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Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

Description: On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Hoppe, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

Description: On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Hoppe, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

Description: On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Hoppe, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating and selecting options for oil refit programs

Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Oil Refit Program provides technical support for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Oil Conservation Marketing Demonstration Program implemented in several states (designed to accelerate the use of fuel saving devices and systems by homeowners). BNL assisted with the planning and implementation of the marketing and grants option phases for the New York State Pilot Marketing Demonstration Program and is monitoring the results. Additionally BNL planned, and is implementing, the Oil Refit Option Qualification Program involving procedures for evaluating refit options for selection, field testing, and quantifying fuel savings for the purpose of qualifying additional options for use in the DOE state and other marketing programs. The BNL approach for the evaluation of options on a comparative basis is shown and the potential for optimizing fuel savings by combining available single-choice refit options is examined. Also shown are the estimated fuel savings for each option installed.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Hoppe, R.; Graves, W. & Salzano, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

Description: In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.
Date: June 1, 1983
Creator: Lattin, M.W. & Hoppe, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tungsten Cladding of Tungsten-Uranium Dioxide (W-UO2) Composites by Deposition from Tungsten Hexafluoride (WF6)

Description: A program is being conducted to develop a process for cladding tungsten and tungsten cermet fuels with tungsten deposited from the vapor state by the hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride. Early work was performed using recrystallized, high purity, commercial tungsten as the substrate material. Temperatures in the range 660 to 12950F (350 to 1700°C) and pressures from 10 to 350 mm Hg were investigated. Hydrogen to WF 6 ratios of 10: 1 to 150: 1 were utilized. Efforts were directed toward optimizing deposition process parameters to attain control of qualities such as coating thickness, uniformity, density, impurity content, and surface quality. Substrate penetration methods have been investigated in the interest of completely eliminating the interface between the fueled substrate and cladding. In addition, the effects of process parameters and post-cladding heat treatments on the fuel retention properties of clad composites at 4500 degrees F (2480 degrees C) in hydrogen for 2 hours have been evaluated. As a result of work performed during the first phase of the program it has been shown that the rate of deposition of tungsten from WF 6 and the uniformity of the deposit can be varied in a predictable and reproducible manner by exercising control over the temperature, pressure, and gas flow rates at which the deposits are produced. A significant result of the study is the discovery that substrate nucleation and epitaxial growth in deposits made on both unfueled tungsten and fueled substrates may be effected by pretreating the substrates in hydrogen. High temperature fuel retention testing of tungsten clad W-U02 at 45000F (2480 degrees C) in hydrogen for 2 hours has demonstrated that the vapor deposited layer effectively and consistently restricts fuel loss.
Date: February 15, 1965
Creator: Lamartine, J.T. & Hoppe, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on Performance of Prototype Dynatronix Power Supplies Developed Under a Phase I DOE SBIR

Description: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prototype power supplies fabricated by Dynatronix, Inc. This project supports the advancement of electroforming capabilities to produce ultra-high purity copper. Ultra-high purity copper is an essential material used for a range of current and future fundamental nuclear physics programs such as the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The Mach 30 power supplies are a new design built to the specifications from the requirements of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with regard to timing, voltage, current output, and the required tolerances. The parameters used in these tests were developed empirically over a number of years based on a combination of thermodynamic and kinetics of the electroplating process. The power supplies were operated in a typical cleanroom environment for the production electroforming at PNNL. The units that were received by PNNL in July, 2010 have performed satisfactorily and have demonstrated short term durability.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Hoppe, Eric W. & Merriman, Jason H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical Methodologies for Detection of Gamma-Valerolactone, Delta-Valerolactone, Acephate and Azinphos Methyl and Their Associated Metabolites in Complex Biological Matrices

Description: Non-invasive biomonitoring for chemicals of interest in law enforcement and similar monitoring of pesticides, together with their metabolites, can not only save money but can lead to faster medical attention for individuals exposed to these chemicals. This study describes methods developed for the analysis of gamma-valerolactone (GVL), delta-valerolactone (DVL), acephate, and azinphos methyl in saliva and serum. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) operated in the negative and positive ion mode and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to analyze GVL and DVL. Although both analytical techniques worked well, lower detection limits were obtained with GC/MS. The lactones and their corresponding sodium salts were spiked into both saliva and serum. The lactones were isolated from saliva or serum using newly developed extraction techniques and then subsequently analyzed using GC/MS. The sodium salts of the lactones are nonvolatile and require derivatization prior to analysis by this method. N-methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) was ultimately selected as the reagent for derivatization because the acidic conditions required for reactions with diazomethane caused the salts to undergo intramolecular cyclization to the corresponding lactones. In vitro studies were conducted using rat liver microsomes to determine other metabolites associated with these compounds. Azinphos methyl and acephate are classified as organophosphate pesticides, and are known to be cholinesterase inhibitors in humans and insects, causing neurotoxicity. For this reason they have both exposure and environmental impact implications. These compounds were spiked into serum and saliva and prepared for analysis by GC/MS. Continuation of this research would include analysis by GC/MS under positive ion mode to determine the parent ions of the unknown metabolites. Further research is planned through an in vivo analysis of the lactones and pesticides. These methodologies could be extended for further analysis of other similar compounds.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Zink, E.; Clark, R.; Grant, K.; Campbell, J. & Hoppe, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Fate of PCBs During K Basin Sludge Dissolution in Nitric Acid and with Hydrogen Peroxide Addition

Description: The work described in this report is part of the studies being performed to address the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in K Basin sludge before the sludge can be transferred to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) double shell tanks. One set of tests examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the disposition of PCBs in a simulated K Basin dissolver solution containing 0.5 M nitric acid/1 M Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. A second series of tests examined the disposition of PCBs in a much stronger ({approx}10 M) nitric acid solution, similar to that likely to be encountered in the dissolution of the sludge.
Date: January 4, 1999
Creator: Mong, GM; Schmidt, AJ; Hoppe, EW; Pool, KH; Silvers, KL & Thornton, BM
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct efficiency measurement and analysis of residential oil-fired boiler systems: burner-boiler/furnace efficiency test project. Annual report FY 1978

Description: A laboratory study is made to measure the efficiencies of residential heating equipment. A direct measurement technique provides an accurate evaluation of the efficiency of residential heating units during full-load and part-load operation. The laboratory data is then used to determine annual fuel consumption and fuel-weighted seasonal efficiency for each heating unit based on typical operating parameters (size of residence, geographic location, and usage). The results of the study include both the evaluation of a wide range of hydronic (hot water) burner-boiler package units and the evaluation of retrofit items which are added to an existing heating system to enhance efficiency and performance. The combination of direct, accurate efficiency measurement, and calculation of annual fuel use provide a standard method for comparison of individual heating units and retrofit modifications on a common and realistic basis. This allows a cost effectiveness analysis to be performed so that direct quantitative comparisons can be made.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: McDonald, R.J.; Batey, J.E.; Allen, T.W. & Hoppe, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and validation of a preparation and cleanup method for hydrocarbon containing samples for the analysis of volatile organic compounds

Description: Samples obtained from the Hanford single shell tanks are contaminated with normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) as hydrostatic fluid from the sampling process or can be native to the tank waste. The contamination is usually high enough that a dilution of up to several orders of magnitude may be required before the sample can be analyzed by the conventional purge and trap concentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology. This can prevent detection and measurement of organic constituents that are present at lower concentration levels. To eliminate or minimize the problem, a sample cleanup method has been developed and validated and is presented in this document.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Hoppe, E.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Ross, G.A. & Campbell, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen safety project chemical analysis support task: Window C'' semivolatile organic analysis

Description: Analysis of four samples for semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is the subject of this report. Two of the samples contained a significant amount of liquid. These two samples were partitioned into the solid and liquid phases. The solid and liquid phases were analyzed separately.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W. & Hoppe, E.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waterfowl of the Savannah River Plant: Comprehensive cooling water study. Final report

Description: Thirty-one species of waterfowl have been documented on the Savannah River Plant (SPR). The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has been conducting waterfowl research on the site for the past 15 years. This research has included work on waterfowl utilization of the SRP, wood duck reproductive biology, and waterfowl wintering ecology. Results are described.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Mayer, J. J.; Kennamer, R. A. & Hoppe, R. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-of-day pricing of electrical energy: does it promote the National interest

Description: Time-of-day pricing of electrical energy involves rate incentives designed to encourage a shift of user demand from a utility's peak periods to its off-peak periods. Low ''off-peak'' rates may also serve as an incentive that encourages large, new, inelastic and/or inefficient uses of electrical energy. In the Long Island, New York area, installation of air-to-air heat pumps for space heating and cooling may be stimulated by currently proposed time-of-day pricing structures. Possible consequences of a significant market penetration of the Long Island home-heating market by the air-to-air heat pump are considered. In this case, serious questions are raised regarding the ability of the time-of-day rate structure to achieve its espoused aims. This case may be typical of others throughout the country.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Berlad, A L; Salzano, F J; Hoppe, R J & Batey, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen safety project chemical analysis support task: Window ``C`` semivolatile organic analysis

Description: Analysis of four samples for semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is the subject of this report. Two of the samples contained a significant amount of liquid. These two samples were partitioned into the solid and liquid phases. The solid and liquid phases were analyzed separately.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Gillespie, B. M.; Stromatt, R. W. & Hoppe, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

Description: The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.
Date: April 30, 2012
Creator: Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J. & Hoppe, Eric W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FABRICATION OF A NEW TYPE OF DOUBLE SHELL TARGET HAVING A PVA INNER LAYER

Description: OAK-B135 The General Atomics Target Fabrication team was tasked in FY03, under its ICF Target Support contract, to make a new type of double-shell target. its specifications called for the outer shell to have an inner lining of PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) that would keep the xenon gas fill from occupying the target wall. The inner shell consisted of a glass shell coated with 2000 {angstrom} of silver and filled with 9 atm of deuterium. Furthermore, the delivery deadline was less than seven weeks away. This paper describes the fielding of this double-shell target, made possible through the combined efforts of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and General Atomics target fabrication specialists.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: STEINMAN,D.A; WALLACE,R; GRANT,S.E; HOPPE,M.L & SMITH,JR.J.N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and validation of a cleanup method for hydrocarbon containing samples for the analysis of semivolatile organic compounds

Description: Samples obtained from the Hanford single shell tanks (SSTs) are contaminated with normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) as hydrostatic fluid from the sampling process or can be native to the tank waste. The contamination is usually high enough that a dilution of up to several orders of magnitude may be required before the sample can be analyzed by the conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology. This can prevent detection and measurement of organic constituents that are present at lower concentration levels. To eliminate or minimize the problem, a sample cleanup method has been developed and validated and is presented in this document.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Hoppe, E.W.; Stromatt, R.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Steele, M.J. & Jones, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental study on the effects of compressive stress on the fatigue crack growth of low-alloy steel

Description: A series of fatigue crack growth rate tests was conducted in order to study effects of negative stress ratio on fatigue crack growth rate of low-alloy steel in air. Four-point bend specimens were used to simulate linear stress distributions typical of pressure vessel applications. This type of testing adds to knowledge on negative stress ratio effects for low-alloy steels obtained in the past from uniform tension-compression tests. Applied bending stress range was varied over twice the yield strength. Load control was used for tests for which the stress range was less than twice the yield strength and deflection control was used for the higher stress range tests. Crack geometries were both short and long fatigue cracks started at notches and tight fatigue cracks for which crack closure could occur over the full crack face. Results are presented in terms of the stress intensity factor ratio R = K{sub MIN}/K{sub MAX}. The negative R-ratio test results were correlated to an equation of the form da/dN = C[{Delta}K/(A-R)]{sup n}, where A, C, and n are curve fitting parameters. It was found that effects of negative R-ratio on fatigue crack growth rates for even the high stress range tests could be bounded by correlating the above equation to only positive R-ratio test results and extending the resulting equation into the negative R-ratio regime.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Jones, D. P.; Hoppe, R. G.; Hechmer, J. L. & James, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and validation of a cleanup method for hydrocarbon containing samples for the analysis of semivolatile organic compounds

Description: Samples obtained from the Hanford single shell tanks (SSTs) are contaminated with normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) as hydrostatic fluid from the sampling process or can be native to the tank waste. The contamination is usually high enough that a dilution of up to several orders of magnitude may be required before the sample can be analyzed by the conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology. This can prevent detection and measurement of organic constituents that are present at lower concentration levels. To eliminate or minimize the problem, a sample cleanup method has been developed and validated and is presented in this document.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Hoppe, E. W.; Stromatt, R. W.; Campbell, J. A.; Steele, M. J. & Jones, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department