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Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

Description: This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: Kalb, P.D. & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste form development/test. [Low-density polyethylene and modified sulfur cement as solidification agents]

Description: The main objective of this study is to investigate new solidification agents relative to their potential application to wastes generated by advanced high volume reduction technologies, e.g., incinerator ash, dry solids, and ion exchange resins. Candidate materials selected for the solidification of these wastes include a modified sulfur cement and low-density polyethylene, neither of which are currently employed commerically for the solidification of low-level waste (LLW). As both the modified sulfur cement and the polyethylene are thermoplastic materials, a heated screw type extruder is utilized in the production of waste form samples for testing and evaluation. In this regard, work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be satisfactorily applied to the specific LLW streams and to provide information relevant to operating parameters and process control.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Kalb, P.D. & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale leaching study of commercial reactor waste forms

Description: This paper describes a full-scale leaching experiment which has been conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study the release of radionuclides from actual commercial reactor waste forms. While many studies characterizing the leaching behavior of simulated laboratory-scale waste forms have been performed, this program represents one of the first attempts in the United States to quantify activity releases for real, full-scale waste forms. 5 references, 5 figures, 1 table.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Kalb, P.D. & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polyethylene encapsulation of simulated blowdown waste for SEG treatability study. Letter report on Phase I screening: Waste treatment and specimen preparation

Description: The Environmental and Waste Technology Center is a participating subcontractor in the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) Treatability Study for Westinghouse Savannah River Co.`s Blowdown Waste. This waste will be generated at the Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) and will consist of the neutralized aqueous scrubber solution from the incinerator. Since the facility is designed to burn low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes, the blowdown waste will likely be a mixed waste. Polyethylene encapsulation is an improved treatment method that has been developed at BNL over the last 10 years. Polyethylene is an inert, thermoplastic polymer with a melt temperature of 120 C. The BNL process is a modification of standard plastics extrusion technology that has been utilized successfully by the plastics industry for over 50 years. Polyethylene binder and dry waste material are fed through separate calibrated feeders to the extruder, where the materials are thoroughly mixed, heated to a molten condition, and then extruded into a suitable mold. A monolithic solid waste form results on cooling. The objective of the Phase 1 screening effort was to prepare test specimens of CIF surrogate waste encapsulated in polyethylene for leach testing using EPA`s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). BNL received aqueous CIF surrogate from SEG, pretreated the stimulant for processing, and fabricated TCLP test specimens for analysis at an independent laboratory. Laboratory and processing procedures are described in this letter report.
Date: August 17, 1993
Creator: Kalb, P. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polyethylene encapsulation of single-shell tank low-level wastes. FY-93 interim progress report

Description: For the past 50 years, the US Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies have stored large volumes of defense-related radioactive and mixed wastes in underground tanks. Initially, these tanks were constructed of single steel walls surrounded by reinforced concrete and are known as single-shell tanks (SSTs). Over time, the highly corrosive contents caused many of the tanks to begin to leak. As part of its effort to remediate leaking and potentially leaky tanks, DOE has established the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). The overall objectives of the UST-ID include facilitating the development and demonstration of enhanced technologies that will lead to improved treatment and stabilization of underground storage tank wastes. The host site for the UST-ID is Hanford, but the program addresses potential use of these emerging technologies in remediation of tanks at five DOE facilities: Hanford, Fernald, Idaho, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. In order to meet its objectives, the UST-ID supports technology development in six focus areas including: (1) waste characterization, (2) high- and low-level waste treatment and disposal, (3) retrieval, transfer, and storage, (4) waste separation, (5) in situ treatment and disposal, and (6) site closure. This report describes work supported by the UST-ID, conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory, to develop and demonstrate a polyethylene waste encapsulation process for low-level radioactive and hazardous mixed wastes stored in underground tanks. The objective of Phase I is to investigate the potential impacts of residual heat and high radiation doses on key waste forms properties including mechanical integrity, strength, and leachability.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Kalb, P. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste form development program. Annual report, October 1982-September 1983

Description: This report provides a summary of the work conducted for the Waste Form Development/Test Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory in FY 1983 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. The primary focus of this work is the investigation of new solidification agents which will provide improved immobilization of low-level radioactive wastes in an efficient, cost-effective manner. A working set of preliminary waste form evaluation criteria which could impact upon the movement of radionuclides in the disposal environment was developed. The selection of potential solidification agents for further investigation is described. Two thermoplastic materials, low-density polyethylene and a modified sulfur cement were chosen as primary candidates for further study. Three waste types were selected for solidification process development and waste form property evaluation studies which represent both new volume reduction wastes (dried evaporator concentrates and incinerator ash) and current problem wastes (ion exchange resins). Preliminary process development scoping studies were conducted to verify the compatibility of selected solidification agents and waste types and the potential for improved solidification. Waste loadings of 60 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 25 wt % H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, 25 wt % incinerator ash and 50 wt % dry ion exchange resin were achieved using low density polyethylene as a matrix material. Samples incorporating 65 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 40 wt % H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, 20 wt % incinerator ash and 40 wt % dry ion exchange resin were successfully solidified in modified sulfur cement. Additional improvements are expected for both matrix materials as process parameters are optimized. Several preliminary property evaluation studies were performed to provide the basis for an initial assessment of waste form acceptability. These included a two-week water immersion test and compressive load testing.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D. & Fuhrmann, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing and evaluation of polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms

Description: This paper discusses the results of recent studies related to the use of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement as new binder materials for the improved solidification of low-level wastes. Waste streams selected for this study include those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those that remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion-exchange resins). Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported for polyethylene. For sulfur cement the recommended waste loadings of 40 wt % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt % incinerator ash are reported. However, incorporation of ion-exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended due to poor waste form performance. The work presented in this paper will, in part, present data that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. 8 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Franz, E.M.; Kalb, P.D. & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polyethylene encapsulation full-scale technology demonstration. Final report

Description: A full-scale integrated technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD), was conducted at the Environmental & Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL.) in September 1994. As part of the Polymer Solidification National Effort, polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved, cost-effective treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. A fully equipped production-scale system, capable of processing 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Kalb, P.D. & Lageraaen, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In Situ Mercury Stabilization (ISMS) Treatment: Technology Maturation Project Phase I Status Report

Description: Mercury (Hg) was used to separate lithium-6 isotope for weapons production at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge in the 1950s and 1960s. As much as two million pounds of elemental mercury was 'lost' or unaccounted for and a large portion of that material is believed to have entered the environment. The DOE site office in Oak Ridge has identified Hg pollution in soils, sediments, and streams as the most significant environmental challenge currently faced. In industry, large amounts of mercury have been used to manufacture products (e.g., fluorescent light bulbs, thermometers) and for chemical processing (e.g., production of chlorine and alkali via mercury electrochemical cells) and many of these industrial sites are now polluted with mercury contaminated soil as a result of previous releases and/or inadvertent leaks. Remediation techniques for Hg contaminated soils are either based on thermal desorption and recovery of the mercury or excavation and shipping of large volumes of material to remote facilities for treatment and disposal. Both of these alternatives are extremely costly. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Environmental Research & Technology Division (ERTD) has demonstrated, in laboratory-scale experiments, the viability of treating mercury contaminated soils by means of sulfide treatment rods inserted into the soil through a process known as In Situ Mercury Stabilization (ISMS). This approach is partly based on BNL's patented and successfully licensed ex situ process for Hg treatment, Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) which converts Hg to the more stable sulfide form. The original experiments showed that Hg homogeneously distributed in soil rapidly migrates to form a high concentration zone of chemically stable mercuric sulfide near the treatment rods while concentrations of Hg in surrounding areas away from the treatment rods are depleted to acceptable levels. BSA has subsequently filed for patent protection on the ISMS technology. If further developed it ...
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Kalb,P.D. & Milian, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polymer solidification national program. Letter report on FY 1992 activities

Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed several new and innovative polymer processes for the solidification of low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes streams. Polyethylene and modified sulfur cement solidification technologies have undergone steady, gradual development at BNL over the past nine years. During this time they have progressed through each of the stages necessary for logical technology maturation: from process conception, parameter optimization, waste form testing, evaluation of long-term durability, economic analysis, and scale-up feasibility. This technology development represents a significant investment which can potentially provide DOE with both short- and long-term savings.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Kalb, P. D. & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste management technology development and demonstration programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

Description: Two thermoplastic processes for improved treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes have been developed from bench-scale through technology demonstration: polyethylene encapsulation and modified sulfur cement encapsulation. The steps required to bring technologies from the research and development stage through full-scale implementation are described. Both systems result in durable waste forms that meet current Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory criteria and provide significant improvements over conventional solidification systems such as hydraulic cement. For example, the polyethylene process can encapsulate up to 70 wt % nitrate salt, compared with a maximum of about 20 wt % for the best hydraulic cement formulation. Modified sulfur cement waste forms containing as much as 43 wt % incinerator fly ash have been formulated, whereas the maximum quantity of this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Kalb, P. D. & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste management technology development and demonstration programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

Description: Two thermoplastic processes for improved treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes have been developed from bench-scale through technology demonstration: polyethylene encapsulation and modified sulfur cement encapsulation. The steps required to bring technologies from the research and development stage through full-scale implementation are described. Both systems result in durable waste forms that meet current Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory criteria and provide significant improvements over conventional solidification systems such as hydraulic cement. For example, the polyethylene process can encapsulate up to 70 wt % nitrate salt, compared with a maximum of about 20 wt % for the best hydraulic cement formulation. Modified sulfur cement waste forms containing as much as 43 wt % incinerator fly ash have been formulated, whereas the maximum quantity of this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Kalb, P.D. & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polyethylene encapsulation of single-shell tank low-level wastes. Annual progress report

Description: This report describes work supported by the UST-ID, conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory I (BNL), to develop and demonstrate a polyethylene waste encapsulation process for low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous mixed wastes (HMW) stored in underground tanks. During FY 1992, studies were completed on the effects of elevated temperature on waste form integrity, strength and leachability. No changes in waste form integrity or compressive yield strength were detected after storing polyethylene waste forms containing 50, 60 and 70 wt% sodium nitrate at 70{degree}C for 3 months. Leaching of polyethylene waste forms with similar nitrate salt loadings at temperatures up to 70{degree}C resulted in slight increases in leachability (< a factor of 2), compared with leaching at ambient temperatures. Leaching of sodium nitrate from polyethylene waste forms was diffusion-controlled, enabling extrapolation of laboratory leach data to full-scale waste forms over long time periods. Full-scale polyethylene waste forms containing 50 to 70 wt% nitrate salt could be expected to leach a total of 5% to 17% of the original contaminant source term after 300 years of leaching under worst-case (70{degree}C, fully saturated) conditions. This is about 25 to 75 times lower leachability than conventional cement grout waste forms containing a maximum of 20 wt% nitrate salts.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Kalb, P. D.; Fuhrmann, M.; Cassidy, J.; Colombo, P.; Franz, E. M.; Fuhrmann, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polyethylene encapsulation of single-shell tank low-level wastes

Description: This report describes work supported by the UST-ID, conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory I (BNL), to develop and demonstrate a polyethylene waste encapsulation process for low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous mixed wastes (HMW) stored in underground tanks. During FY 1992, studies were completed on the effects of elevated temperature on waste form integrity, strength and leachability. No changes in waste form integrity or compressive yield strength were detected after storing polyethylene waste forms containing 50, 60 and 70 wt% sodium nitrate at 70[degree]C for 3 months. Leaching of polyethylene waste forms with similar nitrate salt loadings at temperatures up to 70[degree]C resulted in slight increases in leachability (< a factor of 2), compared with leaching at ambient temperatures. Leaching of sodium nitrate from polyethylene waste forms was diffusion-controlled, enabling extrapolation of laboratory leach data to full-scale waste forms over long time periods. Full-scale polyethylene waste forms containing 50 to 70 wt% nitrate salt could be expected to leach a total of 5% to 17% of the original contaminant source term after 300 years of leaching under worst-case (70[degree]C, fully saturated) conditions. This is about 25 to 75 times lower leachability than conventional cement grout waste forms containing a maximum of 20 wt% nitrate salts.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Kalb, P.D.; Fuhrmann, M.; Cassidy, J.; Colombo, P.; Franz, E.M.; Fuhrmann, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report

Description: Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Lageraaen, P.R.; Patel, B.R.; Kalb, P.D. & Adams, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SEPRADYNE/RADUCE HIGH VACUUM THERMAL PROCESS FOR DESTRUCTION OF DIOXINS IN INEEL/WERF FLY ASH.

Description: This study investigated the use of an indirectly heated, high temperature (900 C), high vacuum (28 inch Hg) rotary kiln, developed and patented by Raduce, Inc. (subsidiary of Sepradyne Corp.), to treat a dioxin contaminated mixed waste incinerator ash from the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). A 500 cm{sup 3} bench-scale rotary vacuum thermal desorption and destruction unit (DDU) was used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to demonstrate this thermal treatment process. Dioxins and furans were successfully decomposed at both low (450 C) and high (700-800 C) temperature regimes. In addition, substantial volume and mass reduction of the ash was achieved. Stabilization of the nonvolatile residues by a post-treatment encapsulation process may be required to reduce the leachability of RCRA metals to levels below the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements.
Date: August 2, 1999
Creator: ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D. & MALKMUS,D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USE OF RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE, HAZARDOUS AND MIXED WASTES

Description: Polyethylene encapsulation is a waste treatment technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory using thermoplastic polymers to safely and effectively solidify hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes for disposal. Over 13 years of development and demonstration with surrogate wastes as well as actual waste streams on both bench and full scale have shown this to be a viable and robust technology with wide application. Process development efforts have previously focused on the use of virgin polymer feedstocks. In order to potentially improve process economics and serve to lessen the municipal waste burden, recycled polymers were investigated for use as encapsulating agents. Recycled plastics included low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, and were used as a direct substitute for or blended together with virgin resin. Impacts on processing and final waste form performance were examined.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: LAGERRAAEN,P.R. & KALB,P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (&lt;10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.
Date: February 25, 2002
Creator: Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S. & Kalb, P. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE.

Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft{sup 3} pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containing &gt; 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containing &lt; 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product.
Date: November 1, 2001
Creator: ADAMS,J.W. & KALB,P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE.

Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (&lt;10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S. & KALB, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

Description: This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A. & Kalb, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polyethylene encapsulation of mixed wastes: Scale-up feasibility

Description: A polyethylene process for the improved encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Improvements in waste loading and waste form performance have been demonstrated through bench-scale development and testing. Maximum waste loadings of up to 70 dry wt % mixed waste nitrate salt were achieved, compared with 13--20 dry wt % using conventional cement processes. Stability under anticipated storage and disposal conditions and compliance with applicable hazardous waste regulations were demonstrated through a series of lab-scale waste form performance tests. Full-scale demonstration of this process using actual or surrogate waste is currently planned. A scale-up feasibility test was successfully conducted, demonstrating the ability to process nitrate salts at production rates (up to 450 kg/hr) and the close agreement between bench- and full-scale process parameters. Cored samples from the resulting pilot-scale (114 liter) waste form were used to verify homogeneity and to provide additional specimens for confirmatory performance testing.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department