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Measurement of atomic oscillator strengths in ytterbium by observation of coherent Rabi oscillations of excited-state populations

Description: Two methods have been used to measure the oscillator strength of the transition between the ground and 17,992 cm level in XUYb. The first technique involves exciting the transition with a laser pulse that is nearly time-bandwidth limited, of uniform intensity, and has a reproducible shape from shot to shot. The population left in the excited state after the pulse varies sinusoidally with a period that depends on the integral over time of the electric field amplitude and the transition oscillator strength. These are the Rabi oscillations that are predicted by application of the Schrodinger equation to the two-level atom. The second method involves observation of the polarization rotation of a set of degenerate sublevels brought about by a light-shift laser. One sublevel (m/sub j/ = 0) of the J = 1 level at 17,992 cm is populated by a linearly polarized laser. A second copropagating light-shift laser, which is linearly polarized at an angle to the first laser, is tuned between 7.5 and 30 GHz off-resonance with the transition. The light-shift laser causes population to be promoted into the m/sub j/ = +-1 levels through the virtual J = 0, m/sub j/ = 0 level. Two linearly polarized photoionizing lasers photoionize the population only from the m/sub j/ = +-1 levels. The photoion signal oscillates cosinusoidally with a period that depends only on the integrated pulse intensity, the laser detuning, and the transition oscillator strength. Finally, polarization selectivity has been shown experimentally to allow selective photoionization of the odd isotopes of ytterbium using broadband lasers.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Haynam, C.A.; Comaskey, B.J.; Worden, E.F. & Paisner, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational Modeling in Support of National Ignition Facility Operations

Description: Numerical simulation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser performance and automated control of laser setup process are crucial to the project's success. These functions will be performed by two closely coupled computer codes: the virtual beamline (VBL) and the laser operations performance model (LPOM).
Date: October 23, 2001
Creator: Shaw, M J; Sacks, R A; Haynam, C A & Williams, W H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Response to Comment on "The National Ignition Facility Laser Performance Status"

Description: We appreciate Stephen Bodner's continuing interest in the performance of the NIF laser system. However, we find it necessary to disagree with the conclusions he reached in his comments [Appl. Opt. 47, XXX (2008)] on 'National Ignition Facility Laser Performance Status' [Appl. Opt. 46, 3276 (2007)]. In fact, repeated and ongoing tests of the NIF beamlines have demonstrated that NIF can be expected not only to meet or exceed its requirements as established in the mid-1990s in the document National Ignition Facility Functional Requirements and Primary Criteria [Revision 1.3, Report NIF-LLNL-93-058 (1994)], but also to have the flexibility that provides for successfully meeting an ever expanding range of mission goals, including those of ignition.
Date: December 11, 2007
Creator: Haynam, C A; Sacks, R A; Moses, E I; Manes, K; Haan, S & Spaeth, M L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diode laser absorption spectroscopy for process control: Sensor system design methodology

Description: A laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) system has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for process control. LAS has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method to monitor both density and composition. In this paper the important features and components of an industrial LAS diagnostic are described. Application of this approach to vaporization processes requires careful selection of the species and transitions to be monitored The relative vapor pressure, hyperfine structure, isotopic frequency shifts, and electronic temperature all effect the selection of a particular transition. In this paper we describe the methodology for choosing the optimal transition or transitions. Coevaporation of a titanium-niobium alloy is used to illustrate the methodology. In a related paper, T.M. Anklam et al describe the application of this diagnostic to monitoring and controlling composition in a physical vapor deposition process of industrial interest.
Date: March 1995
Creator: Berzins, L. V.; Anklam, T. M.; Chambers, F.; Galanti, S.; Haynam, C. A. & Worden, E. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarization Smoothing on the National Ignition Facility

Description: We have recently implemented polarization smoothing (PS) on one quad of the NIF laser. Specially cut KDP and DKDP crystals at 420 x 420 mm sizes were used to scramble the incident 351 nm laser polarization over the beam aperture. The intensity contrast deduced from the measured focal spot images for one of the NIF beams is in very good agreement with the expected contrast. KDP and DKDP crystals are known to produce considerable amount of transverse stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) when irradiated with large beams at {approx}1-2 GW/cm2. In order to measure the transverse SRS, we attached optical fibers on the side of one of the PS crystals. The KDP PS crystal showed > 1 J/cm2 side scattered SRS at irradiances of 1.2 GW/cm2. The DKDP (70% deuteration level) PS crystal showed significantly less SRS. Detailed analysis of the SRS scattering in the PS crystal is in progress.
Date: September 2, 2005
Creator: Dixit, S N; Munro, D; Murray, J R; Nostrand, M; Wegner, P J; Froula, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NIF Commissioning and Initial Performance Results

Description: The National Ignition Facility at LLNL recently commissioned the first set of four beam lines into the target chamber. This effort, also called NIF Early Light, demonstrated the entire laser system architecture from master oscillator through target and initial X-ray diagnostics. This paper describes the detailed commissioning and installation steps for one of NIF's 48 beam quads. Using a dedicated single beam line Precision Diagnostic System, performance was explored over the entire power versus energy space from 6.4 TW/beam for sub-nanosecond pulses to 25 kJ/beam for 23 ns pulses at 1 {omega}. NEL also demonstrated record single beam line frequency converted Nd:Glass laser energies of 11.3 kJ at 2 {omega} and 10.4 kJ at 3{omega}.
Date: December 19, 2003
Creator: Van Wonterghem, B M; Burkhart, S C; Haynam, C A; Manes, K R; Marshall, C D; Murray, J E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Ignition Facility: The World's Largest Laser

Description: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192-beam laser facility presently under construction at LLNL. When completed, NIF will be a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW ultraviolet laser system. Its missions are to obtain fusion ignition and to perform high energy density experiments in support of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. Four of the NIF beams have been commissioned to demonstrate laser performance including target and beam alignment. During this time, NIF demonstrated on a single-beam basis that it will meet its performance goals and demonstrated its precision and flexibility for pulse shaping, pointing, timing and beam conditioning. It also performed four important experiments for Inertial Confinement Fusion and High Energy Density Science. Presently, the project is installing production hardware to complete the project in 2009 with the goal to begin ignition experiments in 2010. An integrated plan has been developed including the NIF operations, user equipment such as diagnostics and cryogenic target capability, and experiments and calculations to meet this goal.
Date: September 29, 2005
Creator: Moses, E I; Bibeau, C; Bonanno, R E; Haynam, C A; MacGowan, B J; Kauffman, R L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Ignition Campaign Hohlraum Energetics

Description: The first series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, 'The National Ignition Facility: ushering in a new age for high energy density science,' Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] tested ignition hohlraum 'energetics,' a term described by four broad goals: (1) Measurement of laser absorption by the hohlraum; (2) Measurement of the x-ray radiation flux (T{sub RAD}{sup 4}) on the surrogate ignition capsule; (3) Quantitative understanding of the laser absorption and resultant x-ray flux; and (4) Determining whether initial hohlraum performance is consistent with requirements for ignition. This paper summarizes the status of NIF hohlraum energetics experiments. The hohlraum targets and experimental design are described, as well as the results of the initial experiments. The data demonstrate low backscattered energy (< 10%) for hohlraums filled with helium gas. A discussion of our current understanding of NIF hohlraum x-ray drive follows, including an overview of the computational tools, i.e., radiation-hydrodynamics codes, that have been used to design the hohlraums. The performance of the codes is compared to x-ray drive and capsule implosion data from the first NIF experiments. These results bode well for future NIF ignition hohlraum experiments.
Date: November 16, 2009
Creator: Meezan, N B; Atherton, L J; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Dzenitis, E G et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

Description: The production of supersonic jets of material via the interaction of a strong shock wave with a spatially localized density perturbation is a common feature of inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. The behavior of two-dimensional (2D) supersonic jets has previously been investigated in detail [J. M. Foster et. al, Phys. Plasmas 9, 2251 (2002)]. In three-dimensions (3D), however, there are new aspects to the behavior of supersonic jets in compressible media. In this paper, the commissioning activities on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)] to enable hydrodynamic experiments will be presented as well as the results from the first series of hydrodynamic experiments. In these experiments, two of the first four beams of NIF are used to drive a 40 Mbar shock wave into millimeter scale aluminum targets backed by 100 mg/cc carbon aerogel foam. The remaining beams are delayed in time and are used to provide a point-projection x-ray backlighter source for diagnosing the three-dimensional structure of the jet evolution resulting from a variety of 2D and 3D features. Comparisons between data and simulations using several codes will be presented.
Date: February 9, 2005
Creator: Blue, B E; Robey, H F; Glendinning, S G; Bono, M J; Dixit, S N; Foster, J M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hard X-ray and Hot Electron Environment in Vacuum Hohlraums at NIF

Description: Time resolved hard x-ray images (hv > 9 keV) and time integrated hard x-ray spectra (hv = 18-150 keV) from vacuum hohlraums irradiated with four 351 nm wavelength NIF laser beams are presented as a function of hohlraum size and laser power and duration. The hard x-ray images and spectra provide insight into the time evolution of the hohlraum plasma filling and the production of hot electrons. The fraction of laser energy detected as hot electrons (f{sub hot}) and a comparison to a filling model are presented.
Date: September 22, 2005
Creator: McDonald, J. W.; Suter, L. J.; Landen, O. L.; Foster, J. M.; Celeste, J. R.; Holder, J. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser Coupling to Reduced-Scale Targets at the Early Light Program of the National Ignition Facility

Description: A platform for analysis of material properties under extreme conditions, where a sample is bathed in radiation with a high temperature, is under development. This hot environment is produced with a laser by depositing maximum energy into a small, high-Z can. Such targets were recently included in an experimental campaign using the first four of the 192 beams of the National Ignition Facility, under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These targets demonstrate good laser coupling, reaching a radiation temperature of 340 eV. In addition, there is a unique wavelength dependence of the Raman backscattered light that is consistent with Brillouin backscatter of Raman forward scatter [A. B. Langdon and D. E. Hinkel, Physical Review Letters 89, 015003 (2002)]. Finally, novel diagnostic capabilities indicate that 20% of the direct backscatter from these reduced-scale targets is in the polarization orthogonal to that of the incident light.
Date: November 18, 2004
Creator: Hinkel, D E; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Bower, D; Campbell, K M; Celeste, J R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser coupling to reduced-scale targets at NIF Early Light

Description: Deposition of maximum laser energy into a small, high-Z enclosure in a short laser pulse creates a hot environment. Such targets were recently included in an experimental campaign using the first four of the 192 beams of the National Ignition Facility [J. A. Paisner, E. M. Campbell, and W. J. Hogan, Fusion Technology 26, 755 (1994)], under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These targets demonstrate good laser coupling, reaching a radiation temperature of 340 eV. In addition, the Raman backscatter spectrum contains features consistent with Brillouin backscatter of Raman forward scatter [A. B. Langdon and D. E. Hinkel, Physical Review Letters 89, 015003 (2002)]. Also, NIF Early Light diagnostics indicate that 20% of the direct backscatter from these reduced-scale targets is in the polarization orthogonal to that of the incident light.
Date: August 31, 2005
Creator: Hinkel, D E; Schneider, M B; Young, B K; Holder, J P; Langdon, A B; Baldis, H A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department