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Comparative Phyto-uptake Across Distribution Coefficients of Pharmaceutical Compounds and Aquatic Macrophytes: Carbamazepine and Amiodarone Uptake in Lemna Spp

Description: Few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of phytoremediation of pharmaceutical compounds, although the persistent and non-acutely toxic nature of many of these compounds in today's water bodies may yield an ideal application for this practice. To quantify the potential effectiveness of plant uptake, kinetic and proportional bioconcentration factors (BCFk, and BCFp, respectively) in nanograms (ng) carbamazepine and amiodarone per gram (g) wet weight plant tissue for Lemna spp. were d… more
Date: August 2013
Creator: Woodard, Jennifer Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Development of Novel Semi-conducting Ortho-carborane Based Polymer Films: Enhanced Electronic and Chemical Properties

Description: A novel class of semi-conducting ortho-carborane (B10C2H12) based polymer films with enhanced electronic and chemical properties has been developed. The novel films are formed from electron-beam cross-linking of condensed B10C2H12 and B10C2H12 co-condensed with aromatic linking units (Y) (Y=1,4-diaminobenzene (DAB), benzene (BNZ) and pyridine (PY)) at 110 K. The bonding and electronic properties of the novel films were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV photoelectro… more
Date: August 2013
Creator: Pasquale, Frank L.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Effects of Suspended Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Daphnid Growth and Reproduction

Description: Multi-walled carbon nanotube aggregates can be suspended in the aqueous phase by natural organic matter. These aggregates are ingested by filter feeding zooplankton. Ingested aggregates result in decreased growth and decreased reproduction. These effects may be caused by reduction in energy input from normal feeding behavior. pH alters natural organic matter structure through changes in electrostatic repulsion. Altered natural organic matter structure changes multi-walled carbon nanotube aggreg… more
Date: May 2010
Creator: Alloy, Matthew Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Characterization of Arthrobacter Globiformis Aspartate Transcarbamylase Concentrations of Substrates

Description: This thesis consists of one major section with two subsections. The first subsection investigates the activity of Arthrobacter globiformis aspartate transcarbamylase's specific activity with increasing concentrations of the enzyme's substrate. Dihydroorotase (DHOase) activity was also measured with increasing concentrations of the substrate dihydroorotate. The second subsection collected data in order to classify the enzyme, resulting in a classification into the category of class A ATCases … more
Date: December 2012
Creator: Wright, Jackie
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Functional Neural Toxicity and Endocrine Responses in Mice Following Naphthalene Exposure

Description: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a well studied and diverse class of environmental toxicants. PAHs act via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and studies have suggested that PAHs may elicit neurological and estrogenic effects. Doses of PAHs between 50 to 150 ppm may elicit neurotoxicity in rodent models. The present study investigated the effects of naphthalene on in vivo steroidogenesis in Swiss Webster male mice, and in vitro neural function of Balb-C/ICR mice frontal cortex ne… more
Date: August 2010
Creator: Colbert, Crystal
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Influence of in Vitro Gill and Liver Metabolism of Xenobiotics on Fish Bioconcentration

Description: This dissertation examines the ability of in vitro biotransformation assays to provide an indication of metabolic potential. The potential for xenobiotic compounds to bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms is expressed through the bioconcentration factor (BCF). The metabolic loss of ibuprofen, norethindrone and propranolol was measured using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) gill and liver S9 fractions, microsomes and cell suspensions. Metabolic trans… more
Date: August 2010
Creator: Gomez, Cristi Frasier
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Determination of Bioconcentration Potential of Selected Pharmaceuticals in Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas, and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

Description: The primary objective of this work was to determine the tissue-specific bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of the selected pharmaceuticals: norethindrone (NET), ibuprofen (IBU), verapamil (VER), clozapine (CLZ) and fenofibrate (FFB) in two freshwater fishes: fathead minnow and channel catfish. BCF tests on fathead followed the standard OECD 42-day test while a 14-day abridged test design was used in catfish exposures. Additional objectives included a) comparing the measured BCFs to the US EPA's BC… more
Date: December 2010
Creator: Nallani, Gopinath C.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Effect of Menthol on Nicotine Metabolism: a Cross Species Evaluation

Description: The effect of menthol on nicotine metabolism was examined in liver S9 fractions of four different species and in the in vivo mouse model. The purpose of this study was to investigate three parameters: (1) biotransformation of nicotine to cotinine in various species (human, mouse, rat and trout) using in vitro methods; (2) to determine if the addition of menthol with nicotine altered biotransformation of nicotine to cotinine; (3) and to assess similar parameters in an in vivo mouse model. The… more
Date: December 2013
Creator: Pace, Wendy Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Shortened in Vivo Bioconcentration Factor Testing in Cyprinus Carpio

Description: Bioconcentration factor testing serves as the most valuable surrogate for the assessment of bioaccumulation. The assessment of potentially harmful chemicals is crucial to not only the health of aquatic environments, but to humans as well. Chemicals that possess the ability to persist in the environment or that have the potential to bioaccumulate, pose a greater risk to organisms that are exposed to these chemicals. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Guideline 305 outlines… more
Date: December 2013
Creator: Cantu, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Tissue-specific Bioconcentration Factor of the Synthetic Steroid Hormone Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Mpa) in the Common Carp, Cyprinus Carpia

Description: Due to the wide spread occurrence of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a pharmaceutical compound, in wastewater effluent and surface waters, the objectives of this work were to determine the tissue specific uptake and bioconcentration factor (BCF) for MPA in common carp. BCFs were experimentally determined for MPA in fish using a 14-day laboratory test whereby carp where exposed to 100 μg/L of MPA for a 7-day period followed by a depuration phase in which fish were maintained in dechlorinate… more
Date: August 2013
Creator: Steele IV, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Effects of Glyphosate Based Herbicides on Chick Embryo Development

Description: Glyphosate based herbicides are among the most widely used herbicides in the world. The purpose of this study was to determine developmental toxicity of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the common herbicide Roundup, on developing chicken embryos. Few studies have examined toxic effects of glyphosate alone versus the full compound formulations of Roundup, which include adjuvants and surfactants. Adjutants and surfactants are added to aid in solubility and absorption of glyphosate. In thi… more
Date: August 2013
Creator: Winnick, Blake Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Effect of Acute Alcohol Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Induced mTORC1 Signaling in Human Muscle

Description: The purpose of this project was to further elucidate the effects post-exercise alcohol ingestion. This project had many novel aspects including using a resistance exercise (RE) only exercise design and the inclusion of women. To our knowledge, we are the first to investigate the effect of post-RE alcohol ingestion in women. In the first chapter of this project, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and the importance of skeletal muscle as a dynamic and metabolic tissue was provided. In c… more
Date: August 2015
Creator: Duplanty, Anthony A.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Effects of Natural/anthropogenic Stressors and a Chemical Contaminant on Pre and Post Mycorrhizal Colonization in Wetland Plants

Description: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, colonizing over 80% of all plants, were long thought absent in wetlands; however, recent studies have shown many wetland plants harbor arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) and dark septate endophytes (DSE). Wetland services such as biodiversity, shoreline stabilization, water purification, flood control, etc. have been estimated to have a global value of $14.9 trillion. Recognition of these vital services is accompanied by growing concern for their vulnerability and continu… more
Date: August 2013
Creator: Twanabasu, Bishnu Ram
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Field and Laboratory Fish Tissue Accumulation of Carbamazepine and Amiodarone

Description: The goals of this dissertation work were to assess the bioaccumulation potential of carbamazepine and amiodarone, two widely used ionizable pharmaceutical compounds that possess mid-range and high LogD values, respectively, and to evaluate alternative methods to assess chemical accumulation in bluntnose minnows, catfish, and tilapia. Results indicated that carbamazepine does not appreciably bioaccumulate in fish tissue with BCFk and BAF carbamazepine values < 10. Amiodarone, however, with a log… more
Date: December 2013
Creator: García Martínez, Santos Noé
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Investigation of the Pharmacokinetics of Diazepam in Juvenile Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus)

Description: The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is becoming an increasing regulatory and scientific concern. Thus, the metabolic profile and bioconcentration potential of diazepam, a model benzodiazepine, were examined, as well as effects on the endocrine system in channel catfish. Through the use of specific and non-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibitors, it was determined that CYP3A-like enzymes may play a role in the biotransformation of diazepam into temazepam; however, the isoform… more
Date: December 2013
Creator: Overturf, Carmen L.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Modeling the Effects of Chronic Toxicity of Pharmaceutical Chemicals on the Life History Strategies of Ceriodaphnia Dubia: a Multigenerational Study

Description: Trace quantities of pharmaceuticals (including carbamazepine and sertraline) are continuously discharged into the environment, which causes concern among scientists and regulators regarding their potential long-term impacts on aquatic ecosystems. These compounds and their metabolites are continuously interacting with the orgranisms in various life stages, and may differentially influence development of embryo, larvae, juvenile, and adult stages. To fully understand the potential ecological risk… more
Date: December 2013
Creator: Lamichhane, Kiran
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Endocrine Disruption of Levonorgestrel in Early-life Stages of Fathead Minnows, Pimephales Promelas

Description: Pharmaceuticals have routinely been detected in the environment resulting in a growing concern about whether these drugs could elicit effects on aquatic organisms. The concerns are centered on the highly conserved nature of mammalian therapeutic targets in fish. These pharmaceuticals are found at very low levels in the environment, which can result in sub-lethal effects in aquatic organisms. Therefore, 28 d early-life stage studies were conducted on six pharmaceuticals to assess their impact… more
Date: August 2013
Creator: Overturf, Matthew D.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Constraints-based stoichiometric analysis of hypoxic stress on steroidogenesis in fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas

Description: This article presents a study in which an in silico genome-scale metabolic model of steroidogenesis is used to investigate the effects of hypoxic stress on steroid hormone productions in fish. This article introduces a powerful model for pathway analysis that can lend insights on the effects of various stressor scenarios on metabolic functions.
Date: May 15, 2012
Creator: Hala, David; Petersen, Lene H.; Martinovic, Dalma & Huggett, Duane B.
Partner: UNT Institute of Applied Sciences
open access

Review of laboratory-based terrestrial bioaccumulation assessment approaches for organic chemicals: Current status and future possibilities

Description: Article discusses the state of the science and existing shortcomings in terrestrial bioaccumulation assessment of neutral organic chemicals.
Date: August 13, 2015
Creator: Hoke, Robert; Huggett, Duane B.; Brasfield, Sandra; Brown, Becky; Embry, Michelle; Fairbrother, Anne et al.
Partner: University of North Texas
open access

Investigation of cryopreservation methods for adherent nerve cell networks in vitro.

Description: Cryopreservation in suspension is commonplace for a variety of cell types. However, cryopreservation of adherent cells has achieved limited success. This research aimed to cryopreserve adherent nerve cell networks in vitro in a manner that preserved network morphology and physiology. Successful implementation would enable long term storage of adherent neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays and on-demand access for use in pharmacological and toxicological testing. Based upon morphological as… more
Date: December 2009
Creator: Webb, Veronica Fine
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Metabolic, cardiac and ventilatory regulation in early larvae of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

Description: Early development of O2 chemoreception and hypoxic responses under normoxic (150 mmHg) and chronically hypoxic (110 mmHg) conditions were investigated in Xenopus laevis from hatching to 3 weeks post fertilization. Development, growth, O2 consumption, ventilatory and cardiac performance, and branchial neuroepithelial cells (NEC) density and size were determined. At 3 days post fertilization (dpf), larvae started gill ventilation at a rate of 28 ± 4 beats/min and showed increased frequency to 6… more
Date: December 2009
Creator: Pan, Tien-Chien
Partner: UNT Libraries
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