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Stimulated brillouin backscatter of a short-pulse laser

Description: Stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) from a short-pulse laser, where the pulse length is short compared to the plasma length, is found to be qualitatively different than in the long pulse regime, where the pulse length is long compared to the plasma length. We find that after an initial transient of order the laser pulse length transit time, the instability reaches a steady state in the variables x{prime} = x {minus} V{sub g}t, t{prime} = t, where V{sub g} is the pulse group velocity. In contrast, SBBS in a long pulse can be absolutely unstable and grows indefinitely, or until nonlinearities intervene. We find that the motion of the laser pulse induces Doppler related effects that substantially modify the backscattered spectrum at higher intensities, where the instability is strongly coupled (i.e. , has a growth rate large compared to the ion acoustic frequency).
Date: November 3, 1994
Creator: Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A. & Berger, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray Spectral Measurements and Collisional Radiative Modeling of Hot, High-Z Plasmas at the Omega Laser

Description: M-Band and L-Band Gold spectra between 3 to 5 keV and 8 to 13 keV, respectively, have been recorded by a photometrically calibrated crystal spectrometer. The spectra were emitted from the plasma in the laser deposition region of a 'hot hohlraum'. This is a reduced-scale hohlraum heated with {approx} 9 kJ of 351 nm light in a 1 ns square pulse at the Omega laser. The space- and time-integrated spectra included L-Band line emission from Co-like to Ne-like gold. The three L-Band line features were identified to be the 3s {yields} 2p, 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} 2p{sub 1/2} transitions at {approx}9 keV, {approx}10 keV and {approx}13 keV, respectively. M-Band 5f {yields} 3d, 4d {yields} 3p, and 4p {yields} 3s transition features from Fe-like to P-like gold were also recorded between 3 to 5 keV. Modeling from the radiation-hydrodynamics code LASNEX, the collisional-radiative codes FLYCHK and SCRAM, and the atomic structure code FAC were used to model the plasma and generate simulated spectra for comparison with the recorded spectra. Through these comparisons, we have determined the average electron temperature of the emitting plasma to be {approx} 6.5 keV. The electron temperatures predicted by LASNEX appear to be too large by a factor of about 1.5.
Date: February 20, 2008
Creator: May, M J; Schneider, M B; Hansen, S B; Chung, H; Hinkel, D E; Baldis, H A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Raman Scattering Measurements and Modeling in NIF Ignition Experiments

Description: Recent NIF indirect-drive experiments have shown significant Raman scattering from the inner beams. NIF data has motivated improvements to rad-hydro modeling, leading to the 'high flux model' [M. D. Rosen et al., HEDP 7, 180 (2011)]. Cross-beam energy transfer [P. A. Michel et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010] in the laser entrance hole is an important tool for achieving round implosions, and is uniformly distributed across the laser spot in rad-hydro simulations (but not necessarily in experiments). We find the Raman linear gain spectra computed with these plasma conditions agree well in time-dependent peak wavelength with the measured data, especially when overlapping laser-beam intensities are used. More detailed, spatially non-uniform modeling of the cross-beam transfer has been performed. The resulting gains better follow the time history of the measured backscatter. We shall present the impact of spatially non-uniform energy transfer on SRS gain. This metric is valid when amplification is in a linear regime, and so we shall also present an assessment of whether electron trapping in Langmuir waves can play a role in these shots.
Date: November 4, 2011
Creator: Strozzi, D J; Hinkel, D E; Williams, E A; Town, R J; Michel, P A; Divol, L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser-Plasma Interactions in High-Energy Density Plasmas

Description: Laser-plasma interactions (LPI) have been studied experimentally in high-temperature, high-energy density plasmas. The studies have been performed using the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Rochester, NY. Up to 10 TW of power was incident upon reduced-scale hohlraums, distributed in three laser beam cones. The hot hohlraums fill quickly with plasma. Late in the laser pulse, most of the laser energy is deposited at the laser entrance hole, where most of the LPI takes place. Due to the high electron temperature, the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectrum extends well beyond {omega}{sub 0}/2, due to the Bohm-Gross shift. This high-temperature, high-energy density regime provides a unique opportunity to study LPI beyond inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions.
Date: August 24, 2005
Creator: Constantin, C G; Baldis, H A; Schneider, M B; Hinkel, D E; Langdon, A B; Seka, W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Filamentation and Forward Brillouin Scatter of Entire Smoothed and Aberrated Laser Beams

Description: Laser-plasma interactions are sensitive to both the fine-scale speckle and the larger scale envelope intensity of the beam. For some time, simulations have been done on volumes taken from part of the laser beam cross-section, and the results from multiple simulations extrapolated to predict the behavior of the entire beam. However, extrapolation could very well miss effects of the larger scale structure on the fine-scale. The only definitive method is to simulate the entire beam. These very large calculations have been infeasible until recently, but they are now possible on massively parallel computers. Whole beam simulations show the dramatic difference in the propagation and break up of smoothed and aberrated beams.
Date: October 29, 1999
Creator: Still, C.H.; Berger, R.L.; Langdon, A.B.; Hinkel, D.E. & Williams, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propagation of realistic beams in underdense plasma

Description: The effect of beam structure on propagation through underdense plasma is examined in two different examples. First, it is shown that the distribution of intensities within a laser beam affects how the beam deflects in the presence of transverse plasma flow. A detailed analysis of beam deflection shows that the rate scales linearly with intensity and plasma density, and inversely with plasma temperature. When the plasma flow is subsonic, the deflection rate is proportional to the ion damping decrement, and scales as M/(1 - M{sup 2}){sup 3/2}, where M is the transverse flow Mach number. When the plasma flow is supersonic, the deflection rate scales as 1/[M(M{sup 2} - 1){sup 1/2}]. Next, the effect of beam structure on channel formation by very intense laser beer is studied. A diffraction-limited beam with 40 TW of input power forms a channel through 4OOpm of plasma, whereas when this beam is phase aberrated, channel formation does not occur.
Date: November 10, 1997
Creator: Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.; Berger, R.L.; Powers, L.V.; Langdon, A.B. & Still, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility

Description: This is a brief update on the work being done to design ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility. Updates are presented on three areas of current activity : improvements in modeling, work on a variety of targets spanning the parameter space of possible ignition targets ; and the setting of specifications for target fabrication and diagnostics. Highlights of recent activity include : a simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth on an imploding capsule, done in 3D on a 72{degree} by 72{degree} wedge, with enough zones to resolve modes out to 100 ; and designs of targets at 250eV and 350eV, as well as the baseline 300 eV ; and variation of the central DT gas density, which influences both the Rayleigh-Taylor growth and the smoothness of the DT ice layer.
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Haan, S.W.; Dittrich, T.R.; Marinak, M.M. & Hinkel, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Laser Entrance Hole Shields to Increase Coupling Efficiency in Indirect Drive Ignition Targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

Description: Coupling efficiency, the ratio of the capsule absorbed energy to the driver energy, is a key parameter in ignition targets. The hohlraum originally proposed for NIF coupled {approx}11% of the absorbed laser energy to the capsule as x-rays. We describe here a second generation of hohlraum target which has higher coupling efficiency, {approx}16%. Because the ignition capsule's ability to withstand 3D effects increases rapidly with absorbed energy, the additional energy can significantly increase the likelihood of ignition. The new target includes laser entrance hole (LEH) shields as a principal method for increasing coupling efficiency while controlling symmetry in indirect-drive ICF. The LEH shields are high Z disks placed inside the hohlraum to block the capsule's view of the cold LEHs. The LEH shields can reduce the amount of laser energy required to drive a target to a given temperature via two mechanisms: (1) keeping the temperature high near the capsule pole by putting a barrier between the capsule and the pole, (2) because the capsule pole does not have a view of the cold LEHs, good symmetry requires a shorter hohlraum with less wall area. Current integrated simulations of this class of target couple 140 kJ of x-rays to a capsule out of 865 kJ of absorbed laser energy and produce {approx}10 MJ of yield. In the current designs, which are not completely optimized, the addition of the LEH shields saves {approx}95 kJ of energy (about 10%) over hohlraums without LEH shields.
Date: November 3, 2005
Creator: Callahan, D A; Amendt, P A; Dewald, E L; Haan, S W; Hinkel, D E; Izumi, N et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling the Backscatter and Transmitted Light of High Power Smoothed Beams with pF3D, a Massively Parallel Laser Plasma Interaction Code

Description: Using the three-dimensional wave propagation code, F3D[Berger et al., Phys. Fluids B 5,2243 (1993), Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 5,4337(1998)], and the massively parallel version pF3D, [Still et al. Phys. Plasmas 7 (2000)], we have computed the transmitted and reflected light for laser and plasma conditions in experiments that simulated ignition hohlraum conditions. The frequency spectrum and the wavenumber spectrum of the transmitted light are calculated and used to identify the relative contributions of stimulated forward Brillouin and self-focusing in hydrocarbon-filled balloons, commonly called gasbags. The effect of beam smoothing, smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS), on the stimulated Brillouin backscatter (SBS) from Scale-1 NOVA hohlraums was simulated with the use nonlinear saturation models that limit the amplitude of the driven acoustic waves. Other experiments on CO{sub 2} gasbags simultaneously measure at a range of intensities the SBS reflectivity and the Thomson scatter from the SBS-driven acoustic waves that provide a more detailed test of the modeling. These calculations also predict that the backscattered light will be very nonuniform in the nearfield (the focusing system optics) which is important for specifying the backscatter intensities be tolerated by the National Ignition Facility laser system.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Berger, R.L.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S.; Hinkel, D.E.; Kirkwood, R.K.; Langdon, A.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of Hydrodynamics Simulations in Laser-Plasma Interaction Predictive Capability

Description: Efforts to predict and control laser-plasma interactions (LPI) in ignition hohlraum targets for the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Optical Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] are based on plasma conditions provided by radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Recent experiments provide compelling evidence that codes such as hydra [M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001)] can accurately predict the plasma conditions in laser heated targets such as gas-filled balloon (gasbag) and hohlraum platforms for studying LPI. Initially puzzling experimental observations are found to be caused by bulk hydrodynamic phenomena. Features in backscatter spectra and transmitted light spectra are reproduced from the simulated plasma conditions. Simulations also agree well with Thomson scattering measurements of the electron temperature. The calculated plasma conditions are used to explore a linear-gain based phenomenological model of backscatter. For long plasmas at ignition-relevant electron temperatures, the measured backscatter increases monotonically with gain and is consistent with linear growth for low reflectivities. These results suggest a role for linear gain postprocessing as a metric for assessing LPI risk.
Date: November 2, 2006
Creator: Meezan, N B; Berger, R L; Divol, L; Froula, D H; Hinkel, D E; Jones, O S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser beam smoothing and backscatter saturation processes in plasmas relevant to National Ignition Facility hohlraums

Description: We have used gas-filled targets irradiated at the Nova laser to simulate National Ignition Facility (NlF) hohlraum plasmas and to study the dependence of Stimulated Raman (SRS) and Brillouin (SBS) Scattering on beam smoothing at a range of laser intensities (3{omega}, 2 - 4 10{sup 15}Wcm{sup -2}) and plasma conditions. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of polarization smoothing as a potential upgrade to the NIF. Experiments with higher intensities and higher densities characteristic of 350eV hohlraum designs indicate that with appropriate beam smoothing the backscatter from such hohlraums may be tolerable.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Berger, R L; Cohen, B I; Decker, C D; Dixit, S; Glenzer, S H; Hinkel, D E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

Description: Several choices exist in the design and production of capsules intended to ignite and propagate fusion burn of the DT fuel when imploded by indirect drive at the National Ignition Facility. These choices include ablator material, ablator dopant concentration and distribution, capsule dimensions, and x-ray drive profile (shock timings and strengths). The choice of ablator material must also include fabrication and material characteristics, such as attainable surface finishes, permeability, strength, transparency to radio frequency and infrared radiation, thermal conductivity, and material homogeneity. Understanding the advantages and/or limitations of these choices is an ongoing effort for LLNL and LANL designers. At this time, simulations in one- two- and three- dimensions show that capsules with either a copper doped beryllium or a polyimide (C<sup>22</sup>H<sup>10</sup>N<sup>2</sup>O<sup>4</sup>) ablator material have both the least sensitivity to initial surface roughnesses and favorable fabrication qualities. Simulations also indicate the existence of capsule designs based on these ablator materials which ignite and burn when imploded by less than nominal laser performance (900 kJ energy, 250 TW power, producing 250 eV peak radiation temperature). We will describe and compare these reduced scale capsules, in addition to several designs which use the expected 300 eV peak x-ray drive obtained from the nominal NIF laser (1.3 MJ, 500 TW).
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Bradley, P. A.; Cook, R. C.; Dittrich, T. R.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Marinak, M. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent laser-plasma interaction studies at LLNL

Description: Recent analysis and modeling of Nova experiments which address our understanding of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) will be presented. Forward and backward SBS levels have been investigated with SSD of varying bandwidth and with polarization smoothing using an f/8 focusing geometry to emulate NIF conditions. The interpretation of the experiments is aided using F3D, a fluid code which includes modeling of SBS and SRS; a parallel version of F3D is being developed which will allow the modeling of a plasma approaching the size of an entire NIF laser beam. Cryogenic targets have recently been employed to investigate the dependence of SRS saturation levels on ion wave damping via the Langmuir decay instability.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Berger, R L; Decker, C; Divol, L; Geddes, C; Glenzer, S H; Hinkel, D E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Ignition Campaign Hohlraum Energetics

Description: The first series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, 'The National Ignition Facility: ushering in a new age for high energy density science,' Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] tested ignition hohlraum 'energetics,' a term described by four broad goals: (1) Measurement of laser absorption by the hohlraum; (2) Measurement of the x-ray radiation flux (T{sub RAD}{sup 4}) on the surrogate ignition capsule; (3) Quantitative understanding of the laser absorption and resultant x-ray flux; and (4) Determining whether initial hohlraum performance is consistent with requirements for ignition. This paper summarizes the status of NIF hohlraum energetics experiments. The hohlraum targets and experimental design are described, as well as the results of the initial experiments. The data demonstrate low backscattered energy (&lt; 10%) for hohlraums filled with helium gas. A discussion of our current understanding of NIF hohlraum x-ray drive follows, including an overview of the computational tools, i.e., radiation-hydrodynamics codes, that have been used to design the hohlraums. The performance of the codes is compared to x-ray drive and capsule implosion data from the first NIF experiments. These results bode well for future NIF ignition hohlraum experiments.
Date: November 16, 2009
Creator: Meezan, N B; Atherton, L J; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Dzenitis, E G et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the National Ignition Facility Ignition Hohlraum Energetics Experiments

Description: A series of forty experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] to study energy balance and implosion symmetry in reduced- and full-scale ignition hohlraums was shot at energies up to 1.3 MJ. This paper reports the findings of the analysis of the ensemble of experimental data obtained that has produced an improved model for simulating ignition hohlraums. Last year the first observation in a NIF hohlraum of energy transfer between cones of beams as a function of wavelength shift between those cones was reported [P. Michel, et al, Phys of Plasmas, 17, 056305, (2010)]. Detailed analysis of hohlraum wall emission as measured through the laser entrance hole (LEH) has allowed the amount of energy transferred versus wavelength shift to be quantified. The change in outer beam brightness is found to be quantitatively consistent with LASNEX [G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 2, 51 (1975)] simulations using the predicted energy transfer when possible saturation of the plasma wave mediating the transfer is included. The effect of the predicted energy transfer on implosion symmetry is also found to be in good agreement with gated x-ray framing camera images. Hohlraum energy balance, as measured by x-ray power escaping the LEH, is quantitatively consistent with revised estimates of backscatter and incident laser energy combined with a more rigorous non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium atomic physics model with greater emissivity than the simpler average-atom model used in the original design of NIF targets.
Date: November 22, 2010
Creator: Town, R J; Rosen, M D; Michel, P A; Divol, L; Moody, J D; Kyrala, G A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hard X-ray and Hot Electron Environment in Vacuum Hohlraums at NIF

Description: Time resolved hard x-ray images (hv &gt; 9 keV) and time integrated hard x-ray spectra (hv = 18-150 keV) from vacuum hohlraums irradiated with four 351 nm wavelength NIF laser beams are presented as a function of hohlraum size and laser power and duration. The hard x-ray images and spectra provide insight into the time evolution of the hohlraum plasma filling and the production of hot electrons. The fraction of laser energy detected as hot electrons (f{sub hot}) and a comparison to a filling model are presented.
Date: September 22, 2005
Creator: McDonald, J. W.; Suter, L. J.; Landen, O. L.; Foster, J. M.; Celeste, J. R.; Holder, J. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser coupling to reduced-scale targets at NIF Early Light

Description: Deposition of maximum laser energy into a small, high-Z enclosure in a short laser pulse creates a hot environment. Such targets were recently included in an experimental campaign using the first four of the 192 beams of the National Ignition Facility [J. A. Paisner, E. M. Campbell, and W. J. Hogan, Fusion Technology 26, 755 (1994)], under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These targets demonstrate good laser coupling, reaching a radiation temperature of 340 eV. In addition, the Raman backscatter spectrum contains features consistent with Brillouin backscatter of Raman forward scatter [A. B. Langdon and D. E. Hinkel, Physical Review Letters 89, 015003 (2002)]. Also, NIF Early Light diagnostics indicate that 20% of the direct backscatter from these reduced-scale targets is in the polarization orthogonal to that of the incident light.
Date: August 31, 2005
Creator: Hinkel, D E; Schneider, M B; Young, B K; Holder, J P; Langdon, A B; Baldis, H A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department