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ENergy and Power Evaluation Program

Description: In the late 1970s, national and international attention began to focus on energy issues. Efforts were initiated to design and test analytical tools that could be used to assist energy planners in evaluating energy systems, particularly in developing countries. In 1984, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory`s Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) to incorporate a set of analytical tools into a personal computer-based package for distribution in developing countries. The package developed by DIS staff, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), covers the range of issues that energy planners must face: economic development, energy demand projections, supply-and-demand balancing, energy system expansion, and environmental impact analysis. Following the original DOE-supported development effort, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the assistance from the US Department of State (DOS) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), provided ENPEP training, distribution, and technical support to many countries. ENPEP is now in use in over 60 countries and is an international standard for energy planning tools. More than 500 energy experts have been trained in the use of the entire ENPEP package or some of its modules during the international training courses organized by the IAEA in collaboration with Argonne`s Decision and Information Sciences (DIS) Division and the Division of Educational Programs (DEP). This report contains the ENPEP program which can be download from the internet. Described in this report is the description of ENPEP Program, news, forums, online support and contacts.
Date: November 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Support Program tasks

Description: In the fall of 1993, President Clinton announced before the United Nations General Assembly, that the US would voluntarily offer excess fissile material of weapons origin to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. There are presently five US Support Program tasks at work. Three are complete, and two are underway. Reports are available from two of the completed SP-1s; a draft is in preparation for the third. These tasks are: (1) plutonium scrap multiplicity counter at Hanford; (2) calorimeter authentication at Hanford; (3) large neutron multiplicity counter at Rocky Flats; (4) calorimeter authentication at Rocky Flats; and (5) safeguards approach support at the APSF, SRS. The status of the first four tasks above is described here. Information on the work at Savannah River is contained in a separate paper.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Langner, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The meeting of specialists on sodium-water reactions was the first of its kind within the framework of activity of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). The meeting was held at Argonne and participants from five countries took part. The report includes the summary, agenda, participants list, and various reports given at the meeting.
Date: October 31, 1970
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotopic distributions, element ratios, and element mass fractions from enrichment-meter-type gamma-ray measurements of MOX

Description: The gamma-ray spectra from infinitely'' thick mixed oxide samples have been measured. The plutonium isotopics, the U/Pu ratio, the high-Z mass fractions (assuming only plutonium, uranium, and americium), and the low-Z mass fraction (assuming the matrix is only oxygen) can be determined by carefully analyzing the data. The results agree well with the chemical determination of these parameters. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Close, D.A.; Parker, J.L.; Haycock, D.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)) & Dragnev, T. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering design of the ITER RF systems

Description: Parallel conceptual design efforts for auxiliary heating systems on ITER are being carried out in both the electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ECRF) and ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). These systems are required to deliver a minimum of 50 MW of CW power to the plasma for the primary purpose of heating and the secondary purpose of current drive. Current designs of the two systems are presented and the primary design issues are discussed.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Makowski, M.; Bosia, G.; Nagashima, T. & Remsen, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of core damage frequency: Nuclear power plant Dukovany, VVER/440 V-213 Unit 1, internal events. Volume 1: Main report

Description: This report presents the final results from the Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the Dukovany VVER/440 V-213 nuclear power plant, Unit 1. Section 1.1 describes the objectives of this study. Section 1.2 discusses the approach that was used for completing the Dukovany PSA. Section 1.3 summarizes the results of the PSA. Section 1.4 provides a comparison of the results of the Dukovany PSA with the results of other PSAs for different types of reactors worldwide. Section 1.5 summarizes the conclusions of the Dukovany PSA.
Date: December 21, 1994
Creator: Pugila, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-vessel tritium retention and removal in ITER

Description: The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is envisioned to be the next major step in the world`s fusion program from the present generation of tokamaks and is designed to study fusion plasmas with a reactor relevant range of plasma parameters. During normal operation, it is expected that a fraction of the unburned tritium, that is used to routinely fuel the discharge, will be retained together with deuterium on the surfaces and in the bulk of the plasma facing materials (PFMs) surrounding the core and divertor plasma. The understanding of he basic retention mechanisms (physical and chemical) involved and their dependence upon plasma parameters and other relevant operation conditions is necessary for the accurate prediction of the amount of tritium retained at any given time in the ITER torus. Accurate estimates are essential to assess the radiological hazards associated with routine operation and with potential accident scenarios which may lead to mobilization of tritium that is not tenaciously held. Estimates are needed to establish the detritiation requirements for coolant water, to determine the plasma fueling and tritium supply requirements, and to establish the needed frequency and the procedures for tritium recovery and clean-up. The organization of this paper is as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the design and operating conditions of the main components which define the plasma boundary of ITER. Section 3 reviews the erosion database and the results of recent relevant experiments conducted both in laboratory facilities and in tokamaks. These data provide the experimental basis and serve as an important benchmark for both model development (discussed in Section 4) and calculations (discussed in Section 5) that are required to predict tritium inventory build-up in ITER. Section 6 emphasizes the need to develop and test methods to remove the tritium from the codeposited C-based films and reviews ...
Date: June 1998
Creator: Federici, G.; Anderl, R. A. & Andrew, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Postirradiation examination of a low enriched U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al fuel element manufactured and irradiated at Batan, Indonesia

Description: The first low-enriched U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion plate-type fuel element produced at the Nuclear Fuel Element Center, BATAN, Indonesia, was irradiated to a peak {sup 235}U burnup of 62%. Postirradiation examinations performed to data shows the irradiation behavior of this element to be similar to that of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al plate-type fuel produced and tested at other institutions. The main effect of irradiation on the fuel plates is a thickness increase of 30--40 {mu}m (2.5-3.0%). This thickness increase is almost entirely due to the formation of a corrosion layer (Boehmite). The contribution of fuel swelling to the thickness increase is rather small (less than 10 {mu}m) commensurate with the burnup of the fuel and the relatively moderate as-fabricated fuel volume fraction of 27% in the fuel meat.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Suripto, A.; Sugondo, S.; Nasution, H. & Hofman, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The IAEA neutron coincidence counting (INCC) and the DEMING least-squares fitting programs

Description: Two computer programs are described: (1) the INCC (IAEA or International Neutron Coincidence Counting) program and (2) the DEMING curve-fitting program. The INCC program is an IAEA version of the Los Alamos NCC (Neutron Coincidence Counting) code. The DEMING program is an upgrade of earlier Windows{reg_sign} and DOS codes with the same name. The versions described are INCC 3.00 and DEMING 1.11. The INCC and DEMING codes provide inspectors with the software support needed to perform calibration and verification measurements with all of the neutron coincidence counting systems used in IAEA inspections for the nondestructive assay of plutonium and uranium.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Krick, M.S.; Harker, W.C.; Rinard, P.M.; Wenz, T.R.; Lewis, W.; Pham, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

Description: Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F. & Ebel, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of some optical model potentials in predicting neutron cross sections

Description: Optical model potential parameters play an important role in the evaluation of nuclear data for applied purposes. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on {open_quotes}Reference Input Parameter Library for Evaluation of Nuclear Data for Application in Nuclear Technology{close_quotes} aims to release a reference input file of various types of parameters for the evaluation of nuclear cross sections using nuclear model codes. Included in the parameter files are a collection of optical model potentials that are available in the literature to evaluate these cross sections. As part of this research program we assess the applicability of these potentials over a range of target mass and projectile energy.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Kumar, A.; Young, P.G. & Chadwick, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron activation cross sections for copper, europium, hafnium, iron, nickel, silver, terbium and titanium from the Argonne, Los Alamos and Jaeri collaboration

Description: Several fast-neutron activation reactions for copper, europium, hafnium, iron, nickel, silver, terbium and titanium that are important to fusion energy have been investigated in three distinct neutron fields generated by accelerators at Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA, and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Japan. Final differential cross-sections at 14.7 MeV and integral cross sections for the Be(d,n) thick-target spectrum produced by 7-MeV deutrons are reported here. Data have also been acquired for neutron energies near 10 MeV. However, these latter results will be made available after problems associated with determining the neutron-energy scale and interpreting the quasi-differential cross-sections measured near threshold are resolved.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Meadows, J.W.; Smith, D.L.; Greenwood, L.R.; Haight, R.C.; Ideda, Y. & Konno, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison between calorimeter and HLNC errors

Description: This paper summarizes an error analysis that compares systematic and random errors of total plutonium mass estimated for high-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNC) and calorimeter measurements. This task was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study on the comparison of the two instruments to determine if HLNC measurement errors met IAEA standards and if the calorimeter gave significantly'' better precision. Our analysis was based on propagation of error models that contained all known sources of errors including uncertainties associated with plutonium isotopic measurements. 5 refs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Goldman, A.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); De Ridder, P. & Laszlo, G. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field testing of the Cobra Seal System

Description: The Cobra Seal System consists of a passive fiber optic seal and verification equipment which have been modified to take advantage of current technology. The seal permits on-site verification without requiring replacement of the seal. The modifications to the original Cobra Seal System extended the maximum fiber optic cable length from 1 meter to 10 meters. This improvement allowed the Cobra Seal to be considered for application on dry irradiated fuel storage canisters at two Canadian facilities. These canisters are located in an exterior environment exposed to extreme weather conditions. This paper describe the application of the Cobra Seal to these canisters, a housing for the protection of the Cobra Seal body from the environment, and some preliminary results of the IAEA field tests. 4 refs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Yellin, E.; Vodrazka, P. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)); Ystesund, K. & Drayer, D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HLNC calibration and application to waste measurement

Description: Using the established equations governing the counts and the underlying nuclear parameters involved in neutron coincidence measurements, the calibration procedure used in calculating the effective Pu{sup 240} mass in plutonium bearing samples is carefully reexamined and restructured in a physically and mathematically consistent form. The characteristics of this approach are described and its application to existing data illustrated. The implications for waste measurements are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); De Ridder, P.M. & Delegard, C. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

Description: This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist`s Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately.
Date: October 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparisons among calibration instruments in the CALDEX accountancy tank calibration

Description: An experiment known as the CALibration Demonstration EXercise (CALDEX) has tested volume, weight, and level measurement instruments in a 12,500-{ell} annular vessel. Data from this experiment were statistically analyzed in the following ways: Data from various high-precision differential pressure gauges, liquid-level determination instruments, and weight devices were analyzed and compared; Incremental inputs to the tank, determined by a high-precision balance and rotary piston meter, were compared with load cell measurements and found to agree; and Data from precision pressure gauges did not vary significantly among gauges; data from capacitive level measurement instruments did not vary either. However, data from the sonic probe were not consistent enough to make comparison meaningful. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Goldman, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); De Ridder, P.; Laszlo, G. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)) & Weh, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hannover (Germany))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamical models of B yields. psi. /J K sub + *

Description: An issue of some interest in the general theory of CP violation on B meson decay is the relative admixture of even and odd final CP eigenstates in B {yields} {psi}/JK*{sub +}. For example, dominance of one sign of CP in this decay would increase the available modes for measuring the CP violation in the respective B meson decays in a beauty factory by a factor {approximately}2.5 and, hence, would decrease the luminosity requirements for such a factory from the CP violation perspective. Here, we therefore study this relative admixture in several dynamical models of the respective decay. We are encouraged by our findings. 12 refs., 3 figs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Ward, B.F.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA) International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of process monitoring for verifying facility design of large-scale reprocessing plants

Description: During the decade of the 1990s, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) faces the challenge of implementing safeguards in large, new reprocessing facilities. The Agency will be involved in the design, construction, checkout and initial operation of these new facilities to ensure effective safeguards are implemented. One aspect of the Agency involvement is in the area of design verification. The United States Support Program has initiated a task to develop methods for applying process data collection and validation during the cold commissioning phase of plant construction. This paper summarizes the results of this task. 14 refs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Hakkila, E.A.; Zack, N.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ehinger, M.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)) & Franssen, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the seminar on leak before break in reactor piping and vessels

Description: The objective of the seminar was to present the current state of the art in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology development, validation, and application in an international forum. With particular emphasis on industrial applications and regulatory policies, the seminar provided an opportunity to compare approaches, experiences, and codifications developed by different countries. The seminar was organized into four topic areas: status of LBB applications; technical issues in LBB methodology; complementary requirements (leak detection and inspection); LBB assessment and margins. As a result of this seminar, an improved understanding of LBB gained through sharing of different viewpoints from different countries, permits consideration of: simplified pipe support design and possible elimination of loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) mechanical consequences for specific cases; defense-in-depth type of applications without support modifications; support of safety cases for plants designed without the LOCA hypothesis. In support of these activities, better estimates of the limits to the LBB approach should follow, as well as an improvement in codifying methodologies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Faidy, C. & Gilles, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ITER plasma safety interface models and assessments

Description: Physics models and requirements to be used as a basis for safety analysis studies are developed and physics results motivated by safety considerations are presented for the ITER design. Physics specifications are provided for enveloping plasma dynamic events for Category I (operational event), Category II (likely event), and Category III (unlikely event). A safety analysis code SAFALY has been developed to investigate plasma anomaly events. The plasma response to ex-vessel component failure and machine response to plasma transients are considered.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Uckan, N.A.; Bartels, H-W.; Honda, T.; Putvinski, S.; Amano, T.; Boucher, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Holdup counters for the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility--PFPF

Description: A neutron coincidence counting system has been developed for assaying plutonium holdup in glove boxes at the automated mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility, PFPF, in Japan. The time-correlated neutron emission rate arising from the spontaneous fission decay of plutonium isotopes is measured and converted to grams of plutonium contained in the glove box. Each detection system consists of a pair of polyethylene slabs containing {sup 3}He proportional counters and associated electronics. These slabs are placed on either side of the glove box that is to be measured for plutonium holdup. The detectors are moved by a portable lifter to map out the coincidence response from the entire glove box. Results of a design optimization study that considered detector efficiency, as well as overall size and weight and how these parameters interface with the procedure of mapping the glove box, are presented. The use of Los Alamos transport code, MCNP, in the detector design optimization and in aid of calibration is also discussed. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Seya, M.; Takahashi, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)) & Adedin-Zadeh, R. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The design and installation of a core discharge monitor for CANDU-type reactors

Description: A new type of surveillance systems that monitors neutron and gamma radiation in a reactor containment is being installed at the Ontario Hydro Darlington Nuclear Generating Station A, Unit 2. Unlike video or film surveillance that monitors mechanical motion, this system measures fuel-specific radiation emanating from irradiated fuel as it is pushed from the core of CANDU-type reactors. Proof-of-principle measurements have been carried out at Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Unit 3. The system uses ({gamma},n) threshold detectors and ionization detectors. A microprocessor-based electronics package, GRAND-II (Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector electronics package), provides detector bias, preamplifier power, and signal processing. Firmware in the GRAND-2 controls the surveillance activities, including data acquisition and a level of detector authentication, and it handles authenticated communication with a central data logging computer. Data from the GRAND-II are transferred to an MS-DOS-compatible computer and stored. These data are collected and reviewed for fuel-specific radiation signatures from the primary detector and proper ratios of signals from secondary detectors. 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Halbig, J.K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Monticone, A.C.; Ksiezak, L. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)) & Smiltnieks, V. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Toronto, ON (Canada). Regional Office)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Requirements and capabilities of PSA for safety management applications

Description: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has prepared a draft document providing guidance to the Member States on the various application areas for PSAs for the intended applications. Requirements for applying a PSA in each of the specific application areas have been defined. This includes definition of the objectives of the application, PSA modeling and data requirements, calculational capabilities, and the requirements for presentation of results. This document provides an example for one of the 17 areas, namely Evaluation of Surveillance and Maintenance Activities.''
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Hirschberg, S. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)); Johanson, G. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Nykoeping (Sweden)) & Samanta, P.K. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department