11 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Sensitivity Analysis of the DARHT-II 2.5MV/2kA Diode

Description: This report summarizes the study of the tolerance limits on the assembly of the cathode and the Pierce electrode for the DARHT-II diode (2.5 MV, 2 kA case), performed through a series of computer simulations using the PIC code WARP [1]. We have considered sources of beam quality degradation like the errors in axial and transverse positioning, and the size of the radial gap between the cathode and the Pierce electrode (shroud). The figure of merit was chosen to be the RMS beam (edge) emittance at a distance of 1 meter from the cathode, as defined by {var_epsilon}{sub x} = 4 {beta}{gamma} {radical}(<x{sup 2}><x{prime}{sup 2}>-<xx{prime}>{sup 2}) {center_dot}. The analysis shows that to position the cathode at the correct axial and transverse location is more important than the size of the radial gap.
Date: December 22, 2006
Creator: Henestroza, Enrique
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper

Description: This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section ...
Date: August 4, 2006
Creator: Waldron, Will; Reginato, Lou; Chow, Ken; Houck, Tim; Henestroza, Enrique; Yu, Simon et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and simulation of a multi-beamlet injector for a highcurrent accelerator

Description: A multi-beamlet approach to a high current ion injector, whereby a large number of beamlets are accelerated and then merged to form a single beam, offers a number of potential advantages over a monolithic single beam injector. These advantages include a smaller transverse footprint, more control over the shaping and aiming of the beam, and more flexibility in the choice of ion sources. A potential drawback however is a larger emittance. In this paper, we seek to understand the merging of the beamlets and how it determines the emittance. When the constraints imposed by beam propagation physics and practical engineering issues are included, the design is reduced to a few free parameters. We describe the physics design of a multi-beamlet injector, and produce a design for an example set of parameters. Extensive use of 2-D and 3-D particle simulations was made in understanding the injector. Design tolerances and sensitivities are discussed in general and in relation to the example.
Date: February 14, 2002
Creator: Grote, David P.; Henestroza, Enrique & Kwan, Joe W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXTRACTION COMPRESSION AND ACCELERATION OF HIGH LINE CHARGE DENSITY ION BEAMS

Description: High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) applications require high line charge density ion beams. An efficient method to obtain this type of beams is to extract a long pulse, high current beam from a gun at high energy, and let the beam pass through a decelerating field to compress it. The low energy beam-bunch is loaded into a solenoid and matched to a Brillouin flow. The Brillouin equilibrium is independent of the energy if the relationship between the beam size (a), solenoid magnetic field strength (B) and line charge density is such that (Ba){sup 2} is proportional to the line charge density. Thus it is possible to accelerate a matched beam at constant line charge density. An experiment, NDCX-1c is being designed to test the feasibility of this type of injectors, where we will extract a 1 microsecond, 100 mA, potassium beam at 160 keV, decelerate it to 55 keV (density {approx}0.2 {micro}C/m), and load it into a 2.5 T solenoid where it will be accelerated to 100-150 keV (head to tail) at constant line charge density. The head-to-tail velocity tilt can be used to increase bunch compression and to control longitudinal beam expansion. We will present the physics design and numerical simulations of the proposed experiment.
Date: May 20, 2005
Creator: Henestroza, Enrique; Henestroza, E.; Peters, C.; Yu, S.S.; Grote, D.P. & Briggs, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of a final focus system for high intensity beams

Description: The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The final focus scenario in an HIF driver consists of several large aperture quadrupole magnets followed by a drift section in which the beam space charge is neutralized by a plasma. This beam is required to hit a millimeter-sized target spot at the end of the drift section. The objective of the NTX experiments and associated theory and simulations is to study the various physical mechanisms that determine the final spot size (radius r{sub s}) at a given distance (f) from the end of the last quadrupole. In a fusion driver, f is the standoff distance required to keep the chamber wall and superconducting magnets properly protected. The NTX final quadrupole focusing system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final spot is determined by the conditions of the beam entering the quadrupole section, the beam dynamics in the magnetic lattice, and the plasma neutralization dynamics in the drift section. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. In this paper, we will describe the theoretical and experimental aspects of the beam dynamics in the quadrupole lattice, and how these physical effects influence the final beam size. In particular, we present theoretical and experimental results on the dependence of final spot size on geometric aberrations and perveance.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Bieniosek, Frank M.; Shuman, Derek B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Focusing and neutralization of intense beams

Description: In heavy ion inertial confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams through the target chamber is essential for the viability of an economically competitive heavy ion fusion power plant. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with PIC simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the NTX (Neutralized Transport Experiment) as shown in Figure 1. The experiment consists of 3 phases, each with physics issues of its own. Phase 1 is designed to generate a very high brightness potassium beam with variable perveance, using a beam aperturing technique. Phase 2 consists of magnetic transport through four pulsed quadrupoles. Here, beam tuning as well as the effects of phase space dilution through higher order nonlinear fields must be understood. In Phase 3, a converging ion beam at the exit of the magnetic section is transported through a drift section with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we present first results from all 3 phases of the experiment.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Yu, Simon S.; Anders, Andre; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, Shmuel; Henestroza, Enrique; Roy, Prabir et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What product might a renewal of Heavy IonFusion development offerthat competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs

Description: In 1994 a Fusion Technology journal publication by Logan, Moir and Hoffman described how exploiting unusually-strong economy-of-scale for large (8 GWe-scale) multi-unit HIF plants sharing a driver and target factory among several low cost molten salt fusion chambers {at} < $40M per 2.4 GW fusion each (Fig. 1), could produce electricity below 3 cts/kWehr, even lower than similar multi-unit fission plants. The fusion electric plant could cost $12.5 B for 7.5 GWe and produce hydrogen fuel by electrolysis at prices competitive with gasoline-powered hybrids getting fuel from oil at $20$/bbl. At $60/bbl oil, the fusion plant can cost $35B and compete {at} 10% APR financing. Given massive and still-increasing world demand for transportation fuel even with oil climbing above $60/bbl, large HIF plants producing both low cost electricity and hydrogen could be more relevant to motivate new R&D funding for HIF development in the next few years. Three major challenges to get there: (1) NIF ignition in indirect drive geometry for liquid chambers, (2) a modular accelerator to enable a one-module IRE < $100 M, (3) compatible HIF target, driver and chamber allowing a small driver {at}< $500 M cost for a >100MWe net power DEMO. This scoping study, at a very preliminary conceptual level, attempts to identify how we might meet the last two great challenges taking advantage of several recent ideas and advances which motivate reconsideration of modular HIF drivers: >60X longitudinal compression of neutralized ion beams using a variable waveform induction module in NDCX down to 2 nanosecond bunches, the proof-of-principle demonstration of fast optical-gated solid state SiC switches by George Caporaso's group at LLNL (see George's RPIA06 paper), and recent work by Ed Lee, John Barnard and Hong Qin on methods for time-dependent correction of chromatic focusing errors in neutralized beams with up to 10 % ...
Date: April 19, 2006
Creator: Logan, Grant; Lee, Ed; Yu, Simon; Briggs, Dick; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research Opportunities in High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas on the NDCX-II Facility

Description: Intense beams of heavy ions offer a very attractive tool for fundamental research in high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy science. These applications build on the significant recent advances in the generation, compression and focusing of intense heavy ion beams in the presence of a neutralizing background plasma. Such beams can provide uniform volumetric heating of the target during a time-scale shorter than the hydrodynamic response time, thereby enabling a significant suite of experiments that will elucidate the underlying physics of dense, strongly-coupled plasma states, which have been heretofore poorly understood and inadequately diagnosed, particularly in the warm dense matter regime. The innovations, fundamental knowledge, and experimental capabilities developed in this basic research program is also expected to provide new research opportunities to study the physics of directly-driven ion targets, which can dramatically reduce the size of heavy ion beam drivers for inertial fusion energy applications. Experiments examining the behavior of thin target foils heated to the warm dense matter regime began at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 2008, using the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment - I (NDCX-I) facility, and its associated target chamber and diagnostics. The upgrade of this facility, called NDCX-II, will enable an exciting set of scientific experiments that require highly uniform heating of the target, using Li{sup +} ions which enter the target with kinetic energy in the range of 3 MeV, slightly above the Bragg peak for energy deposition, and exit with energies slightly below the Bragg peak. This document briefly summarizes the wide range of fundamental scientific experiments that can be carried out on the NDCX-II facility, pertaining to the two charges presented to the 2008 Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee (FESAC) panel on High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas (HEDLP). These charges include: (1) Identify the compelling scientific opportunities for research ...
Date: March 23, 2009
Creator: Barnard, John; Cohen, Ron; Friedman, Alex; Grote, Dave; Lund, Steven; Sharp, Bill et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron beam diagnostic for space charge measurement of an ion beam

Description: A non-perturbing electron beam diagnostic system for measuring the charge distribution of an ion beam is developed for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) beam physics studies. Conventional diagnostics require temporary insertion of sensors into the beam, but such diagnostics stop the beam, or significantly alter its properties. In this diagnostic a low energy, low current electron beam is swept transversely across the ion beam; the measured electron beam deflection is used to infer the charge density profile of the ion beam. The initial application of this diagnostic is to the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), which is exploring the physics of space-charge-dominated beam focusing onto a small spot using a neutralizing plasma. Design and development of this diagnostic and performance with the NTX ion beamline is presented.
Date: September 25, 2004
Creator: Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Shuman, Derek B.; Ludvig, Jozsef et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron-beam diagnostic for space-charge measurement of an ion beam

Description: An electron beam diagnostic system for measuring the charge distribution of an ion beam without changing its properties is presently under development for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) beam physics studies. Conventional diagnostics require temporary insertion of sensors into the beam, but these capture it, or significantly alter its properties. In this new diagnostic a low energy, low current electron beam is scanned transversely across the ion beam; the measured electron beam deflection is used to calculate the line-integrated charge density of the ion beam, assuming at present a circular charge distribution that is functionally dependent only on radius. The initial application of this diagnostic is being made to the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), which is exploring the physics of space charge dominated beam focusing through neutralizing plasma onto a small spot. The diagnostic system is able to scan an ion beam of up to 3 cm radius. Design and performance of this diagnostic system is presented.
Date: April 24, 2003
Creator: Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Shuman, Derek B.; Ludvig, Jozsef et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department