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Direct liquefaction of low-rank coal. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: A multistep direct liquefaction process specifically aimed at low-rank coals (LRCs) has been developed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The process consists of a preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and polishing using a phenolic solvent or solvent blend to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrogenation step. This project addresses two research questions necessary for the further development and scaleup of this process: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for effective hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The project is being performed as two tasks, the first consisting of ten recycle tests and the second consisting of twelve hydrotreatment tests performed at various conditions. Several activities were performed during this quarter. (1) A paper entitled {open_quotes}Solvent Recyclability in a Multistep Direct Liquefaction Process{close_quotes} was presented at the 1995 Coal Liquefaction and Gas Conversion Contractors{close_quote} Review Conference that was held in Pittsburgh, PA, August 29-31, 1995. (2) The Task 1 solvent recyclability tests were completed. (3) The Task 1 quality assurance/quality control checks were performed. (4) The first seven Task 2 hydrotreatability tests were completed. Analysis of the Task 1 data indicates that (1) the multistep process produces adequate quantities of excess solvent for recycle and (2) the product slates of all of the tests were fairly consistent.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Hetland, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct liquefaction of low-rank coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

Description: A multistep direct liquefaction process specifically aimed at low-rank coals (LRCs) has been developed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The process consists of a preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and polishing using a phenolic solvent or solvent blend to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrogenation step. This project will address two research questions necessary for the further development and scaleup of this process: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for effective hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The project will be performed as two tasks, the first consisting of ten recycle tests and the second consisting of twelve hydrotreatment tests performed at various conditions.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Hetland, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct liquefaction of low-rank coal. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995

Description: A multistep direct liquefaction process specifically aimed at low-rank coals (LRCs) has been developed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The process consists of a preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and polishing using a phenolic solvent or solvent blend to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrogenation step. This project addresses two research questions necessary for the further development and scaleup of this process: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for effective hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The project involves two tasks, the first consisting of ten recycle tests and the second consisting of twelve hydrotreatment tests performed at various conditions. Activities performed during this quarter are discussed.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Hetland, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct liquefaction of low-rank coal. Final technical report, July 13, 1994--November 30, 1995

Description: A multistep direct liquefaction process specifically aimed at low- rank coals has been developed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The process consists of a preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and polishing using a phenolic solvent or solvent blend to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrogenation step. This project addresses two research questions necessary for the further development and scaleup of this process: 1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and 2) determination of the minimum severity required for effective hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The project was performed during two tasks: the first consisting of ten recycle tests and the second consisting of twelve hydrotreatment tests performed at various conditions. This project showed that the solvent could be recycled during the preconversion, solubilization and polishing steps of the multistep process and that lower-severity conditions can be used to successfully hydrotreat the product of the multistep process. The success of this project indicates that additional studies should be performed to evaluate the liquid-phase reactions taking place during batch tests in which the gas flow is continuous (i.e., the gas effects would be negligible). In addition, the entire multistep process (including hydrotreatment) should be evaluated during continuous unit operations. 2 refs., 11 figs., 27 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Hetland, M.D. & Rindt, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals

Description: Co-processing of low-rank coals (LRCs) with petroleum resids under mild conditions may produce a product that extends petroleum refinery feeds with a partially coal-derived material. These co-processing products may also provide a lower-cost way to introduce coal-derived materials into the commercial market. In this staged process, the petroleum resid acts as a solvent, aiding in the solubilization of the coal during the first stage, and both the dissolved coal and the resid are upgraded during a second-stage catalytic hydrogenation. Another method of upgrading coal in a liquefaction process is the ChemCoal Process. The process uses chemical methods to transform coal into clean solid and liquid products. It features low-severity conversion of coal in a phenolic solvent, using an alkali promotor and carbon monoxide as the reductant. Oil agglomeration has been used to reduce the ash and mineral matter in bituminous coals to obtain a product with increased heating value, reduced moisture, and lower sulfur content. This method can be used to produce a clean coal feedstock for liquefaction. During agglomeration, an oil is used to preferentially wet the organic phases of the coal, and water is used to wet the minerals, resulting in a separation of ash and water from the coal. The primary objective of this project is to expand the scientific and engineering data base of LRC liquefaction by investigating direct liquefaction processes that will produce the most competitive feedstocks or liquid fuels. The work effort which was proposed for the second year of this cooperative agreement dealt primarily with co-processing and the ChemCoal Process.
Date: April 1, 1988
Creator: Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L. & Willson, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EM Task 9 - Centrifugal Membrane Filtration

Description: This project is designed to establish the utility of a novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology for the remediation of liquid mixed waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in support of the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., a small business and owner of the novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to establish the applicability of the technology to DOE site remediation and the commercial viability of the technology for liquid mixed waste stream remediation. The technology is a uniquely configured process that makes use of ultrafiltration and centrifugal force to separate suspended and dissolved solids from liquid waste streams, producing a filtered water stream and a low-volume contaminated concentrate stream. This technology has the potential for effective and efficient waste volume minimization, the treatment of liquid tank wastes, the remediation of contaminated groundwater plumes, and the treatment of secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, as well as the liquid waste stream generated during decontamination and decommissioning activities.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Stevens, B. G.; Stepan, D. J. & Hetland, M. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

Description: The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.
Date: February 25, 2002
Creator: Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D. & O'Leary, E. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

Description: Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)
Date: April 1, 1987
Creator: Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department