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The Diagnostic Suitability of Goldberg's Rule for the Mini-Mult

Description: This study was undertaken to determine whether the Mini-Mult is able to function as well as the MMPI for a limited clinical purpose, the discrimination of psychosis and neurosis by Goldberg's rule. The smaller size of the Mini-Mult (71 items) allows conservation of time .and energy by subjects and professionals. Thirty male residents of the Austin State Hospital completed two standard MMPIs and one oral Mini-Mult. A fourth set of scores was obtained by extracting Mini-Mult from the first MMPI. Correlations and tests of significance were computed for raw scores and Goldberg's index scores. Results indicate no significant differences in the discrimination of psychosis and neurosis between the MMPI and the Mini-Mult.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Roberts, Dan Haynes
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Popular Music on Self-Disclosure Among Adolescents

Description: Seventy-five adolescent members of a local church youth organization completed Jourard's 40-item Self-Disclosure Questionnaire. The subjects were assigned to three groups, matched for degree of self-disclosure. A control group filled out Green's Sentence Completion Blank. A second group filled out the completion blank after listening to popular music while reading printed lyrics. The third group listened and also wrote a few sentences about the "meaning" of the music. Two judges scored the sentence completion blanks for self-disclosure. An analysis of variance of the sentence completion scores was significant at the .05 level. However, the Scheffe method revealed that only the latter two groups' means differed significantly, in that the second group increased in disclosure while the third group decreased in self-disclosure. Several factors are discussed which may account for the results.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Gentry, David G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Skin Pigmentation Influencing Perception of Mexican-Americans

Description: Subjects were 101 Mexican-American adults (53 females, 48 males), age range 17-72, and most often were in the blue-collar job level. Instructions were that (a) 18 pairs of slides would be shown; (b) each slide would be projected for 15 seconds; (c) each of the two models was to be judged on intelligence, attractiveness, friendliness, happiness, and success; and (d) the rating scale would be marked corresponding to the left or right slide. Results indicated the lighter-skinned models were judged more favorably than the darker ones on all five dimensions. To the extent this study sheds light on an important cultural value, it is hoped the treatment of Mexican-Americans in therapy will be facilitated and improved.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Diaz, Petra Alvarez
Partner: UNT Libraries

Attainment of Low Levels of Muscle Tension: Biofeedback-Assisted/Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Biofeedback Training Compared

Description: Cue-controlled relaxation appeas to have several advantages over prominent anxiety-reduction treatments. It does not require the formulation of conditioned stimulus hierarchies nor the use of mental imagery as does systematic desensitization nor the application of noxious stimularion (farradic shock) utilized in anxiety relief. However, its efficacy, in quantitative terms, has not been determined. The present study compared the effectiveness in attainment of relaxation of instructional set, biofeedback training, and biofeedback-assisted/cue-controlled relaxation training procedures. Results indicate that cue-controlled relaxation training was more effective in terms of mean level of frontal is EMG and degree of maintenance of low EMG levels than either biofeedback training or instructions.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Ewing, Jack Winston
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ward Environment: Assessment and Implied Function

Description: Ward environment as assessed by the Ward Atmosphere Scale was the focus of this exploratory study. The Ward Atmosphere scores of 110 patients hospitalized on two units for acute psychiatric care in a state hospital were analyzed for determining differences along the dimensions of population factors, sex and program change. Significant differences in attitude were obtained on certain of the ten scales for each of the three comparisons. The premise of ward atmosphere being a global entity as implied in the literature was not upheld in this population. Sex differences were noted and introduction of an individualized patient management program evoked significant changes in opinions concerning ward atmosphere. A number of interpretations for these results were offered and implication for future research was suggested.
Date: August 1979
Creator: England, Nancy L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Skills Acquisition and Cognitive Restructuring Operations in Training Assertive Behaviors

Description: Behavioral and cognitive skills training for increasing assertive behavior in college students were compared to an equally credible expectancy-control. One significant multivariate function successfully discriminated between the behavioral and control groups, and between the cognitive and control groups. This function was interpreted as showing enhanced behavioral/cognitive construction competencies in the behavioral and cognitive groups. A second function, though not significant, suggested that the cognitive training resulted in more aggressive behavior.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Lefebvre, R. Craig
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biofeedback Training: Avoidance Conditioning of Frontal EMG

Description: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of utilizing an avoidance conditioning paradigm in EMG biofeedback training and to compare this method to the standard biofeedback training paradigm. Frontalis EMG levels of 20 college students were monitored during non-stress and stress conditions. Half then received standard EMG biofeedback training. The other half received biofeedback with contingent aversive stimulation. Both groups received training to a relaxation criterion of 3 microvolts for 100 seconds or, for a maximum of two 20 minute sessions. Subjects were then monitored again during non-stress and stress conditions. Both groups obtained significant EMG reductions due to training with no significant differences between them. Standard biofeedback training required less time for subjects to achieve the relaxation criterion than did biofeedback with a shock-avoidance contingency. Possible applications of avoidance contingent biofeedback were suggested.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Catalanello, Michael S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Treatment of Preorgasmic Women Utilizing Group Threapy [sic] and Home-Based Training

Description: There have been various approaches to the treatment of nonorgasmic women, including psychoanalysis, desensitization, relaxation, masturbation, and group therapy. The present study was conducted to examine the efficacy of group therapy combined with home-based training in the treatment of primary nonorgasmic women. A no-treatment control group was also employed. Treatment consisted of two weekly 1- hour group sessions for 5 weeks. Educative processes were employed, such as detailed information on physiology of female sexual response. Structured homework exercises were also utilized, such as mastubatory techniques, role-playing orgasm, strengthening vaginal muscles, and assertiveness training in sexual and nonsexual situations. Results indicated an 88% success rate in the treatment group and no change in the control group.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Cole, Carolyn Fillis
Partner: UNT Libraries

Treatment of Migraine Headache Utilizing Cerebral Electrostimulation

Description: Cerebral electrostimulation (CES) as a treatment for migraine headache was investigated. Eighteen participants recorded data on headaches for two baseline weeks. Six were assigned to each of three groups--an active treatment group receiving CES, a placebo group receiving a simulated version of CES, and a no-treatment control group placed on a waiting list during the study. The CES group evidenced a significant reduction in headache duration and intensity relative to the placebo group. The waiting list control group did as well as the CES group. A number of hypotheses were put forth in an attempt to account for the unexpected finding.
Date: December 1976
Creator: England, Ronald R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Passive and Active Avoidance Learning in Depressives

Description: In order to aid in the understanding of the personality components that contribute to the symptoms of depression, the learning process of persons labeled as depressed was examined. Twenty female subjects who were either receiving or being evaluated for psychotherapy participated in this study. Based on MMPI and DACL scores, 10 depressed and 10 nondepressed subjects were placed in avoidance learning situations. An active avoidance situation required making the correct button press to avoid a sounding buzzer; the absence of the button-pressing response constituted a passive avoidance situation, There was no significant difference between the two groups in learning across avoidance conditions, Depressives were found 'to be less persistent in responding than were nondepressives. Results were explained as supporting a learned helplessness model of depression.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Weeks, Randall E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of the Moral Judgements of Males and Females as a Function of Merging Sex Roles

Description: Factors which influence severity of moral judgement in men and women were investigated in this study with 94 male and 89 female undergraduate students as participants. Effects of "sex of judge," "sex of transgressor," and "value orientation" variables were examined across five diverse story conditions. A measure of identification was also obtained. As hypothesized, a significant main effect was found for "value orientation," but not for "sex of judge" or "sex of transgressor" variables. The hypothesized disappearance of a "sex of judge" by "sex of transgressor" interaction was found. Hypotheses concerning a permissive trend and the effects of degree of identification were not confirmed.
Date: August 1976
Creator: McGraw, Phillip C., 1950-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Conditioned Reinforcement with an Equine Subject

Description: Historically, horse trainers have relied primarily upon repetition, negative reinforcement, and punishment to teach new behaviors. Positive reinforcement has been eschewed, largely on the basis of the wides read belief that positive reinforcement is not effective with horses. Additional difficulties in the timely application of such reinforcement have further inhibited its use. After repeated pairing of an auditory stimulus with an established primary reinforcer, the auditory stimulus was predicted to be a reinforcer. An equine subject was then successfully trained to perform five different, novel tasks using only the auditory stimulus. Subsequently, extinction of behavior was noted in the absence of the conditioned reinforcer. Implications for many phases of horse training were discussed. Some weaknesses of the present study were noted along with suggested issues for future investigations.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Flynn, Karen Kolb
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of Hearing Thresholds by Means of the Acoustic Reflex with Autistic and Normal Subjects

Description: This study concerns audiometric evaluation and prediction of hearing loss in the autistic child based on information derived from acoustic reflex thresholds. Two groups (autistic males and normal children) of five subjects each were utilized. Results indicated that the acoustic reflex method consistently predicted significantly higher hearing thresholds for autistic subjects than operant pure-tone audiometric procedures. Furthermore, the acoustic reflex thresholds were significantly less sensitive in the autistic group than in the normal group, suggesting that the acoustic reflex response is somehow altered in autistic individuals. These findings are consistent with earlier work which hypothesized that autistics, manifest an organic brain lesion which interferes with the propagation of auditory information.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Hutchison, Edward N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learned Helplessness, Attribution, and Clinical Depression

Description: To test predictions of learned helplessness theory and attribution theory, depressed and nondepressed subjects were exposed to a word-association task in a skill, chance, or no-instructional-set condition. Subjects were asked to make attributions of success and failure to four factors--ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck--and rate expectancy of success. The predictions of both theories were only partially confirmed. Difficulties relating to the experimental design may account for the failure of nondepressed/skill subjects to show greater expectancy change. As predicted, all subjects in the chance condition displayed similar expectancy changes. Also as predicted, nondepressed subjects did not rate effort as being the least influential factor. Depressed subjects, however, rated all factors equivalently, instead of rating effort least influential.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Toppins, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Self-Control Approach to Weight Control

Description: A strategy for facilitating post-treatment weight maintenance was examined. Subjects were matched for age, sex, and amount of weight that they desired to lose and were then assigned to one of two groups. Both groups were under contracts and had individually designed self-control programs for weight loss, but subjects in the experimental group lost weight in small steps and subjects in the control group lost weight continuously. The experimental group was predicted to have better weight maintenance after treatment because of a greater number of reinforcements for weight loss. Two-month follow-up data was obtained on the ten subjects who completed the study, and the experimental group was found to have regained significantly less than the control group after treatment ended. The implications of these results for obesity research are discussed.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Gardner, Jimmy N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Provocative Versus Neutral Role-Playing Prompts and Assertive Behavior

Description: The behavior role-playing task (BRPT) has become a popular method of assessing assertive behavior. However, current research suggests that situational factors can affect the outcome of such assessments, independently of the subject's level of assertiveness. The present study investigated the effects of one such factor: the type of prompt delivered during the BRPT. It was hypothesized that subjects would respond more assertively to provocatively prompted scenes than to neutral scenes. Twenty nursing students were exposed to BRPTs involving both provocative and neutral role-player prompts. The results revealed that while provocative BRPTs generated significantly greater amounts of self-reported anger and anxiety than did the neutral BRPTs, there were no significant differences in response latency, duration, or assertive content between the two conditions.
Date: December 1979
Creator: General, Dale A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Environmental Consequences and Data Collection in the Behavior-Contracting Treatment of Obesity

Description: This study investigated the effects of environmental consequences and data 'collection in a behavior contracting procedure for obesity. Also, a validity study examined the GSR as a subject-independent-monitoring technique. Sixteen subjects matched on sex and percent overweight were assigned to one of three contract conditions or to a no-treatment condition. The Data Only Contract Group received consequences for data collection. The With Consequences Contract Group received consequences for data collection and behaviors relevant to weight loss. The Without Consequences Contract Group received no consequences for data collection or behaviors relevant to weight loss. The With Consequences Contract Group lost significantly more weight ( p ≤ .05) than the No Treatment Group. Specific effects were not determined. The results of the validity study suggest that the GSR may not be a valid instrument as a subject-independent-monitoring technique. Factors affecting the galvanic skin response's- effectiveness were discussed.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Rumph, Robin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Interpersonal Communication Inventory: a Measure of Social Skills

Description: The Interpersonal Communication Inventory, a self-report instrument for assessing social skills, was given to undergraduate college students to determine its reliability. Following this administration, other small groups of undergraduates were asked to complete an attraction scale, the Interpersonal Communication Inventory, an assertiveness scale, and a sociometric questionnaire. Results confirmed the Inventory as a reliable instrument, but a stepwise multiple linear regression did not support the hypothesis that the Inventory was a useful predictor of sociometric choice. In addition, Pearson product moment correlations between the Inventory and an assertiveness scale did not confirm the prediction that the two instruments would measure behaviors from different response classes. Definite conclusions could not be stated due to lack of validity data for the Inventory and possible confounding variables.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Armstrong, Betty K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Precluding the S- in Establishing Color Discriminations in Autistic Children

Description: A procedure in which the S- was prevented from being responded to, by electro-magnets, was used to establish color discriminations. The procedure was modified in Situation 1, to include the prevention of responses to the S+ if the S- was responded to first. The original procedure and modified procedure were used in Situation 1, with only the modified procedure being used in Situations 2 and 3. The procedure of reinforcing responses to the S+ and extinguishing responses to the S-, through nonreinforcement, was used in Situation 4. Data recorded consisted of the number of trials, the number of reinforcements, and which stimulus was first responded to. Criteria for the acquisition of a discrimination was 100 first responses to the S+. Results indicated that the modified procedure was much more effective in establishing the discriminations, than the original procedure or the procedure of reinforcing responses to the S+ and extinguishing responses to the S-. The modified procedure enhanced the establishment of stimulus control, reduced the number of errors and eliminated stereotyped responses.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Buck, Raymond W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Dietary Treatment of Hyperactive Children

Description: This study investigated whether a salicylate-restricted diet (eliminating foods containing artificial additives and natural salicylates) could effectively reduce hyperactivity in children more so than a diet not restricting salicylates (ostensibly restricting foods containing refined sugar). Ten hyperactive children, nine boys and one girl, were matched on their pre-treatment activity rates and assigned to either a salicylate-restricted diet (Group I) or a diet not restricting salicylates (Group II). After approximately nine weeks, post-treatment activity rates were obtained, and a significant difference in favor of the salicylate-restricted diet group was found with this diet group exhibiting a significantly lower mean post-treatment activity rate in comparison to the group placed on a diet not restricting salicylates (p<.05). Implications for diagnosis and treatment of hyperactivity in children were discussed.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Rogers, Gary S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Regulation of the Frequency of Part-Word Repetitions Using Electromyographic Feedback

Description: This study investigated the use of electromyographic feedback in regulating the frequency of part-word repetitions. Two adult stutterers, one female (Subject A) and one male (Subject B) were employed. The frequency of part-word repetitions during baserate, EMG uV raising, and EMG uV lowering conditions was assessed for Subject B. As hypothesized, results indicate that there was a notable decline in the frequency of part-word repetitions during the EMG uV lowering sessions. However, contrary to the second hypothesis, (i.e. that an increase in EMG uV would correspond with an increase in part-word repetitions) there was also a decline in the frequency of part-word repetitions during the EMG raising sessions.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Pachman, Joseph S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship of Attitudes Toward Mathematics, School, and Teachers to Mathematics Achievement

Description: The present study was designed to investigate the interrelationships of various school-related attitudes and mathematics achievement in a sample of 104 fifth-grade students. A version of the Semantic Differential was used to assess student attitudes toward school, mathematics, teachers, and mathematics teachers. Achievement in mathematics was measured using the Wide Range Achievement Test and classroom grade in mathematics. Higher correlations between the attitude and achievement variables were obtained when classroom grade was used as the achievement measure. Weights generated for each of the attitude variables in multiple regression equations designed to predict each achievement measure were nonsignificant for males, females, and the total sample. Results were discussed and recommendations for future research were made.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Neumann, Karl F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Bender-Gestalt Emotional Indicators and Acting-Out Behavior in Young Children

Description: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between 15 emotional indicators on the Bender-Gestalt Test and acting-out behavior in young children. The subjects were 93 children ranging in age from 5 to 12 years. Each was administered the Bender. A measure of each subject's overt acting-out behavior was then obtained by having teachers rate each student on a Behavioral Rating Scale. Subjects' records were then divided into groups on the basis of both sex and age. Results indicated that neither the total number of Bender indicators nor any of the individual Bender indicators were significantly correlated with total scores on the rating scale. Use of the Bender as a projective device to measure acting-out behavior was seriously questioned.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Trahan, Donald Everett
Partner: UNT Libraries

Programming Generalization: A Comparison of Behavioral and Cognitive Response Transfer Operations in Assertive Training

Description: The assertive training literature has documented the effectiveness of both behavioral and cognitive methods to increase individual's assertiveness. However, the ability for such methods to enhance the generalization of treatment effects to untrained assertive response classes and the natural environment has been poor. In addition, little notice has been paid to the durability of these changes. Although the past several years have witnessed more intensive efforts by investigators to program generalization as part of their interventions, results have continued to be disappointing. A specific generalization-enhancing treatment strategy, self-directed practice, has been utilized with much success in phobic populations. This strategy, and the theoretical orientation it reflects, has been proposed for use in assertive training. The present study sought to examine the effectiveness of this method as compared to the traditional assertive training procedures and investigate the role of self-efficacy expectations in mediating initial behavior change and its subsequent generalization.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Lefebvre, Richard Craig
Partner: UNT Libraries