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Unattended video surveillance systems for international safeguards

Description: The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Memory controlled data processor. [Data collector and formatter for adaptive Intrusion Data System]

Description: The Memory Controlled Data Processor (MCDP) was designed to provide a high-speed multichannel processor and data formater for the Adaptive Intrusion Data System. It can address up to 48 analog data channels, 48 bilevel alarm data channels, and numerous miscellaneous data channels such as weather and time. A digital comparator in the MCDP can make comparisons between the data being processed and threshold limits programed for any channel. The MCDP is software oriented and has its instructions stored in a 4K core memory. 8 figures, 7 tables.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural and electrochemical analysis of layered compounds from Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}.

Description: Layered lithium-manganese-oxide electrodes with the general formula Li{sub 2{minus}x}MnO{sub 3{minus}x/2} (0 < x < 2), and structural analogs in which some of the manganese has been substituted by Zr or Al have been prepared and characterized by structural and electrochemical methods. Although the discharge capacity for electrode compositions that contained Zr or Al fades at a slower rate in lithium cells than an unsubstituted compound, Li{sub 2{minus}x}MnO{sub 3{minus}x/2}, these materials deliver lower capacities ({approximately}90 mAh/g after 20 cycles) than Li{sub 2{minus}x}MnO{sub 3{minus}x/2} when cycled between 3.8 and 2.0 V at a C/8-C/10 rate. Under humid conditions or in contact with carbon, Li{sub 2{minus}x}MnO{sub 3{minus}x/2} compounds transform slowly to {gamma}-MnO{sub 2} on standing at room temperature, whereas the Zr- and Al-substituted materials appear to be more resistant to the conversion to {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}.
Date: September 2, 1998
Creator: Johnson, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An introduction to video image compression and authentication technology for safeguards applications

Description: Verification of a video image has been a major problem for safeguards for several years. Various verification schemes have been tried on analog video signals ever since the mid-1970`s. These schemes have provided a measure of protection but have never been widely adopted. The development of reasonably priced complex video processing integrated circuits makes it possible to digitize a video image and then compress the resulting digital file into a smaller file without noticeable loss of resolution. Authentication and/or encryption algorithms can be more easily applied to digital video files that have been compressed. The compressed video files require less time for algorithm processing and image transmission. An important safeguards application for authenticated, compressed, digital video images is in unattended video surveillance systems and remote monitoring systems. The use of digital images in the surveillance system makes it possible to develop remote monitoring systems that send images over narrow bandwidth channels such as the common telephone line. This paper discusses the video compression process, authentication algorithm, and data format selected to transmit and store the authenticated images.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description, operation, and diagnostic routines for the adaptive intrusion data system

Description: An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data compression, storage, and formatting system. It also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be utilized for the collection of environmental, bi-metal, analog, and video data. This manual covers the procedures for operating AIDS. Instructions are given to guide the operator in software programming and control option selections required to program AIDS for data collection. Software diagnostic programs are included in this manual as a method of isolating system problems.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Corlis, N.E. & Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology features of a network technology for safeguards applications

Description: This report describes a new flexible technology which is now available to design sensor and control networks based on a protocol embedded in an intelligent communications processor. The flexibility allows a system designer and/or a technical installer to make appropriate tradeoffs among simplicity, functionality, and cost in the design of network nodes and their installation. This is especially important in designing an installation scenario for the safeguards network. The network technology permits several choices of installations with the same basic node hardware. A pre-installed network offers maximum simplicity and no flexibility since it will operate as programmed during manufacture or the pre-installation setup and checkout. At the other end of the spectrum, a network can be installed using network management software and a computer. The combination of the network management software and computer hardware is generally referred to as a Network Management Tool (NMT). The NMT option offers full flexibility to change the network during or after installation. Different NMT can provide different degrees of complexity depending upon the applications and the amount of changes that need to be made during installation.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Johnson, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote monitoring design concepts for spent fuel storage facilities

Description: For the past two years Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been involved in developing and installing Remote Monitoring Systems (RMS) at a number of sites around the world. Through the cooperation of the various countries and facilities, it has been possible to collect data on the requirements and performance of these systems that are for monitoring the movement of spent nuclear fuel. The data collected shows that the front end detection method can be a very useful concept to reduce the amount of data that has to be collected and, more importantly, reviewed by inspectors. Spent fuel storage monitoring is a major part of the non-proliferation monitoring that must be done since spent fuel is the by-product of all the power and research reactors worldwide. The movement of spent fuel is easier in many respects to monitor since it always requires protective shielding. This paper will describe a number of the Remote Monitoring Systems that have been installed to monitor spent fuel movement and the resulting decrease in data from the use of a sensor-driven front detection system. The reduction of the data collected and stored is also important to remote monitoring since it decreases the time required to transmit the data to a review site.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Hale, W.R. & Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ XAFS of the Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2} cathode for lithium-ion batteries

Description: The layered LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} system is being considered as a new cathode material for the lithium-ion battery. Compared with LiCoO{sub 2}, the standard cathode formulation, it possesses improved electrochemical performance at a projected lower cost. In situ x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) measurements were conducted on a cell cycled at a moderate rate and normal Li-ion operating voltages (3.0--4.1 V). The XAFS data collected at the Ni and Co edges approximately every 30 min. revealed details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction. These measurements on the Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode (0.29 < x < 0.78) demonstrated the excellent reversibility of the cathode's short-range structure. However, the Co and Ni atoms behaved differently in response to Li insertion. This study corroborates previous work that explains the XAFS of the Ni atoms in terms of a Ni{sup 3+} Jahn-Teller ion. An analysis of the metal-metal distances suggests, contrary to a qualitative analysis of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), that the Co{sup 3+} is oxidized to the maximum extent possible (within the Li content range of this experiment) at x = 0.47 {+-} 0.04, and further oxidation occurs at the Ni site.
Date: January 17, 2000
Creator: Kropf, J. & Johnson, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation of ion based applications for safeguards

Description: The uses of the LON, `Local Operating Network,` developed by Echelon Corporation, Palo Alto, California, has been expanded to handle a number of safeguards applications. A magnetic and vibration sensor pack has been developed to monitor for magnetic fields and vibration. This sensor pack can be attached to any source that generates a magnetic field, such as electrical solenoids or motors, to detect when the source is activated. New network nodes that interface directly with the raw data of Sandia developed radiation sensors, for detecting the presence of radiation sources, have been developed. The capacity of the network has been expanded to allow the transmission of large data sets, specifically the transmission of digital video images from the Sandia-developed-Image Compression and Authentication Module (ICAM).
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Martinez, R.L. & Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing and testing technologies for future remote monitoring systems

Description: Remote monitoring systems presently operating in facilities in a number of countries around the world are providing valuable information on the installation and operation of such systems. Results indicate they are performing reliably. While the technology for remote monitoring exists today, it may be some time before numerous constraints on implementation can be resolved. However, the constraints should not prevent the designing of systems that can be used for remote monitoring. Selection of the proper technology path for future development should include a flexible approach to front-end detection, data formats, data processing, and other areas. A brief description of two of the existing remote monitoring systems, and some general recommendations for future remote monitoring systems, will be presented.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Johnson, C.S. & Dupree, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Containment and surveillance devices

Description: The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S. & Stieff, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reference electrodes for solid polymer electrolytes

Description: Electrochemical experiments were conducted on a binary metallic lithium-tin alloy that may be suitable as a reference electrode of the first kind in studies of lithium-polymer batteries. Two types of tin electrodes were tested: bulk tin foil and tin thin films deposited on a stainless steel substrate. Electrochemical test cells were fabricated, with tin, metallic lithium, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as electrodes and polymer electrolyte material. To form the alloy, the tin electrodes were galvanostatically loaded in situ with lithium. Each cell reached one or more steady-state voltage plateaus during the electrochemical reduction of lithium cations at the tin electrode surface. The lithiated tin foil electrode (1 C/cm{sup 2} of charge passed; area {approx} 5 cm{sup 2}; thickness = 1.0 mm) demonstrated good voltage stability over months under open-circuit conditions. This electrode maintained an average open circuit voltage of 0.7336 V with only {plus_minus}0.17 mV variance. Composition of phases in the thin film electrodes (x in Li{sub x}Sn) was coulometrically varied via reversible lithium loading and unloading reactions. Results show that three different, two-phase compositions may be formed that maintain flat voltage regions at approximately 0.53, 0.63, and 0.73 V vs lithium metal.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Johnson, C. S. & Dees, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safeguards equipment of the future: Integrated monitoring systems and remote monitoring

Description: From the beginning, equipment to support IAEA Safeguards could be characterized as that which is used to measure nuclear material, Destructive Assay (DA) and Non Destructive Assay (NDA), and that which is used to provide continuity of knowledge between inspection intervals, Containment & Surveillance (C/S). C/S equipment has often been thought of as Cameras and Seals, with a limited number of monitors being employed as they became available. In recent years, technology has advanced at an extremely rapid rate, and continues to do so. The traditional film cameras are being replaced by video equipment, and fiber optic and electronic seals have come into rather widespread use. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this evolution, and that which indicates the wave of the future without much question, is the integration of video surveillance and electronic seals with a variety of monitors. This is demonstrated by safeguards systems which are installed in several nuclear facilities in France, Germany, Japan, the UK, the USA, and elsewhere. The terminology of Integrated Monitoring Systems (IMS) has emerged, with the employment of network technology capable of interconnecting all desired elements in a very flexible manner. Also, the technology for transmission of a wide variety of information to off-site locations, termed Remote Monitoring, is in widespread industrial use, requiring very little adaptation for safeguards use. This paper examines the future of the Integrated Monitoring Systems and Remote Monitoring in International Safeguards, including technical and other related factors.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Sonnier, C. S. & Johnson, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safeguards equipment of the future integrated monitoring systems and remote monitoring

Description: Becoming aware of the significant events of the past four years and their effect on the expectations to international safeguards, it is necessary to reflect on which direction the development of nuclear safeguards in a new era needs to take and the implications. The lime proven monitoring techniques, based on quantitative factor`s and demonstrated universal application, have shown their merit. However, the new expectations suggest a possibility that a future IAEA safeguards system could rely more heavily on the value of a comprehensive, transparent and open implementation regime. Within such a regime, the associated measures need to be determined and technological support identified. This paper will identify the proven techniques which, with appropriate implementation support, could most quickly make available additional measures for a comprehensive, transparent and open implementation regime. In particular, it will examine the future of Integrated Monitoring Systems and Remote Monitoring in international safeguards, including technical and other related factors.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Sonnier, C. S. & Johnson, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooperation between JRC and SNL in the field of surveillance and monitoring for international safeguards

Description: Under a Cooperative Agreement between the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Joint Research Centre, (JRC) ISPRA, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have been cooperating in the development of Containment and Surveillance equipment for a number of years. With recent technology advancements, this cooperation is expanding into the areas of Data Authentication, Safeguards Data Networks, Integrated Systems, and Image Processing. This paper will describe recently expanded efforts in connecting the Integrated Monitoring System designed by SNL to the Computer Aided Video Surveillance System designed by JRC. An SNL Modular Video Authentication System was furnished to test in the video circuitry of the Computer Aided Video Surveillance System. The two systems will remain at JRC for demonstrations, training, and future development activities.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Johnson, C. S. & Sorel, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and economic study of hot off-gas storage system

Description: From introduction: "One of the most important factors which must be considered in the chemical processing of spent fuel elements is the safe and economic disposal of gaseous radioactive fission product wastes given off in the fuel element dissolution operation. For this reason work is underway at ORNL to study the various gas disposal methods that might be used to handle the radioactive fission product gases, krypton, xenon, and iodine."
Date: December 20, 1957
Creator: Johnson, C. S. & Carter, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.

Description: Binary intermetallic compounds containing lithium, or lithium alloys, such as Li{sub x}Al, Li{sub x}Si and Li{sub x}Sn have been investigated in detail in the past as negative electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. It is generally acknowledged that the major limitation of these systems is the large volumetric expansion that occurs when lithium reacts with the host metal. Such large increases in volume limit the practical use of lithium-tin electrodes in electrochemical cells. It is generally recognized that metal oxide electrodes, MO{sub y}, in lithium-ion cells operate during charge and discharge by means of a reversible lithium insertion/extraction process, and that the cells offer excellent cycling behavior when the crystallographic changes to the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume of the Li{sub x}MO{sub y} electrode are kept to a minimum. An excellent example of such an electrode is the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which maintains its cubic symmetry without any significant change to the lattice parameter (and hence unit cell volume) during lithium insertion to the rock-salt composition Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. This spinel electrode is an example of a ternary Li{sub x}MO{sub y} system in which a binary MO{sub y} framework provides a stable host structure for lithium. With this approach, the authors have turned their attention to exploring ternary intermetallic systems Li{sub x}MM{prime} in the hope of finding a system that is not subject to the high volumetric expansion that typifies many binary systems. In this paper, the authors present recent data of their investigations of lithium-copper-tin and lithium-indium-antimonide electrodes in lithium cells. The data show that lithium can be inserted reversibly into selected intermetallic compounds with relatively small expansion of the lithiated intermetallic structures.
Date: November 12, 1999
Creator: Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J.; Johnson, C. S. & Kepler, K. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A versatile digital video engine for safeguards and security applications

Description: The capture and storage of video images have been major engineering challenges for safeguard and security applications since the video camera provided a method to observe remote operations. The problems of designing reliable video cameras were solved in the early 1980`s with the introduction of the CCD (charged couple device) camera. The first CCD cameras cost in the thousands of dollars but have now been replaced by cameras costing in the hundreds. The remaining problem of storing and viewing video images in both attended and unattended video surveillance systems and remote monitoring systems is being solved by sophisticated digital compression systems. One such system is the PC-104 three card set which is literally a ``video engine`` that can provide power for video storage systems. The use of digital images in surveillance systems makes it possible to develop remote monitoring systems, portable video surveillance units, image review stations, and authenticated camera modules. This paper discusses the video card set and how it can be used in many applications.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Hale, W.R.; Johnson, C.S. & DeKeyser, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The International Remote Monitoring Project: Results of the Swedish Nuclear Power Facility field trial

Description: The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored work on a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) that was installed in August 1994 at the Barseback Works north of Malmo, Sweden. The RMS was designed to test the front end detection concept that would be used for unattended remote monitoring activities. Front end detection reduces the number of video images recorded and provides additional sensor verification of facility operations. The function of any safeguards Containment and Surveillance (C/S) system is to collect information which primarily is images that verify the operations at a nuclear facility. Barseback is ideal to test the concept of front end detection since most activities of safeguards interest is movement of spent fuel which occurs once a year. The RMS at Barseback uses a network of nodes to collect data from microwave motion detectors placed to detect the entrance and exit of spent fuel casks through a hatch. A video system using digital compression collects digital images and stores them on a hard drive and a digital optical disk. Data and images from the storage area are remotely monitored via telephone from Stockholm, Sweden and Albuquerque, NM, USA. These remote monitoring stations operated by SKI and SNL respectively, can retrieve data and images from the RMS computer at the Barseback Facility. The data and images are encrypted before transmission. This paper presents details of the RMS and test results of this approach to front end detection of safeguard activities.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Johnson, C.S.; af Ekenstam, G. & Sallstrom, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Image Compression and Authentication Module for video surveillance systems

Description: An Image Compression and Authentication Module (ICAM) has been designed to perform the digitization, compression, and authentication of video images in a camera enclosure. The ICAM makes it possible to build video surveillance systems that protect the transmission and storage of video images. The ICAM functions with both NTSC 525 line and PAL 625 line cameras and contains a neuron chip (integrated circuit) permitting it to be interfaced with a local operating network which is part of the Modular Integrated Monitor System (MIMS). The MIMS can be used to send commands to the ICAM from a central controller or any sensor on the network. The ICAM is capable of working as a stand alone unit or it can be integrated into a network of other cameras. As a stand alone unit it sends its video images directly over a high speed serial digital link to a central controller for storage. A number of ICAMs can be multiplexed on a single coaxial cable. In this case, images are captured by each ICAM and held until the MIMS delivers commands for an individual image to be transmitted for review or storage. The ICAM can capture images on a time interval basis or upon receipt of a trigger signal from another sensor on the network. An ICAM which collects images based on other sensor signals, forms the basis of an intelligent {open_quotes}front end{close_quotes} image collection system. The burden of image review associated with present video systems is reduced by only recording the images with significant action. The cards used in the ICAM can also be used to decompress and display the compressed images on a NTSC/PAL monitor.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Hale, W.R.; Johnson, C.S. & DeKeyser, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Network Technology to Remote Monitoring System

Description: The Australian Safeguards Office (ASO) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have sponsored work under a bilateral agreement to implement a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) at an Australian nuclear site operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The RMS, designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), was installed in February 1994 at the Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility (DSFSF) located at Lucas Heights, Australia. The RMS was designed to test a number of different concepts that would be useful for unattended remote monitoring activities. The DSFSF located in Building 27 is a very suitable test site for a RMS. The RMS uses a network of low cost nodes to collect data from a number of different sensors and security devices. Different sensors and detection devices have been installed to study how they can be used to complement each other for C/S applications. The data collected from the network will allow a comparison of how the various types of sensors perform under the same set of conditions. A video system using digital compression collects digital images and stores them on a hard drive and a digital optical disk. Data and images from the storage area are remotely monitored via telephone from Canberra, Australia and Albuquerque, NM, USA. These remote monitoring stations operated by ASO and SNL respectively, can retrieve data and images from the RMS computer at the DSFSF. The data and images are encrypted before transmission. The Remote Monitoring System field tests have been operational for six months with good test results. Sensors have performed well and the digital images have excellent resolution. The hardware and software have performed reliably without any major difficulties. This paper summarizes the highlights of the prototype system and the ongoing field tests.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Johnson, C. S.; Sorokowski, D. L. & Veevers, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The International Remote Monitoring Project and implications

Description: Becoming aware of the significant changes of the past several years and their effect on the expectations to international safeguards, it is necessary to reflect on which direction the development of nuclear safeguards in a new era needs to take. The time-proven monitoring techniques, based on quantitative factors and demonstrated universal application, have shown their merit. However, the new expectations suggest a possibility that a future IAEA safeguards, system could rely more heavily on the value of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. Within such a regime, the associated measures need to be determined and technological support identified. This paper will identify proven techniques which, with appropriate implementation support, could most quickly make available additional measures for a comprehensive, transparent and open implementation regime. In particular, it will examine the future of remote monitoring in International Safeguards, and provide an update on the International Remote Monitoring Project and related implications.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Sonnier, C. S. & Johnson, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel carbonaceous materials for lithium secondary batteries

Description: Carbonaceous materials have been synthesized using pillared clays (PILCs) as templates. The PILC was loaded with organic materials such as pyrene in the liquid and vapor phase, styrene in the vapor phase, trioxane, ethylene and propylene. The samples were then pyrolyzed at 700 C in an inert atmosphere, followed by dissolution of the inorganic template by conventional demineralization methods. X-ray powder diffraction of the carbons showed broad d{sub 002} peaks in the diffraction pattern, indicative of a disordered or turbostratic system. N{sub 2} BET surface areas of the carbonaceous materials range from 10 to 100 m{sup 2}/g. There is some microporosity (r < 1 nm) in the highest surface area carbons. Most of the surface area, however, comes from a mixture of micro and mesopores with radii of 2--5 nm. Electrochemical studies were performed on these carbons. Button cells were fabricated with capacity- limiting carbon pellets electrodes as the cathode a/nd metallic lithium foil as the anode. Large reversible capacities (up to 850 mAh/g) were achieved for most of the samples. The irreversible capacity loss was less than 180 mAh/g after the first cycle, suggesting that these types of carbon materials are very stable to lithium insertion and de-insertion reactions.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Sandi, G.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A. & Johnson, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department