39 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Energy from hot dry rock

Description: The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Program is described. The system, operation, results, development program, environmental implications, resource, economics, and future plans are discussed. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hendron, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy extraction operations: some preliminary results

Description: An experimental project being conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has extracted thermal energy from Precambrian granitic rock by injection and circulating water through fractured zones or reservoirs. Two boreholes were drilled to depths of about 3 km (10,000 ft) in a location selected for high heat flow and an apparent lack of faulting. Bottom-hole temperature was 205/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F). The holes were connected at depth by hydraulic fracturing to form a flow path and heat extraction surface. Energy has been extracted at rates exceeding 5 MW(t) in three operations totaling 2847 h. These operations are summarized.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hendron, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot dry rock energy project

Description: A proof-of-concept experimental project by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory endeavors to establish the feasibility of exploitation of the thermal energy contained in the earth's crust where such energy and a transporting fluid have not been juxtaposed in nature. A region of high heat flow and apparently unfaulted basement rock formation was selected. Two boreholes, drilled to a total depth of about 3 km (10,000 ft) and penetrating about 2.5 km (7500 ft) into the Precambrian formation, to a rock temperature of 200/sup 0/C, have been connected at depth by a hydraulically fractured zone to form the heat extraction surface. Energy was extracted at a rate of 3.2 MW(t) with water temperature of 132/sup 0/C during a 96-h preliminary circulating test run performed late in September 1977. This paper traces the progress of the project, summarizes procedures and salient events, and references detailed reports and specialized topics.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Hendron, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The US Hot Dry Rock project

Description: The Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy project began in the early 1970's with the objective of developing a technology to make economically available the large ubiquitous thermal energy of the upper earth crust. The program has been funded by the Department of Energy (and its predecessors) and for a few years with participation by West Germany and Japan. An energy reservoir was accessed by drilling and hydraulically fracturing in the precambrian basement rock outside the Valles Caldera of north-central New Mexico. Water was circulated through the reservoir (Phase I, 1978-1980) producing up to 5 MWt at 132/sup 0/C. A second (Phase II) reservoir has been established with a deeper pair of holes and an initial flow test completed producing about 10 MWt at 190/sup 0/C. These accomplishments have been supported and paralleled by developments in drilling, well completion and instrumentation hardware. Acoustic or microseismic fracture mapping and geochemistry studies in addition to hydraulic and thermal data contribute to reservoir analyses. Studies of some of the estimated 430,000 quads of HDR resources in the United States have been made with special attention focused on sites most advantageous for early development.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Hendron, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot Dry Rock at Fenton Hill, USA

Description: The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Project began in the early 1970's with the objective of developing a technology to make economically available the large ubiquitous thermal energy of the upper earth crust. The program, operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, has been funded by the Department of Energy (and its predecessors) and for a few years with participation by West Germany and Japan. An energy reservoir was accessed by drilling and hydraulically fracturing in the Precambrian basement rock at Fenton Hill, outside the Valles Caldera of north-central New Mexico. Water was circulated through the reservoir (Phase 1, 1978--1980) producing up to 5 MWt at 132/degree/C. A second (Phase 2) reservoir has been established with a deeper pair of holes and an initial flow test completed producing about 10 MWt at 190/degree/C. These accomplishments have been supported and paralleled by developments in drilling, well completion and instrumentation hardware. Acoustic or microseismic fracture mapping and geochemistry studies in addition to hydraulic and thermal data contribute to reservoir analyses. Studies of some of the estimated 430,000 quads of HDR resources in the United States have been made with special attention focused on sites most advantageous for early development. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Hendron, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot dry rock energy extraction operations

Description: Progress in the establishment of a two-hole and connecting-fracture system on the southwest flank of the Valles Caldera in north-central New Mexico is summarized. Piping and equipment to complete the energy extraction system, the initial operation, and some brief and early interpretations of results are reported. To date the loop has run 52 days with several minor interruptions of short duration and 3 longer ones of up to 14 h. (JGB)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Hendron, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building America Performance Analysis Procedures for Existing Homes

Description: Because there are more than 101 million residential households in the United States today, it is not surprising that existing residential buildings represent an extremely large source of potential energy savings. Because thousands of these homes are renovated each year, Building America is investigating the best ways to make existing homes more energy-efficient, based on lessons learned from research in new homes. The Building America program is aiming for a 20%-30% reduction in energy use in existing homes by 2020. The strategy for the existing homes project of Building America is to establish technology pathways that reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in American homes. The existing buildings project focuses on finding ways to adapt the results from the new homes research to retrofit applications in existing homes. Research activities include a combination of computer modeling, field demonstrations, and long-term monitoring to support the development of integrated approaches to reduce energy use in existing residential buildings. Analytical tools are being developed to guide designers and builders in selecting the best approaches for each application. Also, DOE partners with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to increase energy efficiency in existing homes through the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Hendron, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Whole-House Energy Analysis Procedures for Existing Homes: Preprint

Description: This paper describes a proposed set of guidelines for analyzing the energy savings achieved by a package of retrofits or an extensive rehabilitation of an existing home. It also describes certain field test and audit methods that can help establish accurate building system performance characteristics that are needed for a meaningful simulation of whole-house energy use. Several sets of default efficiency values have been developed for older appliances that cannot be easily tested and for which published specifications are not readily available. These proposed analysis procedures are documented more comprehensively in NREL Technical Report TP-550-38238.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Hendron, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 15, 2006

Description: To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a ''moving target''.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Hendron, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 19, 2008

Description: To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.
Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Hendron, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 20, 2007

Description: To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Hendron, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated August 15, 2007

Description: To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Hendron, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Version 3.1, Updated July 14, 2004

Description: To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. A series of user profiles, intended to represent the behavior of a ''standard'' set of occupants, was created for use in conjunction with the Benchmark.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Hendron, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 29, 2004

Description: To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. A series of user profiles, intended to represent the behavior of a ''standard'' set of occupants, was created for use in conjunction with the Benchmark.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Hendron, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power from the hot-dry-rock geothermal resource

Description: The history of the development of the first HDR reservoir at the Fenton Hill site is presented. Particulars on the surface piping and data collection system are described, as well as a brief historical account of the individual experiments. Field research results at Fenton Hill are described. From the research, it has been learned that the geothermal reservoir growth is due in large part to pressurization and thermophysical effects. The impedance to flow along the fractures within the reservoir decreases as thermal contraction and pressurization of the reservoir continue to open natural joints. Minimal environmental effects have been noted as a result of closed-system circulation; and the chemical quality of the geothermal fluid has been good, in contrast to the corrosive geothermal fluids in many hydrothermal systems. Some of the general as well as site-specific problems at the Fenton Hill site are discussed. In-spite of these problems, an HDR system is operational, and is being used to answer questions raised by the theoretical research. The types and options of power generation available are addressed. A binary-fluid cycle that can use nonaqueous working fluids is an alternative to single- or multiple-flash systems. These nonaqueous fluids may fall within a large range of hydrocarbon, fluorocarbon, and organic fluids. R-114 was tested in binary cycle at Fenton Hill and was chosen largely for its heat-transfer characteristics and previous industrial experience.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Becker, N.M.; Pettitt, R.A. & Hendron, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

Description: The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Hendron, R. & Engebrecht, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

Description: In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Hendron, R. & Eastment, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Standardized Domestic Hot Water Event Schedules for Residential Buildings

Description: The Building America Research Benchmark is a standard house definition created as a point of reference for tracking progress toward multi-year energy savings targets. As part of its development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has established a set of domestic hot water events to be used in conjunction with sub-hourly analysis of advanced hot water systems.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Hendron, R. & Burch, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for Evaluating Energy Use of Dishwashers, Clothes Washers, and Clothes Dryers: Preprint

Description: Building America teams are researching opportunities to improve energy efficiency for some of the more challenging end-uses, such as lighting (both fixed and occupant-provided), appliances (clothes washer, dishwasher, clothes dryer, refrigerator, and range), and miscellaneous electric loads, which are all heavily dependent on occupant behavior and product choices. These end-uses have grown to be a much more significant fraction of total household energy use (as much as 50% for very efficient homes) as energy efficient homes have become more commonplace through programs such as ENERGY STAR and Building America. As modern appliances become more sophisticated the residential energy analyst is faced with a daunting task in trying to calculate the energy savings of high efficiency appliances. Unfortunately, most whole-building simulation tools do not allow the input of detailed appliance specifications. Using DOE test procedures the method outlined in this paper presents a reasonable way to generate inputs for whole-building energy-simulation tools. The information necessary to generate these inputs is available on Energy-Guide labels, the ENERGY-STAR website, California Energy Commission's Appliance website and manufacturer's literature. Building America has developed a standard method for analyzing the effect of high efficiency appliances on whole-building energy consumption when compared to the Building America's Research Benchmark building.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Eastment, M. & Hendron, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building America Developments, September 2000, Information Bulletin Number 1 (Revised)

Description: Building America Developments on-line newsletter highlights the Erie-Ellington Homes publicly-funded housing project in Boston, Massachusetts. A Building America and industry partnership that produced energy-efficient manufactured homes built with foam core panels is featured. Also, Habitat for Humanity dedicates two energy-efficient test houses in East Tennessee, and affordable, healthy homes are offered in metro Atlanta. Upcoming events in the Building America Program are also listed.
Date: December 1, 2001
Creator: Hendron, R.; Anderson, J. & Epstein, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building America House Performance Analysis Procedures

Description: As the Building America Program has grown to include a large and diverse cross section of the home building industry, accurate and consistent analysis techniques have become more important to help all program partners as they perform design tradeoffs and calculate energy savings for prototype houses built as part of the program. This document illustrates some of the analysis concepts proven effective and reliable for analyzing the transient energy usage of advanced energy systems as well as entire houses. The analysis procedure described here provides a starting point for calculating energy savings of a prototype house relative to two base cases: builder standard practice and regional standard practice. Also provides building simulation analysis to calculate annual energy savings based on side-by-side short-term field testing of a prototype house.
Date: October 29, 2001
Creator: Hendron, R.; Farrar-Nagy, S.; Anderson, R. & Judkoff, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Redrilling of well EE-3 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory HDR (Hot Dry Rock) project

Description: The successful sidetracking of well EE-3 and the drilling of well EE-3A proved that with detailed planning and by adjusting techniques based on previous experience at Fenton Hill, drilling can be accomplished with reduced risk. The primary drilling problems associated with drilling of hot, crystalline basement rock, are (a) abrasiveness between the downhole tools and the formations and (b) a crooked wellbore path. These were essentially eliminated by a specially designed drilling fluid and careful pre-planning of the directional drilling operations. These improvements have taken much of the risk out of drilling at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Test Site. The sidetracking of EE-3 and drilling of EE-3A were undertaken to complete the hydraulic connection between boreholes. Drilling through fractured regions indicated by the dense zones of microseismic activity increased the probability of success. EE-3 was sidetracked at 9373' and redrilled to a depth of 13,182'.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Schillo, J.C.; Nicholson, R.W.; Hendron, R.H. & Thomson, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracturing operations in a dry geothermal reservoir

Description: Fracturing operations at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Test Site initiated unique developments necessary to solve problems caused by an extremely harsh downhole environment. Two deep wells were drilled to approximately 15,000 ft (4.6 km); formation temperatures are in excess of 600/sup 0/F (315/sup 0/C). The wells were drilled during 1979 to 1981, inclined at 35 degrees, one above the other, and directionally drilled in an azimuthal direction orthogonal to the least principal in-situ crustal stress field. Hydraulic fracturing experiments to connect the two wells have used openhole packers, hydraulic jet notching of the borehole wall, cemented-in insolation liners and casing packers. Problems were encountered with hole drag, high fracture gradients, H/sub 2/S in vent back fluids, stress corrosion cracking of tubulars, and the complex nature of three-dimensional fracture growth that requires very large volumes of injected water. Two fractured zones have been formed by hydraulic fracturing and defined by close-in, borehole deployed, microseismic detectors. Initial operations were focused in the injection wellbore near total depth, where water injection treatments totalling 51,000 bbls (8100 m/sup 3/) were accomplished by pumping through a cemented-in 4-1/2 in. liner/PBR assembly. Retrievable casing packers were used to inject 26,000 bbls (4100 m/sup 3/) in the upper section of the open hole. Surface injection pressures (ISIP) varied from 4000 to 5900 psi (27 to 41 MPa) and the fracture gradient ranged from 0.7 to 0.96 psi/ft.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Rowley, J.C.; Pettitt, R.A.; Hendron, R.H.; Sinclair, A.R. & Nicholson, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department