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Final Report of Project Nanometer Structures for Fuel Cells and Displays, etc.

Description: Low-energy ion beam bombardment induced self-assembly has been used to form various periodic nano-size wave-ordered structures (WOS). Such WOS can be used as hard etching masks to produce nanowire arrays, trenches etc., on other materials by means of traditional etching or ion sputtering. These periodic nano-size structures have a wide range of applications, including flat panel displays, optical electronics, and clean energy technologies (solar and fuel cells, lithium batteries). In order to achieve high throughput of the above processes, a large area RF-driven multicusp nitrogen ion source has been developed for the application of nitrogen ion beam induced surface modification. An integrated ion beam system, which can house either a large area RF-driven multicusp ion source or a commercially available microwave ion source (Roth & Rau AG Tamiris 400-f) have been designed, manufactured, assembled, and tested.
Date: December 15, 2011
Creator: Ji, Qing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

Description: As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O{sub 2}{sup +}, BF{sub 2}{sup +}, P{sup +} etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF{sub 2}{sup +}, over 90% of O{sub 2}{sup +} and P{sup +} have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He{sup +} beam is as high as 440 A/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O{sub 2}{sup +} ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O{sub 2}{sup +} ions with the dose of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si ...
Date: March 10, 2003
Creator: Ji, Qing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of a RF-Driven Ion Source for a Neutron Generator Used For Associated Particle Imaging

Description: We present recent work on a prototype compact neutron generator for associated particle imaging (API). API uses alpha particles that are produced simultaneously with neutrons in the deuterium-tritium (2D(3T,n)4 alpha) fusion reaction to determine the direction of the neutrons upon exiting the reaction. This method determines the spatial position of each neutron interaction and requires the neutrons to be generated from a small spot in order to achieve high spatial resolution. The ion source for API is designed to produce a focused ion beam with a beam spot diameter of 1-mm or less on the target. We use an axial type neutron generator with a predicted neutron yield of 108 n/s for a 50 muA D/T ion beam current accelerated to 80 kV. The generator utilizes a RF planar spiral antenna at 13.56 MHz to create a highly efficient inductively-coupled plasma at the ion source. Experimental results show that beams with an atomic ion fraction of over 80percent can be obtained while utilizing only 100 watts of RF power in the ion source. A single acceleration gap with a secondary electron suppression electrode is used in the tube. Experimental results, such as the current density, atomic ion fraction, electron temperature, and electron density, from ion source testing will be discussed.
Date: August 8, 2008
Creator: Wu, Ying; Hurley, John P.; Ji, Qing; Kwan, Joe & Leung, Ka-Ngo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formation of Nanopore-Arrays by Plasma-based Thin FilmDeposition

Description: The ability to fabricate membranes with arrays of apertures only a few nanometers in diameter are important to many fields of research, including ion beam lithography, DNA sequencing, single ion implantations, and single molecule studies. Because even the state-of-the-art lithography tools are limited in their ability to produce nanoscale features, alternative methods of fabricating single pores of nanometer scale have been developed, using ion-beam sculpting and focused-ion-beam assisted deposition. However, these methods cannot simultaneously produce multiple holes of nanometer dimension. Here we report a means of forming arrays of nanopores simultaneously on a thin, solid-state membrane using plasma-based thin-film deposition. By depositing layers of metallic thin films, the aperture sizes of pores in a pre-fabricated membrane can be reduced from a couple of micrometers down to tens of nanometers and even smaller. The technique offers a way to reduce the sizes of aperture of any shape in a variety of substrate materials, both conducting and insulating. Such arrays of nanopores can serve as membrane channels for DNA sequencing, as masks in ion-beam imprinters, for the fabrication of quantum dots, and in other applications.
Date: March 18, 2005
Creator: Ji, Qing; Chen, Y.; Jiang, Ximan; Ji, Lili & Leung, K.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INITIAL EVALUATION OF A PULSED WHITE SPECTRUM NEUTRON GENERATOR FOR EXPLOSIVE DETECTION

Description: Successful explosive material detection in luggage and similar sized containers is acritical issue in securing the safety of all airline passengers. Tensor Technology Inc. has recently developed a methodology that will detect explosive compounds with pulsed fast neutron transmission spectroscopy. In this scheme, tritium beams will be used to generate neutrons with a broad energy spectrum as governed by the T(t,2n)4He fission reaction that produces 0-9 MeV neutrons. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with Tensor Technology Inc., has designedand fabricated a pulsed white-spectrum neutron source for this application. The specifications of the neutron source are demanding and stringent due to the requirements of high yield and fast pulsing neutron emission, and sealed tube, tritium operation. In a unique co-axial geometry, the ion source uses ten parallel rf induction antennas to externally couple power into a toroidal discharge chamber. There are 20 ion beam extraction slits and 3 concentric electrode rings to shape and accelerate the ion beam into a titanium cone target. Fast neutron pulses are created by using a set ofparallel-plate deflectors switching between +-1500 volts and deflecting the ion beams across a narrow slit. The generator is expected to achieve 5 ns neutron pulses at tritium ion beam energies between 80 - 120 kV. First experiments demonstrated ion source operation and successful beam pulsing.
Date: June 2, 2008
Creator: King, Michael J.; Miller, Gill T.; Reijonen, Jani; Ji, Qing; Andresen, Nord; Gicquel,, Frederic et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conformal Deep Trench Coating with both Conducting and InsulatingMaterials

Description: A thin film coating system has been developed for deposition of both conductive and insulating material. The system employs an RF discharge plasma source with four straight RF antennas, which is made of or covered with the deposition material, thus serving simultaneously as a sputtering target. The average deposition rate of the copper thin film can be as high as 500 nm/min when operated in CW mode. Film properties under different plasma conditions have been investigated experimentally. By adjusting RF power, gas pressure, duty factor, and substrate biasing conditions, several thin film coating schemes can be achieved, one of which has been demonstrated to be suitable for conformal deep trench coating. Conformal coating over trenches of high aspect ratio (>6:1) has been demonstrated at both micron and submicron scales.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Ji, Lili; Kim, Jung-Kuk; Ji, Qing; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Chen, Ye & Gough, Rick A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department