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Photovoltaic Czochralski silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1993--31 March 1994

Description: This report describes work performed under a 3-year, 3-phase, cost-share contract to demonstrate significant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The objective of the program is to reduce costs in photovoltaic manufacturing by approximately 10% per year. The work was focused in three main areas: (1) silicon crystal growth and thin wafer technology; (2) silicon cell processing; and (3) silicon module fabrication and environmental, safety, and health issues. During this reporting period, several significant improvements were achieved. The crystal growing operation improved significantly with an increase in growth capacity due to larger crucibles, higher polysilicon packing density, and high pull speeds. Wafer processing with wire saws progressed rapidly, and the operation is completely converted to wire saw wafer processing. The wire saws yield almost 50% more wafers per inch in production, thus improving manufacturing volume by 50% without any additional expense in crystal growth. Cell processing improvements focused on better understanding the contact paste and firing processes. Module designs for lower material and labor costs began with the focus on a new junction box, larger modules with larger cells, and a less costly framing technique. In addition, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) usage was completely eliminated in the Siemens manufacturing facility during this period, resulting in significant reductions in the cost of caustic waste treatment.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Jester, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Specific PVMaT R&D on Siemens Cz silicon product manufacturing: Annual Subcontract Report, June 1998 -- June 1999

Description: This report describes work done by Siemens Solar Industries (SSI) from June 1998 to June 1999 during Phase 1 of a three-phase Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT 5A2) subcontract from DOE/NREL. The work focuses on improvements in the cost per watt of Cz modules and improved PV module manufacturing technology. The first step toward reducing cost was to reduce wafer thickness. The approach has been a two-step reduction in thickness, from 385 microns to 250 micron cells, and then from 250 microns to 125 micron cells during Phase II. During Phase I, the handling tools, the back-surface-field process, and the confirmation of the environmental integrity of thinner wafers have all been accomplished. Cells with efficiency over 15.5% have been demonstrated in high-volume production. SSI has initiated the development and growth of 200-mm ingot to be fabricated into wafers and eventually cells. Cell and module production with 200-mm cells will begin during Phase II. Hazardous waste reduction has been attacked in two ways. The largest consumable item aside from polysilicon is silicon carbide (SiC) used in the wafer-slicing process. This SiC use has been reduced significantly through recycling and re-use. This program approach is well under way at SSI, with more than 25% of the SiC used being recycled. The largest hazardous waste volume at SSI is the caustic waste generated in the wafer etching processes. The reduction of this waste will be accomplished using subcontractors with extensive environmental compliance experience such that the solution is driven by best available techniques, lowering operating cost as a secondary motive. These three areas of focus thinner cells, larger cells and modules, and hazardous waste reduction have the potential to reduce cost by about 30% per watt. This first phase of large 150-mm-thinner 250-micron cells has demonstrated a potential for 10% cost reduction, with the ...
Date: April 24, 2000
Creator: Jester, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 April 1994--30 September 1994

Description: This describes work done in the final phase of a 3-y, 3-phase contract to demonstrate cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects in the SSI (Siemens Solar Industries) Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, CA; the final phase was concentrated in areas of crystal growth, wafer technology, and environmental, safety, and health issues. During this period: (1) The crystal-growing operation improved with increased growth capacity. (2) Wafer processing with wire saws continued to progress; the wire saws yielded almost 50% more wafers per inch in production. The wire saws needs less etching, too. (3) Cell processing improvements focused on better handling and higher mechanical yield. The cell electrical distribution improved with a smaller standard deviation in the distribution. (4) Module designs for lower material and labor costs continued, with focus on a new junction box, larger modules with larger cells, and less costly framing techniques. Two modules demonstrating these cost reductions were delivered during this phase.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Jester, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Final subcontract report, April 1, 1992--May 31, 1995

Description: This report describes work performed by Siemens Solar Industries (SSI) under a 3-year, three-phase, cost-shared contract to demonstrate significant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects for implementation in the SSI Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, California. The work was undertaken to increase the commercial viability and volume of photovoltaic manufacturing by evaluating the most significant cost categories and then lowering the cost of each item through experimentation, materials refinement, and better industrial engineering.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Jester, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements; Final Subcontract Report, 9 November 1995 - 8 November 1998

Description: This report describes work that focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Siemens Solar Industries' (SSI) DOE/NREL Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) 4A subcontract. SSI researchers deployed new module designs, realized improvements in yield of more than 25%, and implemented statistical process control (SPC). They have described yield improvements in detail and reported on the deployment of SPC in critical process steps. The sum of all improvements resulted in a greater than 17% cost per watt reduction in manufacturing.
Date: June 17, 1999
Creator: Jester, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

Description: This report describes work performed under a 3-year contract to demonstrate significant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects for implementation in the Siemens Solar Industries Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, California. The work was undertaken to increase the commercial viability and volume of photovoltaic manufacturing by evaluating the most significant cost categories and then lowering the cost of each item through experimentation, materials refinement, and better industrial engineering. The initial phase of the program concentrated on the areas of crystal growth; wafer technology; and environmental, safety, and health issues.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Jester, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 April 1993--30 September 1993

Description: This report describes work performed under a 3-year contract to demonstrate signfficant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused an near-term projects for implementation in the Siemens Solar Industries (SSI) Czochralski (CZ) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, California, and was undertaken to increase the commercial viability and volume of photovoltaic manufacturing by evaluating the most significant cost categories and then lowering the cost of each Rem through experimentation, materials refinement, and better industrial engineering. During this reporting period, several significant improvements were achieved. (1) The crystal-growing operation improved with an increase in growth capacity. Higher growing throughput was demonstrated with larger crucibles, higher polysilicon packing density, and higher pull speeds. (2) The operation was completely converted to wire-saw wafer processing. The wire saws yield over 40% more wafers per inch in production. The capacity improvement generated by wire saws increased overall manufacturing volume by more than 40% without additional expenses in cyrstal growth. (3) Cell processing improvements focused on better understanding of the contact paste and firing processes. (4) Module designs for lower material and labor costs began with the focus on a new junction box, larger modules with larger cells, and less costly framing technique. CFC usage was completely eliminated in the SSI manufacturing facility during this phase of the contract.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Jester, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated Manufacturing of High Efficiency Modules: Final Subcontract Technical Status Report, 21 March 2005 - 31 August 2007

Description: SunPower Corp. describes its research to develop low-cost, next-generation SunPower modules with 30-year warranties and at least 50% higher energy production per area relative to today's typical multicrystalline Si modules.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Rose, D.; Jester, T. & Bunea, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on advanced photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Final subcontract report, March 1, 1991--June 4, 1991

Description: This report outlines opportunities for significantly advancing the scale and economy of high-volume manufacturing of high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) modules. We propose to pursue a concurrent effort to advance existing crystalline silicon module manufacturing technology and to implement thin film CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) module manufacturing. This combination of commercial-scale manufacturing of high-efficiency crystalline silicon modules and of pilot-scale manufacturing of low-cost thin film CIS technology will support continued, rapid growth of the US PV industry.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Jester, T. & Eberspacher, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

Description: Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Jester, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on advanced photovoltaic manufacturing technology

Description: This report outlines opportunities for significantly advancing the scale and economy of high-volume manufacturing of high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) modules. We propose to pursue a concurrent effort to advance existing crystalline silicon module manufacturing technology and to implement thin film CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) module manufacturing. This combination of commercial-scale manufacturing of high-efficiency crystalline silicon modules and of pilot-scale manufacturing of low-cost thin film CIS technology will support continued, rapid growth of the US PV industry.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Jester, T. & Eberspacher, C. (Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic Cz silicon module improvements. Annual technical progress report, November 9, 1995--November 8, 1996

Description: Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries` DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modulus to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W. & Jester, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department