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Determining surface profile from sequential interference patterns from a long trace profiler

Description: The Long Trace Profiler (Takacs et al.) is a slope-measuring instrument which was introduced several years ago. Development of this instrument continues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in improving both hardware design and software algorithms for turning the raw interference data (a sequence of intensity patterns) into properly interpreted representations of surface slope and height. This report presents a mathematical model of the interference pattern and methods of extracting the slope and height profile from such patterns. 9 refs.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Irick, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Error reduction techniques for measuring long synchrotron mirrors

Description: Many instruments and techniques are used for measuring long mirror surfaces. A Fizeau interferometer may be used to measure mirrors much longer than the interferometer aperture size by using grazing incidence at the mirror surface and analyzing the light reflected from a flat end mirror. Advantages of this technique are data acquisition speed and use of a common instrument. Disadvantages are reduced sampling interval, uncertainty of tangential position, and sagittal/tangential aspect ratio other than unity. Also, deep aspheric surfaces cannot be measured on a Fizeau interferometer without a specially made fringe nulling holographic plate. Other scanning instruments have been developed for measuring height, slope, or curvature profiles of the surface, but lack accuracy for very long scans required for X-ray synchrotron mirrors. The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) was developed specifically for long x-ray mirror measurement, and still outperforms other instruments, especially for aspheres. Thus, this paper focuses on error reduction techniques for the LTP.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Irick, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of three different ray trace programs for x-ray and infrared synchrotron beamline designs

Description: There are a number of ray trace programs currently used for the design of synchrotron beamlines. While several of these programs have been written and used mostly within the programmer`s institution, many have also been available to the general public. This paper discusses three such programs. One is a commercial product oriented for the general optical designer (not specifically for synchrotron beamlines). One is designed for synchrotron beamlines and is free with restricted availability. Finally, one is designed for synchrotron beamlines and is used primarily in one institution. The wealth of information from general optical materials and components catalogs is readily available in the commercial program for general optical designs. This makes the design of an infrared beamline easier from the standpoint of component selection. However, this program is not easily configured for synchrotron beamline designs, particularly for a bending magnet source. The synchrotron ray trace programs offer a variety of sources, but generally are not as easy to use from the standpoint of the user interface. This paper shows ray traces of the same beamline Optikwerks, SHADOW, and RAY, and compares the results.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Irick, S.C. & Jung, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of diffraction gratings with a long trace profiler with applications for synchrotron beamline gratings

Description: The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is used primarily for measuring the figure of long synchrotron beamline mirrors. The LTP has also been used for measuring the figure of the substrate of beamline gratings. We propose a method for measuring the effective figure that comes from the gratings groove pattern on the substrate of long beamline gratings. Analysis of gratings groove patterns can be useful in determining cause of poor imaging of the diffracted light, but requires investigation of small changes of the groove frequency over the entire clear aperture of the grating. A diffraction grating that is small enough to be measured by a general purpose six inch aperture interferometer is measured by both this interferometer and the LTP, so that results for two different instruments may be compared. The height profile of the substrate light (m = 0) measurement is subtracted from the height profile of the diffracted light (m = 1) measurement, and the result is the effect of only the diffraction f rom the grooves along the entire surface. This procedure is also used for a diffraction grating that is too long to be measured by the general purpose interferometer, but is easily measured by the LTP.
Date: June 1997
Creator: Irick, S.C. & McKinney, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New schemes in the adjustment of bendable, elliptical mirrors using a long trace profiler

Description: The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), an instrument for measuring the slope profile of long X-ray mirrors, has been used for adjusting bendable mirrors. Often an elliptical profile is desired for the mirror surface, since many synchrotron applications involve imaging a point source to a point image. Several techniques have been used in the past for adjusting the profile measured in height or slope of a bendable mirror. Underwood et al. have used collimated X-rays for achieving desired surface shape for bent glass optics. Non linear curve fitting using the simplex algorithm was later used to determine the best fit ellipse to the surface under test. A more recent method uses a combination of least squares polynomial fitting to the measured slope function in order to enable rapid adjustment to the desired shape. The mirror has mechanical adjustments corresponding to the first and second order terms of the desired slope polynomial, which correspond to defocus and coma, respectively. The higher order terms are realized by shaping the width of the mirror to produce the optimal elliptical surface when bent. The difference between desired and measured surface slope profiles allows us to make methodical adjustments to the bendable mirror based on changes in the signs and magnitudes of the polynomial coefficients. This technique gives rapid convergence to the desired shape of the measured surface, even when we have no information about the bender, other than the desired shape of the optical surface. Nonlinear curve fitting can be used at the end of the process for fine adjustments, and to determine the over all best fit parameters of the surface. This technique could be generalized to other shapes such as toroids.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Rah, S.; Locklin, S.; Irick, S. & Howells, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advancements in one-dimensional profiling with a long trace profiler

Description: Over the last several years the long trace profiler (LTP) has been evolving into a sophisticated machine capable of measuring surface profiles of very long dimensions. This report explains improvements, both hardware and software, that have helped to achieve accuracies and ranges in surface profiling that have been unobtainable until now. A comparison made by measuring standard optical surfaces on other instruments corroborates these accuracies.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Irick, S.C. & McKinney, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In this work, we investigate the effect of air convection on laser-beam pointing noise essential for the long trace profiler (LTP). We describe this pointing error with noise power density (NPD) frequency distributions. It is shown that the NPD spectra due to air convection have a very characteristic form. In the range of frequencies from {approx}0.05 Hz to {approx}0.5 Hz, the spectra can be modeled with an inverse-power-law function. Depending on the intensity of air convection that is controlled with a resistive heater of 100 to 150 mW along a one-meter-long optical path, the power index lies between 2 and 3 at an overall rms noise of {approx}0.5 to 1 microradian. The efficiency of suppression of the convection noise by blowing air across the beam optical path is also discussed. Air-blowing leads to a white-noise-like spectrum. Air blowing was applied to the reference channel of an LTP allowing demonstration of the contribution of air convection noise to the LTP reference beam. The ability to change (with the blowing technique presented) the spectral characteristics of the beam pointing noise due to air convection allows one to investigate the contribution of the convection effect, and thus make corrections to the power spectral density spectra measured with the LTP.
Date: August 14, 2006
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The construction and performance of a one-meter-long elliptically bent steel mirror

Description: An elliptically bent mirror of total length 1.25 m has been developed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) for focusing soft x-rays. The mirror is used to produce a small, high flux density illuminated field of view for a Photo Emission Electron Microscope (PEEM). The requirement to collect the maximum horizontal aperture with the need to highly demagnify the source leads to a mirror with a wide range of curvatures along the surface. This combined with the need to produce a low slope error surface at a reasonably low cost has required the authors to develop a mirror based on the controlled bending of a flat substrate. This is an extension of several other mirror projects at the ALS where controlled bending of glass and metal substrates has been used in microfocusing applications. Those mirrors however are a maximum of 200 mm long, and in this paper they describe the new challenges they have faced and the solutions they have adopted in developing a long and highly elliptical mirror. The mirror described here is manufactured from a low carbon steel (1006) which is capable of good dimensional stability, it is electroless nickel plated for polishing, and is bent into an elliptical shape by the application of unequal couples. They describe the mirror fabrication process, the mechanical details of the bending mechanism and the experimentally measured slope error from an ellipse. The final mirror has an rms roughness of 6{angstrom} (rms), a full aperture (1.1 m) slope error of 14 {micro}rad (rms), and a slope error of < 3 {micro} rad when optimized over approximately 2/3 of the required optical length (0.917 m).
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Renner, T.R.; Franck, K.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Padmore, H.A. & Rah, S.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending

Description: Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Padmore, H. A.; Howells, M. R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R. & Koo, Y.-M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

Description: The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.
Date: October 28, 1991
Creator: McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)) & Lunt, D.L.J. (Tucson Optical Research Corp., AZ (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using a straightness reference in obtaining more accurate surface profiles from a Long Trace Profiler

Description: The Long Trace Profiler has found significant applications in measuring the surfaces of synchrotron optics. However, requirements of small slope errors at all spatial wavelengths of the synchrotron optics mandate more accurate slope measurements. A straightness reference for the Long Trace Profiler greatly increases the accuracy of the instrument. Methods of using the straightness reference by interpreting the sequential interference patterns are discussed and results of measurements are presented.
Date: July 15, 1991
Creator: Irick, S.C.; McKinney, W.R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Lunt, D.L.J. (Tucson Optical Research Corp., AZ (United States)) & Takacs, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Instrumentation Div.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department