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Real-time measurements of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil and gas production

Description: Particulate matter emissions and some components of the particles were measured in the exhaust from combustion equipment used in oil and gas production operations near Bakersfield, California. The combustion sources included a 22.5 MW (electric) turbine generator, a 342-Bhp rich-burn spark ignition engine, and a 50 million Btu/h steam generator, all fired using natural gas. The particle components and measurement techniques were as follows: (1) Calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon, and iron were measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), (2) particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected using the charge produced by photoionization, (3) particles having sizes between 0.1 and 7.5 {micro}m were counted using an instrument based on light scattering, and (4) total particulate matter was measured according to US EPA Method 5. Not all of the methods were applied to all of the sources. Measurements were also made in the ambient air near the combustion air inlets to the units, for comparison with the concentrations in the exhaust, but the inlet and outlet measurements were not done simultaneously. Calcium, sodium, and silicon were found in the exhaust from the steam generator at concentrations similar to those in the ambient air near the inlet to the burner. Sodium and silicon were observed in the engine exhaust at levels a factor of four higher than their concentrations in the air. The principal metal observed in the engine exhaust was calcium, a component of the lubricating oil, at a concentration of 11.6 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The air entering the gas turbine is filtered, so the average concentrations of metals in the turbine exhaust under steady operating conditions were even lower than in the air. During start-up following a shut-down to wash the turbine, silicon and iron were the major species in the stack, at concentrations of 6.4 and 16.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. A ...
Date: December 10, 1998
Creator: Hahn, D. w.; Hencken, K. r.; Johnsen, H. A.; Ross, J. R. & Walsh, P. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance testing of a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) based continuous metal emissions monitor at a pyrolytic waste treatment facility

Description: A program was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories to develop and demonstrate an advanced continuous emissions monitor that will provide realtime measurement of metal emissions in the wastestreams of thermal treatment facilities. This effort led to the development of a prototype metals monitor based on an optical technique referred to as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The measurements are performed in situ, and are both noninvasive and real-time. The automated software incorporates a new conditional analysis algorithm that utilizes single particle detection. The metal emissions monitor was tested during March 1997 at a pilot scale pyrolytic waste processing facility in Santa Fe Springs, California. This report describes the field test, including the monitor installation, test cycle, and overall instrument performance. The Clean Air Act metals chromium and manganese were recorded at concentrations from approximately 2 to 5 parts per billion. Iron was recorded at concentrations from 40 to 140 parts per billion. The overall accuracy was in very good agreement with contracted EPA Reference Method 29 results. Overall, the LIBS-based metals monitor performed exceptionally well on a waste treatment facility with very low metal emissions levels. 19 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs.
Date: July 1997
Creator: Hahn, D. W.; Hencken, K. R. & Johnsen, H. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and fabrication of 33 GHz high-gradient accelerator sections

Description: As part of a two-beam accelerator research program /similar to/33 GHz accelerator sections have been designed and fabricated by both the machined-and-brazed technique and the electroforming technique. These procedures are summarized in this paper. Special requirements included a filling time of about 14 ns, +- 1.25 ..mu..m dimensional tolerances, input VSWR less than or equal to1.10, radial vacuum pumping for each cell, and a capability for a 200--300 MV/m accelerating gradient. A 34-cavity, 2..pi../3 mode, quasi-constant gradient, v/sub p/ = c, /similar to/10 cm-long, disc-loaded waveguide structure design and chosen with optimized sidewall input/output iris couplers. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Date: June 1, 1988
Creator: Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Johnsen, H.A.; Farmer, J.C.; Kelley, W.K.; Steffani, C.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tunable diode lasers as continuous emission monitors for thermal waste treatment processes

Description: In this paper the ongoing program to develop and apply a family of on-line process monitors is described. This technique detects molecular gas-phase species by optical absorption using vibrational transitions in the near-infrared region. Near-infrared, tunable diode lasers are used that emit extremely narrow, single-mode radiation. Current efforts include laboratory work to identify the optimum absorption lines for the molecular species of interest. Sensors based on tunable diode lasers are being developed in parallel with this scoping work. One such instrument, designed to monitor ammonia, has been constructed and field-tested; its specification and performance are discussed.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Allendorf, S. W.; Ottesen, D. K.; Johnsen, H. A.; Wang, J.; Frish, M. D.; Trembley, D. G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Defense/Department of Energy joint demilitarization technology demonstration program executive summary of Phase II demonstrations: The low-pressure rocket motor burns in X-Tunnel

Description: Three low-pressure rocket motor burn tests were executed in May--June 1997 time frame at the X-tunnel complex located on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Bellow, B. W.; Moeller, A. E.; Steele, D.; Williams, S. M.; Heinle, R. L.; Pruneda, C. O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department