientations were not related to performance in specific goal conditions, with the exception of mastery oriented subjects in the mastery goal condition.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Giannini, John
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Field Test of Garland's Cognitive Mediation Theory of Goal Setting

Description: The present study examined Garland's cognitive mediation theory of goal setting in a three-minute basketball shooting task. The effects of different goal conditions were also investigated along with achievement motivation and self-motivation as mediating constructs of performance. Subjects (N=150) were males and females, assigned to one of five goal conditions: "do your best", easy, moderate, hard, and improbable. Results indicated no performance differences between the different goal conditions, with subjects in the "do your best" condition performing as well as subjects in the other goal conditions. Results also yielded partial support for Garland's cognitive mediation theory with task goals influencing performance through its influence on performance expectancy. Furthermore, a negative correlation between achievement motivation and performance was found for females in the improbable goal condition and a positive correlation was found between self-motivation and performance for females in the easy goal condition.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Bagnall, Jamie
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Perceived Seriousness of Corporate Crime and Property Crime by Social Class and Exposure to Prison

Description: The problem of this study concerns the perception of the seriousness of corporate and property crime by groups from various social classes and groups with diverse exposure to prison. Hypotheses relating sex, race, age, exposure to prison, and social class to the perceived seriousness of the two types of crime are presented. In order that these hypotheses be tested, the 211 respondents from prison- and the 182 respondents from the general population ranked five corporate and five property crimes according to seriousness. The findings reveal no significant differences by sex, race, and age. Within all social classes and all categories of exposure to prison, no significant differences between the perceived seriousness of corporate and property crimes.exist.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Colvin, Mark Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Locus of Control as a Function of Perceived Contingency of Parental Rewards and Punishments

Description: This study investigated the relationships between locus of control and perceived contingency of parental rewards and punishments. Questionnaires measuring subjects' locus of control and their perception of parental contingency behavior were administered to undergraduate college students. The obtained measures of contingency of parental rewards and punishments were correlated with scores on Rotter's I-E Scale. Of the maternal contingency factors, only noncontingent punishment related significantly and negatively to internality (males only). Paternal contingent punishment related positively and significantly to internality for both males and females. There was a significant negative relationship between paternal noncontingent punishment and internality (males only). None of the parental reward factors related significantly to locus of control.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Yates, Reed Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Incentive and Frustrative Cues on the Acquisition of an Alleyway Running Response in Rats

Description: The motivational properties of Longstreth's (1970) definitions of incentive and frustrative cues were tested using 32 rats in a two phase straight alleyway experiment. During pretraining, incentive cue Ss were presented a visual cue prior to reinforcement; frustrative cue Ss experienced the visual cue simultaneously with reinforcement. Ss encountered the same cue in mid-alley during 40 CRF training trials. Significant inhibition developed as frustrative cue Ss passed through the cue and postcue segments. Significant incentive effects occurred midway through training only in the postcue segment. Differential resistance to extinction was not found. The results did not support all of Longstreth's assumed functions. The motivational effects were interpreted using Spence's and Amsel's instrumental learning paradigms.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Morey, John Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries