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ENergy and Power Evaluation Program

Description: In the late 1970s, national and international attention began to focus on energy issues. Efforts were initiated to design and test analytical tools that could be used to assist energy planners in evaluating energy systems, particularly in developing countries. In 1984, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory`s Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) to incorporate a set of analytical tools into a personal computer-based package for distribution in developing countries. The package developed by DIS staff, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), covers the range of issues that energy planners must face: economic development, energy demand projections, supply-and-demand balancing, energy system expansion, and environmental impact analysis. Following the original DOE-supported development effort, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the assistance from the US Department of State (DOS) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), provided ENPEP training, distribution, and technical support to many countries. ENPEP is now in use in over 60 countries and is an international standard for energy planning tools. More than 500 energy experts have been trained in the use of the entire ENPEP package or some of its modules during the international training courses organized by the IAEA in collaboration with Argonne`s Decision and Information Sciences (DIS) Division and the Division of Educational Programs (DEP). This report contains the ENPEP program which can be download from the internet. Described in this report is the description of ENPEP Program, news, forums, online support and contacts.
Date: November 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Support Program tasks

Description: In the fall of 1993, President Clinton announced before the United Nations General Assembly, that the US would voluntarily offer excess fissile material of weapons origin to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. There are presently five US Support Program tasks at work. Three are complete, and two are underway. Reports are available from two of the completed SP-1s; a draft is in preparation for the third. These tasks are: (1) plutonium scrap multiplicity counter at Hanford; (2) calorimeter authentication at Hanford; (3) large neutron multiplicity counter at Rocky Flats; (4) calorimeter authentication at Rocky Flats; and (5) safeguards approach support at the APSF, SRS. The status of the first four tasks above is described here. Information on the work at Savannah River is contained in a separate paper.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Langner, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Volume calibration for nuclear materials control: ANSI N15.19-1989 and beyond

Description: Since the last IAEA International Safeguards Symposium, a revised standard for volume calibration methodology was issued in the United States. Because the new standard reflects the advent of high-precision volume measurement technology, it is significantly different from the earlier standard which it supersedes. The new standard outlines a unified data standardization model that applies to process tanks equipped with differential pressure measurement systems for determining liquid content. At the heart of the model is an algorithm to determine liquid height from pressure measurements that accounts for the major factors affecting the accuracy of those measurements. The standardization model also contains algorithms that adjust data from volumetric and gravimetric provers to a standard set of reference conditions. A key component of the standardization model is an algorithm to take account of temperature-induced dimensional changes in the tank. Improved methods for the statistical treatment of calibration data have also appeared since the last Safeguards Symposium. A statistical method of alignment has been introduced that employs a least-squares criterion to determine ``optimal`` alignment factors. More importantly, a statistical model has been proposed that yields plausible estimates of the variance of height and volume measurements when significant run-to-run differences are present in the calibration data. The new standardization model and statistical methods described here are being implemented in a portable, user-friendly software program for use by IAEA inspectors and statisticians. Perhaps these methods will eventually find their way into appropriate international standards.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Liebetrau, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The meeting of specialists on sodium-water reactions was the first of its kind within the framework of activity of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). The meeting was held at Argonne and participants from five countries took part. The report includes the summary, agenda, participants list, and various reports given at the meeting.
Date: October 31, 1970
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers

Description: The International Atomic Energy Agency`s Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (1) peak-shift experiments and (2) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 187}Re, and {sup 238}U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multidetector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions. A single detector efficiency factor is not recommended for each detector that would be used to correct routine sample analyses. An alternative three-run peak-shift sample analysis should be considered. A statistical analysis of the data from this peak-shift experiment can adjust the isotopic ratio estimates for detector differences due to each sample analysis.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Bayne, C. K.; Donohue, D. L. & Fiedler, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotopic distributions, element ratios, and element mass fractions from enrichment-meter-type gamma-ray measurements of MOX

Description: The gamma-ray spectra from infinitely'' thick mixed oxide samples have been measured. The plutonium isotopics, the U/Pu ratio, the high-Z mass fractions (assuming only plutonium, uranium, and americium), and the low-Z mass fraction (assuming the matrix is only oxygen) can be determined by carefully analyzing the data. The results agree well with the chemical determination of these parameters. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Close, D.A.; Parker, J.L.; Haycock, D.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)) & Dragnev, T. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering design of the ITER RF systems

Description: Parallel conceptual design efforts for auxiliary heating systems on ITER are being carried out in both the electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ECRF) and ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). These systems are required to deliver a minimum of 50 MW of CW power to the plasma for the primary purpose of heating and the secondary purpose of current drive. Current designs of the two systems are presented and the primary design issues are discussed.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Makowski, M.; Bosia, G.; Nagashima, T. & Remsen, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of core damage frequency: Nuclear power plant Dukovany, VVER/440 V-213 Unit 1, internal events. Volume 1: Main report

Description: This report presents the final results from the Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the Dukovany VVER/440 V-213 nuclear power plant, Unit 1. Section 1.1 describes the objectives of this study. Section 1.2 discusses the approach that was used for completing the Dukovany PSA. Section 1.3 summarizes the results of the PSA. Section 1.4 provides a comparison of the results of the Dukovany PSA with the results of other PSAs for different types of reactors worldwide. Section 1.5 summarizes the conclusions of the Dukovany PSA.
Date: December 21, 1994
Creator: Pugila, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-vessel tritium retention and removal in ITER

Description: The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is envisioned to be the next major step in the world`s fusion program from the present generation of tokamaks and is designed to study fusion plasmas with a reactor relevant range of plasma parameters. During normal operation, it is expected that a fraction of the unburned tritium, that is used to routinely fuel the discharge, will be retained together with deuterium on the surfaces and in the bulk of the plasma facing materials (PFMs) surrounding the core and divertor plasma. The understanding of he basic retention mechanisms (physical and chemical) involved and their dependence upon plasma parameters and other relevant operation conditions is necessary for the accurate prediction of the amount of tritium retained at any given time in the ITER torus. Accurate estimates are essential to assess the radiological hazards associated with routine operation and with potential accident scenarios which may lead to mobilization of tritium that is not tenaciously held. Estimates are needed to establish the detritiation requirements for coolant water, to determine the plasma fueling and tritium supply requirements, and to establish the needed frequency and the procedures for tritium recovery and clean-up. The organization of this paper is as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the design and operating conditions of the main components which define the plasma boundary of ITER. Section 3 reviews the erosion database and the results of recent relevant experiments conducted both in laboratory facilities and in tokamaks. These data provide the experimental basis and serve as an important benchmark for both model development (discussed in Section 4) and calculations (discussed in Section 5) that are required to predict tritium inventory build-up in ITER. Section 6 emphasizes the need to develop and test methods to remove the tritium from the codeposited C-based films and reviews ...
Date: June 1998
Creator: Federici, G.; Anderl, R. A. & Andrew, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proof-of-principle measurements for an NDA-based core discharge monitor

Description: The feasibility of using nondestructive assay instruments as a core discharge monitor for CANDU reactors was investigated at the Ontario Hydro Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Unit 3, in Ontario, Canada. The measurements were made to determine if radiation signatures from discharged irradiated fuel could be measured unambiguously and used to count the number of fuel pushes from a reactor face. Detectors using the ({gamma},n) reaction thresholds of beryllium and deuterium collected the data, but data from shielded and unshielded ion chambers were collected as well. The detectors were placed on a fueling trolley that carried the fueling machine between the reactors and the central service area. A microprocessor-based electronics system (the GRAND-I, which also resided on the trolley) provided detector biases and preamplifier power and acquired and transferred the data. It was connected by an RS-232 serial link to a lap-top computer adjacent to the fueling control console in the main-reactor control room. The lap-top computer collected and archived the data on a 3.5-in. floppy disk. The results clearly showed such an approach to be a adaptable as a core discharge monitor. 4 refs., 8 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Halbig, J. K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)) & Monticone, A. C. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Postirradiation examination of a low enriched U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al fuel element manufactured and irradiated at Batan, Indonesia

Description: The first low-enriched U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion plate-type fuel element produced at the Nuclear Fuel Element Center, BATAN, Indonesia, was irradiated to a peak {sup 235}U burnup of 62%. Postirradiation examinations performed to data shows the irradiation behavior of this element to be similar to that of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al plate-type fuel produced and tested at other institutions. The main effect of irradiation on the fuel plates is a thickness increase of 30--40 {mu}m (2.5-3.0%). This thickness increase is almost entirely due to the formation of a corrosion layer (Boehmite). The contribution of fuel swelling to the thickness increase is rather small (less than 10 {mu}m) commensurate with the burnup of the fuel and the relatively moderate as-fabricated fuel volume fraction of 27% in the fuel meat.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Suripto, A.; Sugondo, S.; Nasution, H. & Hofman, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The IAEA neutron coincidence counting (INCC) and the DEMING least-squares fitting programs

Description: Two computer programs are described: (1) the INCC (IAEA or International Neutron Coincidence Counting) program and (2) the DEMING curve-fitting program. The INCC program is an IAEA version of the Los Alamos NCC (Neutron Coincidence Counting) code. The DEMING program is an upgrade of earlier Windows{reg_sign} and DOS codes with the same name. The versions described are INCC 3.00 and DEMING 1.11. The INCC and DEMING codes provide inspectors with the software support needed to perform calibration and verification measurements with all of the neutron coincidence counting systems used in IAEA inspections for the nondestructive assay of plutonium and uranium.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Krick, M.S.; Harker, W.C.; Rinard, P.M.; Wenz, T.R.; Lewis, W.; Pham, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

Description: Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F. & Ebel, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of some optical model potentials in predicting neutron cross sections

Description: Optical model potential parameters play an important role in the evaluation of nuclear data for applied purposes. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on {open_quotes}Reference Input Parameter Library for Evaluation of Nuclear Data for Application in Nuclear Technology{close_quotes} aims to release a reference input file of various types of parameters for the evaluation of nuclear cross sections using nuclear model codes. Included in the parameter files are a collection of optical model potentials that are available in the literature to evaluate these cross sections. As part of this research program we assess the applicability of these potentials over a range of target mass and projectile energy.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Kumar, A.; Young, P.G. & Chadwick, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

Description: This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist`s Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately.
Date: October 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison between calorimeter and HLNC errors

Description: This paper summarizes an error analysis that compares systematic and random errors of total plutonium mass estimated for high-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNC) and calorimeter measurements. This task was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study on the comparison of the two instruments to determine if HLNC measurement errors met IAEA standards and if the calorimeter gave significantly'' better precision. Our analysis was based on propagation of error models that contained all known sources of errors including uncertainties associated with plutonium isotopic measurements. 5 refs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Goldman, A.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); De Ridder, P. & Laszlo, G. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HLNC calibration and application to waste measurement

Description: Using the established equations governing the counts and the underlying nuclear parameters involved in neutron coincidence measurements, the calibration procedure used in calculating the effective Pu{sup 240} mass in plutonium bearing samples is carefully reexamined and restructured in a physically and mathematically consistent form. The characteristics of this approach are described and its application to existing data illustrated. The implications for waste measurements are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); De Ridder, P.M. & Delegard, C. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron activation cross sections for copper, europium, hafnium, iron, nickel, silver, terbium and titanium from the Argonne, Los Alamos and Jaeri collaboration

Description: Several fast-neutron activation reactions for copper, europium, hafnium, iron, nickel, silver, terbium and titanium that are important to fusion energy have been investigated in three distinct neutron fields generated by accelerators at Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA, and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Japan. Final differential cross-sections at 14.7 MeV and integral cross sections for the Be(d,n) thick-target spectrum produced by 7-MeV deutrons are reported here. Data have also been acquired for neutron energies near 10 MeV. However, these latter results will be made available after problems associated with determining the neutron-energy scale and interpreting the quasi-differential cross-sections measured near threshold are resolved.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Meadows, J.W.; Smith, D.L.; Greenwood, L.R.; Haight, R.C.; Ideda, Y. & Konno, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results from the Argonne, Los Alamos, JAERI collaboration

Description: Four sample packets containing elemental Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Nb, Ag, Eu, Tb and Hf have been irradiated in three distinct accelerator neutron fields, at Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA, and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Japan. The acquired experimental data include differential cross sections and integral cross sections for the continuum neutron spectrum produced by 7-MeV deuterons incident on thick Be-metal target. The U-238(n,f) cross section was also measured at 10.3 MeV as a consistency check on the experimental technique. This the third progress report on a project which has been carried out under the auspices of an IAEA Coordinated Research Program entitled ``Activation Cross Sections for the Generation Of Long-lived Radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology``. The present report provides the latest results from this work. Comparison is made between the 14.7-MeV cross-section values obtained from the separate investigations at Argonne and JAERI. Generally, good agreement observed within the experimental errors when consistent sample parameters, radioactivity decay data and reference cross values are employed. A comparison is also made between the experimental results and those derived from calculations using a nuclear model. Experimental neutron information on the Be(d,n) neutron spectrum was incorporated in the comparisons for the integral results. The agreement is satisfactory considering the various uncertainties that are involved.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Meadows, J.; Smith, D.; Greenwood, L.; Haight, R.; Ikeda, Y. & Konno, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microdosimetry of monoenergetic neutrons

Description: Tissue spheres 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 {mu}m in diameter were simulated using a wall-less spherical counter filled with a propane-based tissue-equivalent gas. Microdosimetric spectra corresponding to these site sizes were measured for five neutron energies (0.22, 0.44, 1.5, 6, and 14 MeV) and the related mean values {bar Y}{sub F} and {bar Y}{sub D} were calculated for several site sizes and neutron energies. An elaborate calibration technique combining soft x-rays, a {sup 55}Fe photon source, and a {sup 244}Cm collimated source of alpha particles was used throughout the measurement. The spectra and their mean values are compared with theoretically calculated values for ICRU tissue. The agreement between the calculated and the measured data is good in spite of a systematic discrepancy, which could be attributed, in part, to the difference in elemental composition between the tissue-equivalent gas and plastic used in the counter, and the ICRU standard tissue used in the calculations.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Srdoc, D. & Marino, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HLNC calibration and application to waste measurement

Description: This paper addresses problems of calibration and estimation of a parameter, p{sub o}, in high level neutron coincidence counting (HLNC) measurement. The presentation begins with a deductive approach, based on the generally accepted physical equations which are satisfied by the total and coincidence count rates. A new approach for the estimation of p{sub o} via measurement and a new calibration procedure consistent with the physical theory of coincidence counting measurement are presented. The approach is compared with the existing conventional approach in which possible inconsistency with the theoretical model is shown. In addition, the original model for neutron coincidence counting in a multiplying medium was extended to simultaneously account for the possible presence of poison, as well as for the neutron detection. The equations suitable for the data analysis of measurement of waste and their criteria are given.
Date: March 4, 1992
Creator: Lu, Ming Shih; Teichmann, T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)) & De Ridder, P. M. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparisons among calibration instruments in the CALDEX accountancy tank calibration

Description: An experiment known as the CALibration Demonstration EXercise (CALDEX) has tested volume, weight, and level measurement instruments in a 12,500-{ell} annular vessel. Data from this experiment were statistically analyzed in the following ways: Data from various high-precision differential pressure gauges, liquid-level determination instruments, and weight devices were analyzed and compared; Incremental inputs to the tank, determined by a high-precision balance and rotary piston meter, were compared with load cell measurements and found to agree; and Data from precision pressure gauges did not vary significantly among gauges; data from capacitive level measurement instruments did not vary either. However, data from the sonic probe were not consistent enough to make comparison meaningful. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Goldman, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); De Ridder, P.; Laszlo, G. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)) & Weh, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hannover (Germany))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the seminar on leak before break in reactor piping and vessels

Description: The objective of the seminar was to present the current state of the art in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology development, validation, and application in an international forum. With particular emphasis on industrial applications and regulatory policies, the seminar provided an opportunity to compare approaches, experiences, and codifications developed by different countries. The seminar was organized into four topic areas: status of LBB applications; technical issues in LBB methodology; complementary requirements (leak detection and inspection); LBB assessment and margins. As a result of this seminar, an improved understanding of LBB gained through sharing of different viewpoints from different countries, permits consideration of: simplified pipe support design and possible elimination of loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) mechanical consequences for specific cases; defense-in-depth type of applications without support modifications; support of safety cases for plants designed without the LOCA hypothesis. In support of these activities, better estimates of the limits to the LBB approach should follow, as well as an improvement in codifying methodologies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Faidy, C. & Gilles, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ITER plasma safety interface models and assessments

Description: Physics models and requirements to be used as a basis for safety analysis studies are developed and physics results motivated by safety considerations are presented for the ITER design. Physics specifications are provided for enveloping plasma dynamic events for Category I (operational event), Category II (likely event), and Category III (unlikely event). A safety analysis code SAFALY has been developed to investigate plasma anomaly events. The plasma response to ex-vessel component failure and machine response to plasma transients are considered.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Uckan, N.A.; Bartels, H-W.; Honda, T.; Putvinski, S.; Amano, T.; Boucher, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department