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Photochemical Silaylide, Silylene and Silene Syntheses

Description: The synthesis of o-(N,N-dimethylamino)methylphenyl tris (trimethylsilyl) silane (II), a photochemical precursor of o- (N,N-dimethylamino) methylphenyl (trimethylsilyl) sila ammonium ylide (intramolecular silylene complex) and otolyl(trimethylsilyl)silylene is reported. Photolysis of II at room temperature in a cyclohexane solution of triethyl silane produced the silylene ylide and the presumably uncomplexed isomer, a silylene, which is trapped to afford the 2-(o-(N,N-dimethylamino)methylphenyl) -1,1,1-triethyl 3,3,3-trimethyltrisilane, 33% yield. A second decomposition pathway, a photodeamination, produced o-tris(trimethyl silyl) silyltoluene. UV spectra of the silaammonium ylide formed in the photochemical reaction of II was observed at 77k in hard or soft matrices.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Tan, Changqing
Partner: UNT Libraries

ESR Studies of Group IV Substituted Anilines

Description: The purpose of the investigation described herein was to investigate the degree of delocalization of the unpaired electron in ion radicals formed in the oxidation process of compounds with aromatic rings connected by means of various groups and atoms not entering the ring; then, to establish the relationship of coupling constants in radical cations with substituent σ values. The parent cation radical, in which the co-planar ion was derived from N,N-dimethylaniline, was selected in order to maximize the substituent effects on coupling constants and to obtain couplings at several positions (specifically, CH3, N, and ring protons).
Date: June 1970
Creator: Wong, Pui-Suen
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Sythetic Study of a Cyclic Siloxydiyne and its Iron Carbonyl Complex

Description: The synthetic studies include the synthesis of the cyclic siloxydiyne, 3,3,5,5,8,8,10,10-octamethyl-4,9-dioxa-3,5,8,10-tetrasilacyclodeca-1,6- diyne [VI] and its novel iron carbonyl complex. In the preparation of [VI] by HBr promoted condensation of bis (methoxydimethylsilyl) acetylene, a minor product, a cyclic trimer was always formed along with the major product [VI]. No evidence of an equilibrium between the trimerization product and the dimerization product was found. Compound [VI] can react with iron carbonyl reagents to produce a novel binuclear iron complex of trimethylenemethane [VII] in very low yield either in a thermal or photo-reaction. The key step proposed by us in the formation of [VII] is a I,2-silyl shift in a complexed bis (silyl) acetylene to form a vinylidene intermediate. Experiments aimed at isolating this intermediate were not successful.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Chi, Xiang-yong
Partner: UNT Libraries

Static and Flow Properties of Dilute Polymer Solutions

Description: Small weight percentages of certain high-molecular weight polymers added to liquids in turbulent flow through conduits can result in dramatic friction reduction. Although many current and potential uses of the drag reduction phenomenon exist, there is a fundamental problem: drag reduction efficacy decreases rapidly with flow time due to the mechanical degradation in flow of the added polymer. In this thesis study, dilute aqueous solutions of polyacrylamide were tested under turbulent flow conditions in an attempt to determine where mechanical degradation in flow occurs.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Whang, Kyu-ho
Partner: UNT Libraries

Investigation of Substituent Effects of 2-Substituted Silaethylenes

Description: This investigation is concerned with determining whether a carbon substituent or a silicon substituent on the carbon terminus of a silicon-carbon double bond has a more stabilizing effect. Two different 2-substituted silaethylenes were generated at the same time by pyrolyzing 1, 1-dimethyl-2-neopentyl-4- (dimethylalkoxysilyl) silacyclobutanes in a nitrogen flow system. The results of these pyrolyses, both neat and in the presence of a trapping reagent, show that the silaethylene with a silicon substituent on the carbon terminus was favored approximately two to one over the silaethylene with a carbon substituent. This datum, along with other observations and hypotheses discussed, leads to the suggestion that the silicon substituenton the carbon terminus of the silaethylene bond has a more stabilizing effect than the carbon substituent.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Snyder, Walter David
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis of trimethylsilyl-substituted pentacyclo(5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹º.0⁵,⁹)undecanes and chloro-substituted pentacyclo(5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹º.0⁵,⁹)undecane

Description: As part of a continuing study of the synthesis and chemistry of new, substituted pentacyclo(5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹º.0⁵,⁹)undecanes, the following compounds have been synthesized: 1: X=O, Y=SiMe_3; 2: X=CH_2, Y=SiMe_3; 3: X=O, Y=Cl; 6: X=OAc, Y=H; 8: X=OC(O)Ph, Y=H; 9: X=OSO_2Ph, Y=H; 11: X=OH, Y=H; 12: X=OMe, Y=H; 14: X=CHSiMe_3, Y=SiMe_3; 15: X=OH, Y=Cl; 16: X=OAc, Y=Cl; 17: X=OMe, Y=Cl. An important objective of this work is to prepare new polycyclic cage compounds which can be utilized as intermediates for the synthesis of new, substituted tricyclopentanoid natural products (triquinanes) and related systems. Compounds 1-4 were identified as target molecules in this connection.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Huang, Chunmin
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Carbon-13 and Lithium-6 NMR Study of Alkyllithium Compounds

Description: A variable temperature 13C and 6Li NMR study has been conducted for 6Li-enriched ethyl-, n-propyl-, isopropyl-, n-butyl-, isobutyl-, t-butyl--, isopentyl-, 2-ethylbutyl-, and n-hexyllithium in cyclopentane. Significant differences in the 13C NMR parameters are observed as a function of the alkyl group and temperature. These changes are compared to the 6Li spectra and explained in terms of the aggregates present. 13C-6Li coupling is readily observed in both the 13 6 C and Li spectra of compounds which contain branching at either the alpha or beta carbons of the alkyl group. This coupling has been used to identify the aggregates present in solution and to identify the fluxional behavior of these aggregates.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Jensen, Randy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mass Spectral Study of Trimethylsilylmethyl Substituted Chlorosilanes

Description: The mass spectra of the compounds [Me 3 SiCH2 nSiCl 4 n (n=1-3) were studied in detail. MIKES and CID spectra were used in conjunction with the observance of metastable processes to develop consistent fragmentation schemes. Particular attention is drawn to the formation of charged and neutral species containing the silicon-carbon double bond, including 2-silaallene, under conditions of electron impact.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Pope, Keith Randal
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectra of Cyclohexane, Cyclohexene, 1,4-Cyclohexadiene, Isotetralin, and Several Methyl Substituted Analogs

Description: A paucity of literature exists on the Independent System analysis of adjacent, parallel transition dipoles. Applying this theory and certain spectral information semiemperical calculations were made to predict absorption profiles and band intensities. To aid in the assignment of the 7*+7 absorption bands it was necessary to obtain the vacuum ultraviolet spectra of cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Because the spectra of these molecules contained sharp, atomic-like absorption bands a Rydberg series could be fitted to certain absorptions, thus the determination of their ionization potentials. Using Independent System analysis profiles and intensities of 7*+q-- absorption bands ins 'several methyl substituted 1,4- cyclohexadienes and isotetralin were predicted where general agreement was found with observed experimental spectra.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Tidwell, Edgar Rhea
Partner: UNT Libraries

Optimization of High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Separations

Description: This study had a twofold purpose. First, the usefulness of the simplex algorithm as a short method of optimization in high performance liquid chromatographic separations was investigated. The second was to test a modified simplex method. The volume fractions of mobile phase components were chosen as the variable factors in the optimization process. Four test cases were performed which included separation of cholesterol esters, naphthalene and its derivatives, polycyclic aromatic compounds, and the thiane compounds. The standard for accepting an optimum was based on the baseline separation of two adjacent peaks and the analysis time. In addition to successful separations, the correlation between the separation and the chemical characteristics of mobile phase compositions was calculated and this could then be used for further modification of simplex search strategy.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Nguyen, Khanh Thi
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Crystal and Molecular Structures of Tri-(p-Fluorophenyl)-Amine and Tri-(p-Iodophenyl)-Amine

Description: Because of the need for data on the geometry of nitrogen in arylamines, the determination of the crystal and molecular structures of tri-(p-fluorophenyl)-amine (TFPA) and tri-(p-iodophenyl)-amine (TIPA) was undertaken as the subject of this dissertation.
Date: January 1970
Creator: Freeman, Gerald R. (Gerald Richard)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Bonding Studies in Group IV Substituted n,n-dimethylanilines

Description: The purpose of the present work is to study the effects of the trimethylsilyl and trimethylgermyl substituents on the N,N-dimethylamino ring system. Both ground and excited state interactions were studied and their magnitudes determined. The experimental data were then used in conjunction with molecular orbital calculations to differentiate among, and determine the importance of, d-p bonding, hyperconjugation or polarization of the trimethylsilyl group on the ground and excited state bonding.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Drews, Michael James
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic Studies and Vibrational Spectra of Disubstituted Metal Carbonyls

Description: The oxidative elimination reactions of (5-X-phen)Mo(C0)₄ (X = H, CH₃, Cl, NO₂; phen = o-phenanthroline) and (3,4,7,8-(CH₃)₄-phen)Mo(CO)₄ with mercuric chloride in acetone have been investigated. In these reactions, a carbon monoxide group is replaced by two univalent ligands, accompanied by the corresponding increase in coordination number and formal oxidation state of the central metal atom, to give products of the type, (X-phen)Mo(CO)₃(Cl)HgCl. With the exception of (3,4,7,8-(CH₃)₄-phen), the substituted o-phenanthrolines were selected so as to minimize steric differences from one substrate to another while obtaining the widest range of pKₐ of the ligand.
Date: May 1972
Creator: Jernigan, Robert Thorne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Infrared Studies of Group VIB metal Carbonyl Derivatives

Description: With three different proposals for the bonding in metal carbonyls, it was decided to look into the situation more thoroughly in order to see what other evidence was available to support or refute any of these ideas. It became obvious that a definite contradiction existed between the kinetic evidence of various metal carbonyls, and the concept of MC bond strengths as predicted by Cotton's theory.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Brown, Richard Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries

Halogenated 2-Oxetanones

Description: The purpose of this investigation is threefold: (1) to examine in detail the cycloaddition of halogenated ketenes and carbonyl compounds, (2) to study the decarboxylation of the resulting halogenated 2-oxetanones,and (3) to investigate the effect of halogens in the halogenated 2-oxetanones on the nucleophilic addition reaction.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Patel, Arvind D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Focus on Problems of National Interest in the College General Chemistry Laboratory: The Effects of the Problem-Oriented Method Compared with Those of the Traditional Approach

Description: Dealing with the college laboratory program in general chemistry, this study compares the effects of exercises based on current national problems with the effects of traditional laboratory exercises. The study has been prompted by the recent emphasis on topics of national interest in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. These topics include air and water pollution, drug addiction and analysis, tetraethyl-lead additives, insecticides in the environment, and recycling of wastes. The relevant experiments are taken from recent issues of the Journal of Chemical Education. The traditional exercises, from the laboratory manual Chemistry in the Laboratory, by Watt, Hatch, and Lagowski (New York, Norton, 1964), deal with such topics as chemical composition, gas laws, solutions, and acids and bases.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Neman, Robert Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Reinvestigation of the Kinetics and Mechanism of Ligand Exchange in Mu-(2,2,8,8-Tetramethyl-3, 7-Dithianonane)-Decacarbonylditungsten(0)

Description: This student is interested in reinvestigating the kinetics and mechanism of the bridged compound in l,2-dichloroethane with triisopropyl phosphite and in finding the reasons why the values of competition ratio k₋₂ /k₃ in this reaction are so large.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Liao, Jing-Piin
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Synthesis and Reactivity of Bis(silyl)acetylenes

Description: Six bis(silyl)acetylenes with the following varied silicon substituents were prepared: I (Me, Me); II (H, H); III (Cl, H); IV (Cl, Cl); V (OMe, H); VI (OMe, OMe). While I and II may be prepared by the reaction of dilithio- or bis(bromomagnesium)-acetylide with appropriate chlorosilane, similar reactions designed to give III - VI give oligomers, YMe_2Si(C≡C-SiMe_2)_nY, VII, Y = Cl, OMe, as the major products indicating that the acetylenic functionality on silicon activates the chlorosilane toward nucleophilic substitution. Compounds III and IV were prepared by free radical chlorination of II. Methanolysis of III and IV gave quantitative yields of V and VI, respectively. In the presence of mineral acid, VI readily cyclized to give high yields of the cyclic siloxane octamethyl-4,9-dioxa-3,5,8,10-tetrasila-cyclodeca-1,6-diyne, VIII, and the analogous triyne, IX. It was determined that V and VI could be prepared directly from II in high yield by methanolysis with palladium catalyst. Vaska's complex also accomplished the conversion. I attempted to prepare bis(ethoxydimethylsilyl)acetylene by using of Wilkinson 's catalyst for hydrosilylation with acetaldehyde. The principal product of this reaction was 1-(dimethylsilyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-4-oxa-3-silacyclopent-1-ene, XI.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Albanesi, Todd E. (Todd Edward)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Photochemical Silene Syntheses

Description: We report the attempted syntheses of two photochemical dimethylsilene precursors, both of which are derived from polyphenyl silanorbornadiene skeletons. Possible synthetic schemes and our results are reported herein. Photolysis of 1,2-divinyl-1,1,2,2-tetramethyl-1,2-disilane at room temperature in a cyclohexane solution of 1,3-butadiene produces 1,1-dimethyl-2-(vinyldimethylsilylmethyl) silene which is trapped in high yields to afford the E- and Z-1,1-dimethyl-2-(vinyldimethylsilylmethyl)-3-vinyl-1-silacyclobutanes in 42 and 29% yields, respectively, along with minor amounts of 1,1-dimethyl-2-(vinyldimethylsilylmethyl)-1-silacyclohex-3-ene, 9%. Low Pressure Flow Pyrolysis at 450º C of either the E- or Z-isomer provides a relatively mild thermal source of the silene in the gas phase. Two products, 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisilacyclohex-3-ene and 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-disilabicyclo[2.2.1]hexane, are formed from an intramolecular rearrangement of the silene. Other reactions of the 3-vinylsilacyclobutanes include geometric isomerization, ring expansion to the silacyclohex-3-ene, and a homodienyl-1,5-hydrogen shift to 3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-3,6-disiladeca-1,4,8-triene. Synthetic schemes, successful and unsuccessful, for hydrido silene, acylpolysilene, and fluorine substituted silene precursors are discussed in the final chapter.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Bobbitt, Kevin L. (Kevin Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reactivity of Oxide Surfaces and Metal-Oxide Interfaces: Effects of Water Vapor Pressure on Ultrathin Aluminum Oxide Films, and Studies of Platinum Growth Modes on Ultrathin Oxide Films and Their Effects on Adhesion

Description: The reactivity of oxide surfaces and metal-oxide interfaces play an important role in many technological applications such as corrosion, heterogeneous catalysis, and microelectronics. The focus of this research was (1) understanding the effects of water vapor exposure of ultrathin aluminum oxide films under non-ultrahigh vacuum conditions (>10-9 Torr) and (2) characterization of Pt growth modes on ultrathin Ta silicate and silicon dioxide films and the effects of growth modes on adhesion of a Cu overlayer. These studies were conducted with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ni3Al(110) was oxidized (10-6 Torr O2, 800K) followed by annealing (1100K). The data indicate that the annealed oxide film is composed of NiO, Al2O3 and an intermediate phase denoted here as "AlOx". Upon exposure of the oxide film at ambient temperature to increasing water vapor pressure (10-6 - 5 Torr), a shift in both the O(1s) and Al(2p)oxide peak maxima to lower binding energies is observed. In contrast, exposure of Al2O3/Al(polycrystalline) to water vapor under the same conditions results in a high binding energy shoulder in the O(1s) spectra which indicates hydroxylation. Spectral decomposition provides further insight into the difference in reactivity between the two oxide films. The corresponding trends of the O(1s)/Ni0(2p3/2) and Al(2p)/Ni0(2p3/2) spectral intensity ratios suggest conformal changes of the oxide film on Ni3Al(110). The growth behavior of sputter deposited Pt at ~300K on Ta silicate and SiO2 ultrathin films formed on Si(100) was investigated. The XPS data show that Pt deposition results in uniform growth or "wetting" on Ta silicate and 2-D cluster growth on SiO2. Electroless Cu deposition on ~11 monolayers (ML) Pt/Ta silicate film results in an adherent Cu film which passed the Scotch tape test. In contrast, electroless Cu deposition on ~11ML Pt/SiO2 results in a non-adherent Cu film due to weak Pt/SiO2 interaction.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Garza, Michelle
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthetic Applications of Ketene Cycloadditions: Natural and Novel Pyrethroid Insecticides

Description: A new synthetic route to natural and novel pyrethroid acids was developed utilizing ketene cycloaddition which is a significant improvement over existing syntheses. The newly synthesized pyrethroid acids were converted to pyrethroid esters and used to study structure-activity relationships. The cycloaddition of dichloroketene with 2,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene yields (2+2) cycloaddition products, 2,2-dichlorocyclobutanones. The reductive removal of one chlorine atom from these cycloaddition products gave monochlorocyclobutanones which underwent a Favorskii-type ring contraction to yield cis- and trans-chrysanthemic acids. 4-Methyl-1,3-pentadiene was also used as a precursor in this synthetic scheme to yield an analogue of the chrysanthemic acid. These results are consistent with a concerted cycloaddition process involving a dipolar transition state. The zinc reduction is not a regiospecific reaction which accounts for the two regioisomers of the monochlorocyclobutanones. The Favorskii-type ring contraction is a regiospecific reaction. A variety of different bicyclo(3.1.0)alkenecarboxylates and bicyclo(4.1.0)heptenecarboxylates were synthesized from alkylcyclopentadiene and fulvene derivatives. These new bicyclo pyrethroid acids are structurally similar to the natural chrysanthemic acid but are rigid and locked in a single conformation which is likely the least stable conformer of the natural acid. The acids were converted to pyrethroid esters and tested against the housefly and cockroach. The test results indicate that the bicyclo pyrethroids synthesized are not as active as the natural pyrethroid. Apparently, these bicyclo pyrethroids with structures similar to the less stable conformer of the natural pyrethroids are of little consequence as it binds to the target site in the insect. In an effort to learn more about the conformational requirements of the pyrethroid acid, a new bicyclo-spiro pyrethroid system with a structure similar to the most stable conformation of the natural pyrethroid was designed and synthesized. These bicyclo-spiro pyrethroids were derived from a new isopropylidenecyclobutane derivatives as a starting compound instead of a conjugated diene. The test results of ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Ko, Jinren
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Stereochemistry of Silenes and Alpha-Lithio Silanes

Description: When E- or Z-l-methyl-l-phenyl-2-neopentylsilene was generated by the retro-Diels-Alder vacuum-sealed tube thermolysis of its corresponding anthracene adduct, in the presence of various alkoxysilanes, only one diastereomeric adduct was formed in each case, showing that the reactions are stereospecific. An x-ray crystal structure of the methoxytriphenylsilane adduct of the E-silene confirmed its relative configuration as (R,S) or (S,R). This demonstrated that the addition of alkoxysilanes to silenes is stereospecific and syn. The relative configurations of similar alkoxysilane and alkoxystannane adducts to E- and Z-l-methyl-l-phenyl-2-neopentylsilene were assigned based on a combination of xray structures and *3C NMR data. A strong, nonbonded oxygen-metal interaction is apparent in all of those compounds studied. Treatment of the alkoxystannane adducts with alkyl lithium reagents results in tin-lithium exchange in some cases. The results indicate that the resulting <x-lithio alkoxysilanes are not configurationally stable in either THF or hydrocarbon solvents. The reaction of tert butyl lithium with a-trimethylsilylvinylmethylphenylchlorosilane in hydrocarbon solvents yields E- and Z-l-methyl-l-phenyl-2-neopentyl-2-trimethylsilylsilene. In the absence of any traps these silenes undergo a novel tert butyl lithium catalyzed rearrangement to 2-phenyl-3-trimethylsilyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-silahex-3-ene. These silenes were also trapped as their [4+2] cycloadducts with anthracene. The Z-isomer of the anthracene adduct was separated and its stereochemistry confirmed by an x-ray crystal structure. The anthracene adducts of both E- and Z-l-methyl-1-phenyl-2-neopentyl-2-trimethylsilylsilene undergo a facile, stereospecific decomposition at temperatures as low as 190°C to regenerate their respective silenes, the mildest stereospecific route to a silene yet reported. The E- and Z-silenes react stereospecifically with methanol under vacuum-sealed tube conditions. The stereochemistry of the addition is syn and a common mechanism is proposed for the addition of alcohols and the addition of alkoxysilanes to silenes.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Bates, Tim Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries