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Preparation of controlled particle size U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by uranyl formate precipitation and calcination

Description: A conceptual process flowsheet for preparation of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by precipitating uranyl formate monohydrate with excess formic acid and calcining it was developed and demonstrated on a laboratory scale. The product U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ has a particle size distribution apropriate for fabrication of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-Al fuel by powder metallurgy. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ particles are crystalline, do not exceed 150 ..mu..m in diameter, and have a narrow particle size distribution with most particles within the range of 44 to 150 ..mu..m. A ten-fold decontamination of uranium from low-level fission products during uranyl formate precipitation was demonstrated. Minimal variations in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ particle size distribution as a function of various uranyl formate precipitation conditions were observed. Preliminary tests demonstrated that calcination of uranyl formate monohydrate recovered from solution by evaporation to dryness did not produce U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ with the desired particle size distribution. Calcination of uranyl oxalate, uranous oxalate, or uranous formate also did not produce U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ with the appropriate particle size distribution.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an interconnection method for the RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) output circuit

Description: The results of development studies leading to an interconnection method for the output circuit are described. Procedures recommended include the use of thick film platinum-gold metallization in conjunction with parallel gap welding of the ribbon-to-circuit and ribbon-to- side contact joints. Variables investigated include the type and thickness of thick film, and the weld parameters such as voltage, time, electrode force, and electrode gap. Techniques proven in development are summarized in the form of process descriptions. Satisfactory metallization and bond parameters were developed and the system appears suitable for production application. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1974
Creator: Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program Semiannual Progress Report for October 1999 Through March 2000

Description: The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NOx and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses ...
Date: December 7, 2000
Creator: Johnson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propulsion system materials program. Semiannual progress report, October 1995--March 1996

Description: This portion of the program is identified as program element 1.0 within the work breakdown structure (WBS). It contains five subelements: (1) Monolithics, (2) Ceramic Composites, (3) Thermal and Wear Coatings, (4) Joining, and (5) Ceramic Machining. Ceramic research conducted within the Monolithics subelement currently includes work activities on low Cost Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder, green state ceramic fabrication, characterization, and densification, and on structural, mechanical, and physical properties of these ceramics. Research conducted within the Ceramic Composites subelement currently includes silicon nitride and oxide-based composites, and low expansion materials. Research conducted in the Thermal and Wear Coatings subelement is currently limited to oxide-based coatings and involves coating synthesis, characterization, and determination of the mechanical and physical properties of the coatings. Research conducted in the Joining subelement currently includes studies of processes to produce strong, stable joints between zirconia ceramics and iron-base alloys. As part of an expanded effort to reduce the cost of ceramic components, a new initiative in cost effective machining has been started. A major objective of the research in the Materials and Processing program element is to systematically advance the understanding of the relationships between ceramic raw materials such as powders and reactant gases, the processing variables involved in producing the ceramic materials, and the resultant microstructures and physical and mechanical properties of the ceramic materials. Success in meeting this objective will provide U.S. companies with new or improved ways for producing economical, highly reliable ceramic components for advanced heat engines.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ceramic technology report. Semi-annual progress report, April 1994--September 1994

Description: The Ceramic Technology Project was originally developed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS`s Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS`s automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. In response to extensive input from industry, the plan is to extend the engine types which were previously supported (advanced gas turbine and low-heat-rejection diesel engines) to include near-term (5-10 years) applications in conventional automobile and diesel truck engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to U.S. industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. A systematic approach to reducing the cost of components is envisioned. The work elements are as follows: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, low-expansion ceramics, and testing and data base development.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program Semiannual Progress Report for April 2000 Through September 2000

Description: The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advantages LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NOx and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses ...
Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Johnson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and evaluation of data sources for the commercial buildings retrofit market

Description: The objectives of this study are to identify data sources that provide information on current and future levels of commercial buildings retrofit activity in the US, and to evaluate the coverage these data sources provide the commercial retrofit industry. Data sources evaluated include reports, magazines, computerized data bases, and surveys. Relevant data sources were identified through a literature review and by telephone and mail contacts with building industry experts and trade associations. A brief summary of each of the data sources is provided and recommendations are made for gathering additional data to supplement the existing data source.
Date: October 1, 1986
Creator: Smith, S.A. & Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

Description: Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a pneumatic transfer system for HTGR recycle fuel particles

Description: In support of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Fuel Refabrication Development Program, an experimental pneumatic transfer system was constructed to determine the feasibility of pneumatically conveying pyrocarbon-coated fuel particles of Triso and Biso designs. Tests were conducted with these particles in each of their nonpyrophoric forms to determine pressure drops, particle velocities, and gas flow requirements during pneumatic transfer as well as to evaluate particle wear and breakage. Results indicated that the material can be pneumatically conveyed at low pressures without excessive damage to the particles or their coatings.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Mack, J.E. & Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Migration of transuranic nuclides in earthen burial trenches at the Savannah River Plant

Description: The objectives, incentives and benefits derived from the data collected at the Savannah River Laboratory on waste migration were discussed, and encapsulated transmission waste burial data were presented. Factors influencing radionuclide migration were characterized. A map of the burial ground was included. The trench sampling strategy was summarized. A description of the coring samples was included. Actual soil recovery results were tabulated, and a specific problem which reduced recoveries even when using a Shelby tube core was discussed. Data on waste strike distribution and activity as a function of depth were tabulated. The composition of recovered waste was tabulated. Wood and paper were well preserved in spite of long burial. Radiation of core samples was measured. The distribution of plutonium among soil particle sizes was determined.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Johnson, D.R. & Wilhite, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light water reactor fuel reprocessing: dissolution studies of voloxidized fuel

Description: Voloxidation is a proposed head-end process to remove tritium from irradiated LWR fuel by roasting the fuel in the presence of oxygen. The process oxidizes UO/sub 2/ to a fine U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ powder with high surface area for dissolution. Small-scale tests with irradiated Robinson, Oconee, and Saxton reactor fuels have been made to determine the dissolution behavior of both voloxidized and nonvoloxidized (UO/sub 2/) fuel. No significant technical problems were encountered in batch-dissolving of the U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ or UO/sub 2/ fuel. Dissolution rates were well-controlled in all tests. Significant observations from U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ dissolution, when compared to UO/sub 2/ dissolution, included: (1) reduced tritium and ruthenium (/sup 106/Ru) concentration in dissolver solutions, (2) increased weight of insoluble noble metal fission product residue (approximately 2.2X greater), and (3) increased fraction of the total plutonium which remains insoluble and is collected with the fission product residue. The insoluble plutonium was leached easily from the residue by 10M HNO/sub 3/ to ensure quantitative plutonium recovery. The weight of the fission product residue collected from both U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ and UO/sub 2/ fuels increased linearly with fuel burnup. A major fraction (> 88%) of the /sup 85/Kr was evolved from U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ fuel during dissolution rather than voloxidation. The /sup 85/Kr evolution rate was an appropriate monitor of fuel dissolution rate. Virtually all of the /sup 129/I was evolved by air sparging of the dissolver solution during dissolution.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Johnson, D.R. & Stone, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Executive information system

Description: The Executive Information System (EIS) is a computer-based information handling system. The system has been designed and implemented for Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies to allow program managers easy access and tracking of certain types of reporting at various levels of management interaction, to simplify the handling of program-related data, and to streamline the preparation of reporting documents and responses to requests for information from the program. The EIS is especially useful in assisting DOE program managers in the routine dissemination of reports and information. The characteristics of each component of the EIS are discussed. A user's guide to the EIS is included in this report.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Vitullo, M.; Winter, C. & Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ECUT energy data reference series: ammonia synthesis energy-use and capital stock information

Description: Energy requirements for ammonia synthesis totaled 0.55 quadrillion Btu of natural gas in 1980 and 28,500 MMBtu (8.3 x 10/sup 6/ kWh) of electricity. Efficiencies ranged from 0.72 to 0.8 for natural gas and 0.65 for electricity. Ammonia production in 1980 is estimated at 21 million tones. In the year 2000, U.S. ammonia production is estimated to be between 27 to 34 million tones with 19 to 31 million tons being produced using natural gas. A most likely value of 25 million tons of ammonia from natural gas feedstock is projected. As much as 20% of the energy from natural gas fuel could be saved if a more active catalyst could be developed that would reduce the operating pressure of ammonia synthesis to 1 atm.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Young, J.K. & Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ECUT energy data reference series: boilers

Description: Information on the population and fuel consumption of water-tube, fire-tube and cast iron boilers is summarized. The use of each boiler type in the industrial and commercial sector is examined. Specific information on each boiler type includes (for both 1980 and 2000) the average efficiency of the boiler, the capital stock, the amount of fuel consumed, and the activity level as measured by operational load factor.
Date: September 1, 1984
Creator: Chockie, A.D. & Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ECUT energy data reference series: Otto cycle engines in transportation

Description: Information that describes the use of the Otto cycle engines in transportation is summarized. The transportation modes discussed in this report include the following: automobiles, light trucks, heavy trucks, marine, recreational vehicles, motorcycles, buses, aircraft, and snowmobiles. These modes account for nearly 100% of the gasoline and LPG consumed in transportation engines. The information provided on each of these modes includes descriptions of the average energy conversion efficiency of the engine, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the activity level as measured in ton-miles. Estimates are provided for the years 1980 and 2000.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Hane, G.J. & Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of radioactive gaseous effluents from voloxidation and dissolution of spent nuclear fuel

Description: Laboratory-scale tests gave data on the release of tritium, /sup 14/C, /sup 85/Kr, and /sup 129/I as radioactive gases from spent nuclear fuels during voloxidation and dissolution. Voloxidation, a proposed reprocessing step, is intended to remove tritium from fuel by oxidation of UO/sub 2/ to U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ prior to dissolution of the fuel with nitric acid. /sup 14/C, /sup 85/Kr, and /sup 129/I may be evolved in both steps. Quantitative data from the tests may be used in designing off-gas treatment processes and equipment. The tests were performed in a shielded cell with a combination voloxidizer-dissolver. With a recirculating off-gas system, tritium and /sup 14/C were trapped on molecular sieves; /sup 129/I was trapped on silver-exchanged zeolite. /sup 85/Kr was measured by online gamma-ray counting. Zircaloy-clad UO/sub 2/ fuels from H. B. Robinson-2, Oconee-1, and Saxton reactors, with burnups from approximately 100 to approximately 28,000 MWD/MTHM, were tested. The results confirm that voloxidation released most of the tritium but only small fractions of the /sup 14/C, /sup 85/Kr, and /sup 129/I; the remainder of these radioactive gases evolved when the voloxidized fuels were dissolved. Voloxidation off-gases typically contained >99.8% of the tritium, 17 to 22% of the /sup 14/C, 7 to 17% of the /sup 85/Kr, and <8% of the /sup 129/I. Tritium evolved as HTO, with <0.1% as HT.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Stone, J.A. & Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ceramic Technology Project, semiannual progress report for October 1993 through March 1994

Description: The Ceramic Technology Project was originally developed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990, the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The original objective of the project was to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. During the course of the Ceramic Technology Project, remarkable progress has been made in the development of reliable structural ceramics. The direction of the Ceramic Technology Project is now shifting toward reducing the cost of ceramics to facilitate commercial introduction of ceramic components for near-term engine applications. In response to extensive input from industry, the plan is to extend the engine types which were previously supported (advanced gas turbine and low-heat-rejection diesel engines) to include near-term (5-10 years) applications in conventional automobile and diesel truck engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to U.S. industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. A systematic approach to reducing the cost of components is envisioned.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Johnson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light water reactor fuel reprocessing: dissolution studies of voloxidized and nonvoloxidized fuel

Description: Small-scale tests with irradiated Zircaloy-clad fuels from Robinson, Oconee, Saxton, and Point Beach reactors with burnups from about 200 to 28,000 MWD/MTHM have been made to determine the dissolution behavior of both voloxidized (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and nonvoloxidized (UO{sub 2}) fuel. No significant technical problems were encountered in batch-dissolving of either form. Dissolution rates were well-controlled in all tests. Significant characteristics of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} dissolution that differed from UO{sub 2} dissolution included: (1) reduced tritium and ruthenium ({sup 106}Ru) concentrations in product solutions, (2) increased insoluble noble metal fission product residue (about 2.2X greater), and (3) increased insoluble plutonium in the fission product residue. The insoluble plutonium is easily leached from the residue by 10M HNO{sub 3}. The weight of the fission product residue collected from both U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2} fuels increased aproximately linearly with fuel burnup. A major fraction (>83%) of the {sup 85}Kr was evolved from U{sub 3}O{sub 8} fuel during dissolution rather than voloxidation. The {sup 85}Kr evolution rate was an appropriate monitor of fuel dissolution rate. Virtually all of the {sup 129}I was evolved by air sparging of the dissolver solution during dissolution. 30 tables, 18 figures.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Johnson, D. R. & Stone, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998

Description: The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

Description: The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The explosive components facility - fulfilling its role as a national resource

Description: The Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a major, low-hazard, non-nuclear, research and development facility of the Sandia National Laboratories/Albuquerque (SNL). Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed-Martin, operates this designated User Facility for the Department of Energy (DOE). The ECF consolidates many SNL energetic-materials activities and provides a unique combination of explosive-technologies, neutronic-components, batteries, and weapons-evaluation capabilities. This paper describes the project objectives, the basic building features, programmatic capabilities, and the processes used to beneficially occupy and assess readiness to operate.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Johnson, D.R. & Bonzon, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thorium fuel cycles for LWRs: fuel diversion assessments and recycle requirements

Description: A number of fuel cycles have been proposed for evaluation in the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program. Among these systems are light water reactors (LWR) operating on the thorium-uranium cycle or the plutonium-thorium cycle either inside or outside energy centers. These proposals support the President's nuclear power policy of accelerating research into alternative fuel cycles that do not permit direct access to materials usable for nuclear weapons but still retain the benefits of nuclear power. Reprocessing and refabrication (often referred to as the ''back cycle'') constitute a portion of the overall fuel cycle and represent potential access points to fissionable materials, which, in many cases, may be in a rather attractive form for diversion. These operations for LWR thorium-uranium and plutonium-thorium fuels were analyzed to assess and rate the diversion or proliferation potential of each major operation. Reprocessing and refabrication evaluations per se constitute insufficient data for rating the acceptability of an entire fuel cycle and must be considered along with reactor analysis, environmental data, resource utilization, and political factors. Each back cycle operation has been evaluated according to needed development, material location, material description, convertibility and radiation hazard. Needed development relates to the state of the art of the operation and identifies the stage to which the development has progressed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Carter, W.L.; Rainey, R.H. & Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ECUT energy data reference series: lightweight materials for ground transportation

Description: This report summarizes information that describes the use of lightweight materials in automobiles. The information on this mode of transportation represents the largest potential energy savings for substitution of lightweight materials in the transportation sector. Included are data on energy conversion efficiency of the engine and its relationship to vehicle weight, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the service activity level as measured in ton-miles.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Abarcar, R.B.; Hane, G.J. & Johnson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department