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Case study of the Brownell low energy requirement house

Description: An evaluation is made of the design and thermal performance of an innovative house built in 1977 in the Adirondacks area of New York State. The house has a very tight and well-insulated envelope, with the rigid insulation board applied to the outside of the frame. Passive solar gain through south-facing glass, along with internal free sources of heat, are shown to provide a substantial part of the building's heating requirements. Effective integral thermal storage, provided by the exposed interior structure, serves to keep interior temperature excursions within acceptable limits. Additional remote storage is provided in the form of a large thermal storage sand bed, with air ducts, located below the basement floor. Calculations and measured performance data show that the house's space heating needs are only about 40% of those of a similar size house built to HUD minimum property standards, and less than 25% of those of a typical inventory house in the Northeast United States.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Jones, R F; Krajewski, R F & Dennehy, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct efficiency measurement and characterization of residential heating equipment. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

Description: Preliminary characterization results for hydronic (hot water) oil-fired systems are presented along with the results of other work conducted to fulfill commitments made under an earlier phase of the project. The first results from the fully operational warm air furnace test facility are included with a brief description of the equipment and the technique used in measuring furnace efficiencies. The laboratory data are then used to determine annual fuel consumption and fuel-weighted seasonal efficiency for each heating unit based on typical operating parameters (size of residence, geographic location, and usage). The results of the study include the evaluation of a wide range of hydronic burner-boiler systems. The combination of direct, accurate efficiency measurement and calculation of annual fuel use provides a standard method for comparison of individual heating units and retrofit modifications on a common and realistic basis.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Krajewski, R.F.; McDonald, R.J. & Milau, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric co-heating in the ASHRAE standard method of test for thermal distribution efficiency: Test results on two New York State homes

Description: Electric co-heating tests on two single-family homes with forced-air heating systems were carried out in March 1995. The goal of these tests was to evaluate procedures being considered for incorporation in a Standard Method of Test for thermal distribution system efficiency now being developed by ASHRAE. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the building equipment that produces this thermal energy to the spaces in which it is used. Furthering the project goal, the first objective of the tests was to evaluate electric co-heating as a means of measuring system efficiency. The second objective was to investigate procedures for obtaining the distribution efficiency, using system efficiency as a base. Distribution efficiencies of 0.63 and 0.70 were obtained for the two houses.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Andrews, J.W.; Krajewski, R.F. & Strasser, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP) users manual and engineering report

Description: Oil-fired heating appliances have traditionally used conventional chimney venting systems. In more recent times, masonry chimneys have given way to fabricated metal chimneys which have had the advantage of lower installed cost. Even more recently, there has been an effort by the industry to apply power venting technology to oil-fired appliances. These changes in venting technology have been accompanied by ever improving appliance efficiencies. The successful application of these modern, high efficiency oil-fired appliances depends upon the safe and cost effective integration of the heating appliance and the vent system. Unfortunately, due to the complexity inherent in such issues as heat loss, condensation and corrosion the available manual calculations provide only a steady state rather than transient analysis. In addition, these methods are exceedingly cumbersome. While computerized methods have been developed, for the most part they are usually these same steady state calculations placed into a spreadsheet or BASIC program. This report describes the oil heat vent analysis program (OHVAP) for the analysis of ventilation of oil-fired appliances.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Krajewski, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-TUNING RESIDENTIAL OIL/BURNER - OXYGEN SENSOR ASSESSMENT AND EARLY PROTOTYPE SYSTEM OPERATING EXPERIENCE

Description: This document is the first topical report dealing with a new project leading towards the development of a self-tuning residential oil burner. It was initiated under the Statement of Work for the Oil Heat Research and Development Program, for Fiscal Year 1997 as defined in the Combustion Equipment Technology Program, under the management of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In part, this work is based on research reported by BNL in 1990, suggesting various options for developing control strategies in oil heat technology leading to the enhanced efficiency of oil-fired heating systems. BNL has been addressing these concepts in order of priority and technology readiness. The research described in this report is part of an ongoing project and additional work is planned for the future assuming adequate program funding is made available.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: MCDONALD,R.J.; BUTCHER,T.A. & KRAJEWSKI,R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EXPERIMENT

Description: A laboratory experiment has been conducted which tests for the effects of distribution system purging on system Delivery Effectiveness (DE) as defined in ASHRAE 152P. The experiment is described in its configuration, instrumentation, and data acquisition system. Data gathered in the experiment is given and discussed. The results show that purging of the distribution system alone does not offer any improvement of the system DE. Additional supporting tests were conducted regarding experimental simulations of buffer zones and bare pipe and are also discussed.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: KRAJEWSKI,R.F.; ANDREWS,J.W. & WEI,G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of self-tuning residential oil-burner. Oxygen sensor assessment and early prototype system operating experience

Description: This document is the first topical report dealing with a new project leading towards the development of a self-tuning residential oil burner. It was initiated under the Statement of Work for the Oil Heat Research and Development Program, for Fiscal Year 1997 as defined in the Combustion Equipment Technology Program, under the management of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In part, this work is based on research reported by BNL in 1990, suggesting various options for developing control strategies in oil heat technology leading to the enhanced efficiency of oil-fired heating systems. BNL has been addressing these concepts in order of priority and technology readiness. The research described in this report is part of an ongoing project and additional work is planned for the future assuming adequate program funding is made available. BNL has continued to investigate all types of sensor technologies associated with combustion systems including all forms of oxygen measurement techniques. In these studies the development of zirconium oxide oxygen sensors has been considered over the last decade. The development of these sensors for the automotive industry has allowed for cost reductions based on quantity of production that might not have occurred otherwise. This report relates BNL`s experience in testing various zirconium oxide sensors, and the results of tests intended to provide evaluation of the various designs with regard to performance in oil-fired systems. These tests included accuracy when installed on oil-fired heating appliances and response time in cyclic operating mode. An evaluation based on performance criteria and cost factors was performed. Cost factors in the oil heat industry are one of the most critical issues in introducing new technology.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: McDonald, R.J.; Butcher, T.A. & Krajewski, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of a field test of heating system efficiency and thermal distribution system efficiency in a manufactured home

Description: A two-day test using electric coheating was performed on a manufactured home in Watertown, New York. The main objective of the test was to evaluate planned procedures for measuring thermal distribution system efficiency. (Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork or piping used to transport heat or cooling effect from the equipment that produces it to the building spaces in which it is used.) These procedures are under consideration for a standard method of test now being prepared by a special committee of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The ability of a coheating test to give a credible and repeatable value for the overall heating system efficiency was supported by the test data. Distribution efficiency is derived from system efficiency by correcting for energy losses from the equipment. Alternative means for achieving this were tested and assessed. The best value for system efficiency in the Watertown house was 0.53, while the best value for distribution efficiency was 0.72.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Andrews, J.W.; Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.J.; Kinney, L. & Lewis, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prospects for residential oil burners with reduced emissions

Description: In considering the emissions characteristics of residential oil heating equipment it is important to consider the magnitude of these emissions relative to all other sources. Laboratory and field test data show that home oil burners produce very low levels of pollutants when compared to all other combustion sources in the US. Home oil burners are relatively clean burning and produce less air pollution than the average combustion source in the US. This is especially true for carbon monoxide, particulates, and hydrocarbons, which are a small fraction of the average emission of other combustion equipment. In this paper results are presented of emission tests done with a number of oil burners selected as being representative of modern equipment or representing a recent development trend or a novel approach. The primary purpose of this work was to provide a benchmark of what oil equipment can do today and what the effects of some of these alternative designs are on emissions.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Butcher, T.A.; Krajewski, R.F.; Celebi, Y.; McDonald, R.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)) & Batey, J. (Facility Energy Services, Inc., New Canaan, CT (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department