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Average effluent releases from U. S. nuclear power reactors, compared with those from fossil-fueled plants, in terms of currently applicable environmental standards

Description: From 3rd international congress of the International Radiation Protection Association meeting; Washington, District of Columbia, USA(9 Sep 1973). Between 1967 and 1972, eighteen second generation'' lightwater-cooled nuclear power plants, with capacities in the range of 500 to 800 MW(e) have been put into operation in the United States. These were in addition to ten smaller demonstration plants and one high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear power plant in operation at the start of this period. The reported yearly air effluent releases of radioactive gases, halogens and particulates, and liquid effluent fission and activation products and of tritium from these plants are evaluated on a Ci/10/sup 3/ MW(e) basis, and the overall yearly averages for the various types of reactors (boiling water (BWR), pressurized water (PWR) and high temperature gas-cooled (HTGR)! are compared. These and the amounts of effluents released from reference 1,000 MW(e) fossil-fueled plants are compared in terms of relative environmental concentrations and their relationship to the applicable U. S. environmental standards for the principal constituents in their respective plant air-effluent streams. 21 references. (auth)
Date: September 19, 1973
Creator: Hull, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental radiation dose criteria and assessment: pathway modeling and surveillance

Description: From nuclear science symposium; San Francisco, California, USA (14 Nov 1973). The controversy in recent years over the extent of the risk to the public from environmental radioactivity attributable to nuclear facilities (in particular nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing facilities) has resulted in a lowering of previously acceptable environmental radiation levels. The proposal by the AEC to limit effluents from light-water-cooled nuclear reactors so that the exposure of any individual in the public would not exceed 5 mR/yr, and the pronouncement by the BEIR Committee that the current environmental radiation protection guides are unnecessarily high, are illustrative. In turn the AEC has issued a Safety Guide calling for considerable refinement in the measuring and reporting of effluents from nuclear power plants, and has only recently issued a counterpart dealing with the measuring and reporting of radioactivity in the environs of nuclear power plants. The EPA has also recently issued a guide for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity. Currently, power reactor operators are being required by the AEC Regulatory Staff to conduct detailed, sensitive environmental surveillance. Much of this appears to be based on extremely conservative assumptions throughout, including doseeffect relationships, exposure situations, pathway models, reconcentration factors and intakes, which cannot be substantiated when examined in the light of current experience in the vicinity of existing power reactors. The expenditures occasioned by the required additional in-plant features necessary to meet the currently proposed effluent release criteria appear difficult to justify on a reasonable basis. Environmental monitoring at the proposed concentration limits appear even more excessive in terms of dollars per man-rem of potential dose commitment. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Hull, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental safety evaluations for nuclear installations

Description: Environmental safety has been an important consideration in the siting, design, and operation of nuclear installations. As a result there have been very few cases in which the releases of radioactive materials from these installations have posed a dosimetrically significant environmental risk, and almost all of these have been connected with accidents or other unintentional situations. In no situation do the intentional releases from nuclear installations appear to have posed significant environmental risks, and with adequate planning and design a high degree of environmental safety may be assured. Many disciplines are involved in the evaluation of safety for nuclear installations. These include such fundamental ones as physics, chemistry, and biology, and more specialized ones such as meteorology, engineering, ecology, medicine, and electronics. A comprehensive review of environmental surveillance data and estimates of dose commitments from nuclear installations suggests that compared to the doses from background and from fallout, those attributable to the effluents from nuclear facilities have been small and for the most part quite local. it is concluded that, the upper limit of the risk associated with exposure of up to a few millirems per year is indeed small compared to many other commonly accepted risks of living in present day society. (72 refurences) (CH)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Hull, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor emergency preparedness: lifesaving or as low as reasonable achievable

Description: An emergency is defined as an unforseen combination of circumstances or the resultant state that calls for immediate action. Although not explicitly indicated, the implication is that the action is intended to protect life, limb and or property from extreme peril. For the most part, the kind and extent of the emergency planning required under current regulations of the USNRC do not appear to be so much related to emergencies (within the above definition) as they do toward the reduction of the off-site radiation doses from uncontrolled releases during reactor accident conditions to as low as reasonably achievable levels. Not only do the latter appear to be of questionable cost-effectiveness, but in their extent and complexity beyond normal disaster planning they may in fact be counter productive to optimum public safety.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Hull, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critique of source term and environmental measurement at Three Mile Island

Description: The most serious malfunction to date at an operating power reactor in the US occurred at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI) at 0400 est on March 28, 1979. Subsequently, between 3X and 10 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of radiogases (principally /sup 133/Xe) were released to the atmosphere from the plant vent in decreasing concentrations over the next few weeks, accompanied by abut 10 Ci of /sup 131/I. During this period, the plant's typical effluent monitors and field radiation monitoring program were unable to supply prompt and reliable radiological information. In order to provide a sufficient radioanalytical capability for the large number of in-plant and environmental samples (air, water, soil, vegetation and milk) which were obtained, the existing on-site facilities were augmented by mobile laboratories. The laboratory facilities of the Bureau of Radiological Health (BRH-PA) of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Conservation were supplemented by a nearby temporary facility for gamma analysis set up by the Department of Energy (DOE). Many environmental samples, principally of milk, were also transported to more remotely established radioanalytical laboratories of state and federal agencies.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hull, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of energy related risk acceptance (APHA energy task force)

Description: Living in a technological society with large energy requirements involves a number of related actities with attendant health risks, both to the working and to the general public. Therefore, the formulation of some general principles for risk acceptance is necessary. In addition to maximizing benefits and minimizing risk, relevant considerations must be made about the perception of risk as voluntary or involuntary, the number of persons collectively at risk at any one occasion, and the extent to which a risk is a familiar one. With regard to a given benefit, such as a given amount of energy, comparisons of the risks of alternate modes of production may be utilized. However, cost-benefit consideration is essential to the amelioration of current or prospective risks. This is unusual, since it is based on some estimate of the monetary value per premature death averted. It is proposed that increased longevity would be a more satisfactory measure. On a societal basis, large expenditures for additional energy-related pollution control do not appear justifiable since much larger, nonenergy-related health risks are relatively underaddressed. Knowledgeable health professionals could benefit the public by imparting authoritative information in this area.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Hull, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental measurements during the TMI-2 accident

Description: Although the environmental consequences of the TMI accident were relatively insignificant, it was a major test of the ability of the involved state and federal radiological agencies to make a coordinated environmental monitoring response. This was accomplished largely on an ad hoc basis under the leadership of DOE. With some fine tuning, it is the basis for today's integrated FRMAP monitoring plan, which would be put into operation should another major accident occur at a US nuclear facility.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Hull, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

Description: From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Hull, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MONITORING THE COOLING AIR EFFLUENT FROM THE BROOKHAVEN GRAPHITE RESEARCH REACTOR AT THE POINT OF RELEASE AND IN THE ENVIRONMENT

Description: The facilities for monitoring the particulate activity, Ar/sup 41/, and I/sup 131/ in the air effluent and the BGRR are described. The performance of the facilities under emergency conditions is studied for the release incident of Sept. 10 to 13, 1962; it is seen that the I/sup 131/ release, but not the particulate activity release, provided warning. (D.L.C.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Creator: Foelix, C.F. & Hull, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lessons learned from a NUREG-0737 review of high-range effluent monitors and samplers

Description: Shortly after the onset of the accident on 3/28/79 at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, the upper range capabilities of its real-time monitors for gaseous, radioiodine and particulate effluents to the atmosphere were exceeded. Subsequently, the NRC required extended range gaseous effluent monitors and an improved capability for the obtaining of frequent samples of radioiodines and particulates at the concentrations that would be anticipated in effluent steams under accident conditions (NUREG-0578, NUREG-0660, NUREG-0737, Items II.F.1-1 + II.F.1-2). In 1983 an on-site post-implementation review of their installation and operation was initiated by the NRC Region I. The results from nineteen such reviews indicate that the licensees have adopted a variety of approaches to meet the NRC's requirements ranging from the installation of completely new commercial modules to improvised additions to existing monitors and samplers. Some advantages and drawbacks of these various approaches are summarized. 12 refs., 15 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Hull, A.P. & White, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1973 environmental monitoring report

Description: >Results from radiation monitoring during 1973 in the environment of the Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented. Data are included on: the gross alpha and BETA activity and content of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides in surface air; gross BETA activity and gamma and tritium content in atmospheric precipitation; activities and concentration of gamma emitters in liquid effiuents and ground water; gross BETA , tritium and /sup 90/Sr in effluents; gross BETA and tritl um in surface waters; /sup 90/Sr and gamma- emitting radionuclides in river ecosystem; gross alpha , gross BETA , tritium, / sup 90/Sr, and /sup 137/Cs in ground and well water; /sup 137/Cs, K, /sup 131/I, and /sup 90/Sr content in area milk; and gamma-emitting radionuclides in soils and grasses. (LCL)
Date: March 1, 1974
Creator: Hull, A.P. & Ash, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk comparisons for the transportation of spent fuel from nuclear reactors

Description: In summary, on the basis of calculated estimates, tests and accident statistics, the transport of spent nuclear fuel by whatever means has been shown to represent an infinitesimally small risk to the public, wherever they may be located enroute. This conclusion is based on three points (1) the probability of an accident involving spent fuel is small, (2) the probability that this hypothetical accident releases radioactive materials is even smaller and (3) the public-health consequences of such a release are trivial. It hardly seems to warrant the extensive assessment that it has received. If the risk to the public is of concern, this attention and analysis might have been more profitably spent on the improvement of the safety of the transport of a wide variety of other hazardous substances, which at present are given little if any prior scrutiny.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Hull, A.P. & Lessard, E.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department