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Unattended video surveillance systems for international safeguards

Description: The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Memory controlled data processor. [Data collector and formatter for adaptive Intrusion Data System]

Description: The Memory Controlled Data Processor (MCDP) was designed to provide a high-speed multichannel processor and data formater for the Adaptive Intrusion Data System. It can address up to 48 analog data channels, 48 bilevel alarm data channels, and numerous miscellaneous data channels such as weather and time. A digital comparator in the MCDP can make comparisons between the data being processed and threshold limits programed for any channel. The MCDP is software oriented and has its instructions stored in a 4K core memory. 8 figures, 7 tables.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural and electrochemical analysis of layered compounds from Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}.

Description: Layered lithium-manganese-oxide electrodes with the general formula Li{sub 2{minus}x}MnO{sub 3{minus}x/2} (0 < x < 2), and structural analogs in which some of the manganese has been substituted by Zr or Al have been prepared and characterized by structural and electrochemical methods. Although the discharge capacity for electrode compositions that contained Zr or Al fades at a slower rate in lithium cells than an unsubstituted compound, Li{sub 2{minus}x}MnO{sub 3{minus}x/2}, these materials deliver lower capacities ({approximately}90 mAh/g after 20 cycles) than Li{sub 2{minus}x}MnO{sub 3{minus}x/2} when cycled between 3.8 and 2.0 V at a C/8-C/10 rate. Under humid conditions or in contact with carbon, Li{sub 2{minus}x}MnO{sub 3{minus}x/2} compounds transform slowly to {gamma}-MnO{sub 2} on standing at room temperature, whereas the Zr- and Al-substituted materials appear to be more resistant to the conversion to {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}.
Date: September 2, 1998
Creator: Johnson, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An introduction to video image compression and authentication technology for safeguards applications

Description: Verification of a video image has been a major problem for safeguards for several years. Various verification schemes have been tried on analog video signals ever since the mid-1970`s. These schemes have provided a measure of protection but have never been widely adopted. The development of reasonably priced complex video processing integrated circuits makes it possible to digitize a video image and then compress the resulting digital file into a smaller file without noticeable loss of resolution. Authentication and/or encryption algorithms can be more easily applied to digital video files that have been compressed. The compressed video files require less time for algorithm processing and image transmission. An important safeguards application for authenticated, compressed, digital video images is in unattended video surveillance systems and remote monitoring systems. The use of digital images in the surveillance system makes it possible to develop remote monitoring systems that send images over narrow bandwidth channels such as the common telephone line. This paper discusses the video compression process, authentication algorithm, and data format selected to transmit and store the authenticated images.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description, operation, and diagnostic routines for the adaptive intrusion data system

Description: An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data compression, storage, and formatting system. It also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be utilized for the collection of environmental, bi-metal, analog, and video data. This manual covers the procedures for operating AIDS. Instructions are given to guide the operator in software programming and control option selections required to program AIDS for data collection. Software diagnostic programs are included in this manual as a method of isolating system problems.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Corlis, N.E. & Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote monitoring design concepts for spent fuel storage facilities

Description: For the past two years Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been involved in developing and installing Remote Monitoring Systems (RMS) at a number of sites around the world. Through the cooperation of the various countries and facilities, it has been possible to collect data on the requirements and performance of these systems that are for monitoring the movement of spent nuclear fuel. The data collected shows that the front end detection method can be a very useful concept to reduce the amount of data that has to be collected and, more importantly, reviewed by inspectors. Spent fuel storage monitoring is a major part of the non-proliferation monitoring that must be done since spent fuel is the by-product of all the power and research reactors worldwide. The movement of spent fuel is easier in many respects to monitor since it always requires protective shielding. This paper will describe a number of the Remote Monitoring Systems that have been installed to monitor spent fuel movement and the resulting decrease in data from the use of a sensor-driven front detection system. The reduction of the data collected and stored is also important to remote monitoring since it decreases the time required to transmit the data to a review site.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Hale, W.R. & Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ XAFS of the Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2} cathode for lithium-ion batteries

Description: The layered LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} system is being considered as a new cathode material for the lithium-ion battery. Compared with LiCoO{sub 2}, the standard cathode formulation, it possesses improved electrochemical performance at a projected lower cost. In situ x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) measurements were conducted on a cell cycled at a moderate rate and normal Li-ion operating voltages (3.0--4.1 V). The XAFS data collected at the Ni and Co edges approximately every 30 min. revealed details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction. These measurements on the Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode (0.29 < x < 0.78) demonstrated the excellent reversibility of the cathode's short-range structure. However, the Co and Ni atoms behaved differently in response to Li insertion. This study corroborates previous work that explains the XAFS of the Ni atoms in terms of a Ni{sup 3+} Jahn-Teller ion. An analysis of the metal-metal distances suggests, contrary to a qualitative analysis of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), that the Co{sup 3+} is oxidized to the maximum extent possible (within the Li content range of this experiment) at x = 0.47 {+-} 0.04, and further oxidation occurs at the Ni site.
Date: January 17, 2000
Creator: Kropf, J. & Johnson, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation of ion based applications for safeguards

Description: The uses of the LON, `Local Operating Network,` developed by Echelon Corporation, Palo Alto, California, has been expanded to handle a number of safeguards applications. A magnetic and vibration sensor pack has been developed to monitor for magnetic fields and vibration. This sensor pack can be attached to any source that generates a magnetic field, such as electrical solenoids or motors, to detect when the source is activated. New network nodes that interface directly with the raw data of Sandia developed radiation sensors, for detecting the presence of radiation sources, have been developed. The capacity of the network has been expanded to allow the transmission of large data sets, specifically the transmission of digital video images from the Sandia-developed-Image Compression and Authentication Module (ICAM).
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Martinez, R.L. & Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing and testing technologies for future remote monitoring systems

Description: Remote monitoring systems presently operating in facilities in a number of countries around the world are providing valuable information on the installation and operation of such systems. Results indicate they are performing reliably. While the technology for remote monitoring exists today, it may be some time before numerous constraints on implementation can be resolved. However, the constraints should not prevent the designing of systems that can be used for remote monitoring. Selection of the proper technology path for future development should include a flexible approach to front-end detection, data formats, data processing, and other areas. A brief description of two of the existing remote monitoring systems, and some general recommendations for future remote monitoring systems, will be presented.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Johnson, C.S. & Dupree, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Containment and surveillance devices

Description: The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S. & Stieff, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and economic study of hot off-gas storage system

Description: From introduction: "One of the most important factors which must be considered in the chemical processing of spent fuel elements is the safe and economic disposal of gaseous radioactive fission product wastes given off in the fuel element dissolution operation. For this reason work is underway at ORNL to study the various gas disposal methods that might be used to handle the radioactive fission product gases, krypton, xenon, and iodine."
Date: December 20, 1957
Creator: Johnson, C. S. & Carter, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.

Description: Binary intermetallic compounds containing lithium, or lithium alloys, such as Li{sub x}Al, Li{sub x}Si and Li{sub x}Sn have been investigated in detail in the past as negative electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. It is generally acknowledged that the major limitation of these systems is the large volumetric expansion that occurs when lithium reacts with the host metal. Such large increases in volume limit the practical use of lithium-tin electrodes in electrochemical cells. It is generally recognized that metal oxide electrodes, MO{sub y}, in lithium-ion cells operate during charge and discharge by means of a reversible lithium insertion/extraction process, and that the cells offer excellent cycling behavior when the crystallographic changes to the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume of the Li{sub x}MO{sub y} electrode are kept to a minimum. An excellent example of such an electrode is the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which maintains its cubic symmetry without any significant change to the lattice parameter (and hence unit cell volume) during lithium insertion to the rock-salt composition Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. This spinel electrode is an example of a ternary Li{sub x}MO{sub y} system in which a binary MO{sub y} framework provides a stable host structure for lithium. With this approach, the authors have turned their attention to exploring ternary intermetallic systems Li{sub x}MM{prime} in the hope of finding a system that is not subject to the high volumetric expansion that typifies many binary systems. In this paper, the authors present recent data of their investigations of lithium-copper-tin and lithium-indium-antimonide electrodes in lithium cells. The data show that lithium can be inserted reversibly into selected intermetallic compounds with relatively small expansion of the lithiated intermetallic structures.
Date: November 12, 1999
Creator: Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J.; Johnson, C. S. & Kepler, K. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A versatile digital video engine for safeguards and security applications

Description: The capture and storage of video images have been major engineering challenges for safeguard and security applications since the video camera provided a method to observe remote operations. The problems of designing reliable video cameras were solved in the early 1980`s with the introduction of the CCD (charged couple device) camera. The first CCD cameras cost in the thousands of dollars but have now been replaced by cameras costing in the hundreds. The remaining problem of storing and viewing video images in both attended and unattended video surveillance systems and remote monitoring systems is being solved by sophisticated digital compression systems. One such system is the PC-104 three card set which is literally a ``video engine`` that can provide power for video storage systems. The use of digital images in surveillance systems makes it possible to develop remote monitoring systems, portable video surveillance units, image review stations, and authenticated camera modules. This paper discusses the video card set and how it can be used in many applications.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Hale, W.R.; Johnson, C.S. & DeKeyser, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The International Remote Monitoring Project: Results of the Swedish Nuclear Power Facility field trial

Description: The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored work on a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) that was installed in August 1994 at the Barseback Works north of Malmo, Sweden. The RMS was designed to test the front end detection concept that would be used for unattended remote monitoring activities. Front end detection reduces the number of video images recorded and provides additional sensor verification of facility operations. The function of any safeguards Containment and Surveillance (C/S) system is to collect information which primarily is images that verify the operations at a nuclear facility. Barseback is ideal to test the concept of front end detection since most activities of safeguards interest is movement of spent fuel which occurs once a year. The RMS at Barseback uses a network of nodes to collect data from microwave motion detectors placed to detect the entrance and exit of spent fuel casks through a hatch. A video system using digital compression collects digital images and stores them on a hard drive and a digital optical disk. Data and images from the storage area are remotely monitored via telephone from Stockholm, Sweden and Albuquerque, NM, USA. These remote monitoring stations operated by SKI and SNL respectively, can retrieve data and images from the RMS computer at the Barseback Facility. The data and images are encrypted before transmission. This paper presents details of the RMS and test results of this approach to front end detection of safeguard activities.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Johnson, C.S.; af Ekenstam, G. & Sallstrom, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Image Compression and Authentication Module for video surveillance systems

Description: An Image Compression and Authentication Module (ICAM) has been designed to perform the digitization, compression, and authentication of video images in a camera enclosure. The ICAM makes it possible to build video surveillance systems that protect the transmission and storage of video images. The ICAM functions with both NTSC 525 line and PAL 625 line cameras and contains a neuron chip (integrated circuit) permitting it to be interfaced with a local operating network which is part of the Modular Integrated Monitor System (MIMS). The MIMS can be used to send commands to the ICAM from a central controller or any sensor on the network. The ICAM is capable of working as a stand alone unit or it can be integrated into a network of other cameras. As a stand alone unit it sends its video images directly over a high speed serial digital link to a central controller for storage. A number of ICAMs can be multiplexed on a single coaxial cable. In this case, images are captured by each ICAM and held until the MIMS delivers commands for an individual image to be transmitted for review or storage. The ICAM can capture images on a time interval basis or upon receipt of a trigger signal from another sensor on the network. An ICAM which collects images based on other sensor signals, forms the basis of an intelligent {open_quotes}front end{close_quotes} image collection system. The burden of image review associated with present video systems is reduced by only recording the images with significant action. The cards used in the ICAM can also be used to decompress and display the compressed images on a NTSC/PAL monitor.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Hale, W.R.; Johnson, C.S. & DeKeyser, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel carbonaceous materials for lithium secondary batteries

Description: Carbonaceous materials have been synthesized using pillared clays (PILCs) as templates. The PILC was loaded with organic materials such as pyrene in the liquid and vapor phase, styrene in the vapor phase, trioxane, ethylene and propylene. The samples were then pyrolyzed at 700 C in an inert atmosphere, followed by dissolution of the inorganic template by conventional demineralization methods. X-ray powder diffraction of the carbons showed broad d{sub 002} peaks in the diffraction pattern, indicative of a disordered or turbostratic system. N{sub 2} BET surface areas of the carbonaceous materials range from 10 to 100 m{sup 2}/g. There is some microporosity (r < 1 nm) in the highest surface area carbons. Most of the surface area, however, comes from a mixture of micro and mesopores with radii of 2--5 nm. Electrochemical studies were performed on these carbons. Button cells were fabricated with capacity- limiting carbon pellets electrodes as the cathode a/nd metallic lithium foil as the anode. Large reversible capacities (up to 850 mAh/g) were achieved for most of the samples. The irreversible capacity loss was less than 180 mAh/g after the first cycle, suggesting that these types of carbon materials are very stable to lithium insertion and de-insertion reactions.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Sandi, G.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A. & Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectroscopic study of the proton dynamics in manganese dioxide electrode materials

Description: Proton or lithium diffusion is a critical electrode process that occurs in manganese dioxide electrode materials during cycling of either aqueous (alkaline) or non-aqueous (lithium) batteries. The structural and electrochemical properties of a number of hydrated alpha-phase manganese dioxide compounds ({alpha}-MnO{sub 2}{lg_bullet}nH{sub 2}O; n{approx}0.2-0.33), the heat-treated products (n{approx}0-0.1), as well as their more stable lithia-doped derivatives, {alpha}-[xLi{sub 2}O]{lg_bullet}MnO{sub 2} (0 {le} x {le} 0.25), have been investigated. Inelastic neutron scattering was used as a means to differentiate and interrogate the key proton or water interactions in these MnO{sub 2} structures. The neutron spectra reveal excitations associated with the hydrogen vibrations centered at 4, 13, 16, 26, 36, 65, 90, 110, 140, 200, 420, and 490 meV in the alpha-phase and 14, 24, 65, 84, 100, 202, and 425 meV in the lithia-doped derivatives. Band assignments were carried out by comparing these frequencies with those reported for structurally similar hydrated {gamma}-MnO{sub 2} compounds and comparison with infrared data.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Johnson, C.S.; Thackeray, M.M.; Nipko, J.C. & Loong, C.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small angle x-ray scattering studies of carbon anodes used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

Description: In ANL laboratories, disordered carbons with predictable surface area and porosity properties have been prepared using inorganic templates containing well defined pore sizes. The carbons have been tested in electrochemical cells as anodes in lithium secondary batteries. They deliver high specific capacity and display excellent performance in terms of the number of cycles run. In situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) during electrochemical cycling was carried out at the Advanced Photon Source, at ANL. In order to monitor the carbon electrode structural changes upon cycling, an electrochemical cell was specially designed to allow for the application of electrical current and the collection of SAXS data at the same time. Results show that upon cycling the structure of the carbon remains unchanged, which is desirable in reversible systems.
Date: November 16, 1999
Creator: Sandi, G.; Carrado, K. A.; Winans, R. E.; Seifert, S. & Johnson, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.

Description: Intermetallic alloys have been investigated for many years as anode materials for lithium batteries and, more recently, as alternative electrodes to carbon, because of several intrinsic advantages including high capacity and safety. Some of the most studied alloys utilize tin as the active component because of its high theoretical capacity (996 mAh/g) and its slightly higher operating voltage (&lt;400 mV) compared to metallic lithium. To date, the use of binary lithium alloys as anodes has been limited to the select number of main group elements (e.g. Sn) that can be lithiated at an appropriate voltage with acceptable kinetics. A major disadvantage of binary Li{sub x}M alloy systems is that major phase changes occur during the electrochemical cycling of lithium. Severe volume expansion and contraction of the metal matrix, which limit the cycle life of the lithium cell, normally accompany these phase changes. The. most successful approach to overcoming this limitation has been the use of intermetallic alloys MM{prime} consisting of two (or more) metals, at least one of which is an ''active'' alloying element (M) and the other an ''inactive'' (M{prime}) element. During the reaction with lithium, such a system breaks up into regions of Li{sub x}M and inactive M{prime}. In our work, we have extended the concept of intermetallic electrodes to include topotactic reactions in which the intermetallic compound provides a host structure for lithium.
Date: July 19, 1999
Creator: Johnson, C. S.; Kahaian, A. J.; Kepler, K. D.; Scott, M.; Thackerary, M. M. & Vaughey, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unattended system for monitoring skip movement at the Sellafield Facility in the United Kingdom

Description: An unattended system for monitoring spent-fuel movement in the storage area of a reprocessing facility has been developed and tested. The system uses radiation detectors to determine when fuel is being moved and a video system to record images of the container movement. In addition to the recorded image, other recorded data include the date and time of the movement and ''fingerprint'' information from the radiation detectors. The direction of motion either into or out of the storage pond is indicated on the video image and on the printed readout. This system was extensively tested at the Sellafield Facility in the United Kingdom. This paper gives the details of the system design and presents results of the field evaluation. 1 ref., 10 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Bosler, G.E.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Johnson, C.S.; Hale, W.R.; Marsh, R.D. & Dickinson, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural and electrochemical studies of alpha manganese dioxide ({alpha}-MnO{sub 2})

Description: The structural and electrochemical properties of alpha-MnO[sub 2], prepared by acid digestion of Mn[sub 2]O[sub 3], and its lithiated derivatives xLi[sub 2] O . MnO[sub 2] (where x is greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to 0.25) have been investigated as insertion compounds in the search for new and viable cathode materials for rechargeable 3-V batteries. The alpha-MnO[sub 2] product fabricated by this technique contains water within the large (2x2) channels of the structure; the water can be removed from the alpha-MnO[sub 2] framework without degradation of the structure, and then at least partially replaced by Li[sub 2]O. The lithia-doped alpha-MnO[sub 2] electrodes, described generically as xLi[sub 2]O . Mno[sub 2], stabilize the structure and provide higher capacities on cycling than the parent material. The structures of these alpha- MnO[sub 2]-type electrode materials are described. and electrochemical data are presented for both liquid electrolyte and polymer electrolyte Li/alpha-MnO[sub 2] and Li/xLi[sub 2]O . MnO[sub 2] cells.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Johnson, C.S.; Dees, D.W.; Mansuetto, M.F.; Thackeray, M.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Argyriou, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A third generation mobile high energy radiography system

Description: A third generation mobile high energy radiographic capability has been completed and put into service by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The system includes a 6 MeV linac x-ray generator, Co-60 gamma source, all-terrain transportation, on-board power, real-time radiography (RTR), a control center, and a complete darkroom capability. The latest version includes upgraded and enhanced portability, flexibility, all-terrain operation, all-weather operation, and ease of use features learned from experience with the first and second generation systems. All systems were required to have the following characteristics; all-terrain, all-weather operation, self-powered, USAF airlift compatible, reliable, simple to setup, easy to operate, and all components two-person portable. The systems have met these characteristics to differing degrees, as is discussed in the following section, with the latest system being the most capable.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Fry, D.A.; Valdez, J.E.; Johnson, C.S.; Kimerly, H.J. & Vananne, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composite electrodes for lithium batteries.

Description: The stability of composite positive and negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries is discussed. Positive electrodes with spinel-type structures that are derived from orthorhombic-LiMnO{sub 2} and layered-MnO{sub 2} are significantly more stable than standard spinel Li[Mn{sub 2}]O{sub 4} electrodes when cycled electrochemically over both the 4-V and 3-V plateaus in lithium cells. Transmission electron microscope data of cycled electrodes have indicated that a composite domain structure accounts for this greater electrochemical stability. The performance of composite Cu{sub x}Sn materials as alternative negative electrodes to amorphous SnO{sub x} electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed in terms of the importance of the concentration of the electrochemically inactive copper component in the electrode.
Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Hackney, S. A.; Johnson, C. S.; Kahaian, A. J.; Kepler, K. D.; Shao-Horn, Y.; Thackeray, M. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department