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Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse : Characteristics of the Mother-child Relationship

Description: This qualitative study examined the characteristics of the mother-child relationship of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse at the time of the abuse. The study consisted of data from the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), the Family of Origin Scale (FOS), and a set of structured interview questions designed by the researcher. Autonomy/intimacy concepts from the FOS examined constructs of clarity of expression, responsibility, respect, openness, acceptance of loss and separation, expression of a wide range of feelings, conflict resolution, mood and tone, and empathy.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Motley, Rebecca Roper
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Selected Adlerian Personality Constructs and Counselor Effectiveness in a Master's Level Counseling Practicum

Description: This study was designed to examine the relationship between selected Adlerian personality constructs and counselor effectiveness in a master's level practicum. In addition, the relationship between counselor age and counselor effectiveness was examined.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Watts, Richard E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Adolescent Discouragement: Development of an Assessment Instrument

Description: The Adolescent Discouragement Indicator (ADI) was developed to assess the Adlerian construct of discouragement. The 75-item ADI contains five subscales corresponding to the five life tasks specified in Individual Psychology and is specifically designed to pinpoint the area and degree of adolescent discouragement. Item selection was based on ratings by five prominent Adlerians and item correlation with subscale scores. Age and sex norms for the ADI were established on 225 females and 299 males 12 to 18 years of age. Findings indicate that female adolescents are less discouraged than male adolescents on all scales except the love scale and both sexes reported the least amount of discouragment on the love scale. The only significant difference among the age groups is between the 13-year-olds and the 15, 16, and 17-year-olds on the love scale. An internal consistency coefficient of .95, a 2-week test-retest coefficient of .89, and a 4-week test-retest coefficient of .92 indicates that the ADI is a reliable instrument. Negative and significant (p < .001) correlations between the ADI and Social Interest Index (Greever, Tseng, & Friedland, 1973) and between the ADI and the Social Interest Scale (Crandall, 1975) contribute to construct validity and support Adler's belief that discouragement and social interest are inversely related. Results of behavioral and academic comparisons on a sample of adolescent males (N=57) seem to indicate a link between behavior, academic performance, and levels of discouragement. Results of factor analysis and interscale correlations are presented. Implications for further research include continued validation using behavioral criteria associated with discouragement, refinement of the subscales and establishment of score ranges to indicate when an adolescent is considered discouraged.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Lingg, MaryAnn
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Everyday Experience of Satisfaction, Conflict, Anger, and Violence for Women in Love Relationships

Description: The problem of this study addressed how women experience the conflict variables of beliefs about conflict, anger arousal, conflict styles, and received and expressed violence as partners in love relationships and how these factors affect their reported satisfaction. Graduate women (M = 186) from University of North Texas completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), a subscale of Relationship Beliefs Inventory (RBI), the Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI), and Interpersonal Conflict Tactics and Strategies Scale (ICTAS), and the Severity of Violence Against Women scale (SVAW). Data were analyzed using MANOVAs with ANOVAs to examine significant differences. Multiple regression procedures were used for the exploratory questions. Women reporting less satisfied relationships were expected to believe that disagreement was more destructive and to report higher anger arousal than those who were more satisfied. The hypotheses were supported. Women who were less satisfied also reported using less constructive conflict tactics and more destructive and avoidant tactics as well as receiving some forms of violence. Expressed violence was not significantly related to low satisfaction. Results suggested that these conflict variables are highly interrelated. Strong feedback loops may develop. Strongly held conflict beliefs may affect the use of destructive and avoidant conflict strategies and increase anger which may reinforce the conflict beliefs. Women who have received violence may use both destructive and avoidant tactics. Use of tactics that escalate then de-escalate conflict suggests that conflict strategies may not be mutually exclusive. However, when a woman is low in anger and has previously received violence from a partner, she may use more avoidant tactics. In contrast women who express violence to their partners may use all three conflict tactics including constructive tactics. This finding suggested that women may express violence as a last resort to get a reaction from their partners.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Smith, R. Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Adult Children of Alcoholic Families with Adult Children from Non-Alcoholic Families: a Replication

Description: The purpose of this study was to re-examine the issue of whether adult children of alcoholics experience more depression, anxiety, and lower self-esteem than do children of non-alcoholic families. This study is a replication of the study of David Dodd, entitled A Comparison of Adult Children of Alcoholic Families with Adult Children from Non-Alcoholic Families. 1990. The measures used in this study were as follows: Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Coopersmith Adult Self-Esteem Inventory, and a questionnaire developed by this writer designed to obtain family history regarding not only alcoholism, but other issues of family dysfunctionality as well. The subjects for this study were 231 students enrolled in the counselor education program at this university, all aged 19 or older. Of the 230 subjects, 31 were male and 199 were female. Eleven males identified themselves as children of alcoholics, as measured by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, and 60 females identified themselves as children of alcoholics. Thus, a total of 71 subjects in this study were identified as children of alcoholics. T-tests were conducted to see whether any differences existed between the male and female groups. No significant differences were found. Results of this study showed that family dysfunctionality rather than parental alcoholism was the factor of variability regarding depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. There appears to be a strong relationship between parental alcoholism and family dysfunctionality, but dysfunctionality clearly has more impact upon depression, anxiety, and self-esteem in the adult children of these families than does alcoholism.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Dooley, Sandra Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Career Paths and Perceived Success Levels of Women Superintendents of Public Schools in the State of Texas

Description: The purposes of this study were to determine the career paths of women superintendents in the state of Texas and their school board members' perceptions of their levels of success. All women currently serving as superintendents of public schools in Texas, as well as all school board members of districts with women serving as superintendents were surveyed. The findings of this study indicate that the "typical" woman superintendent was hired from inside the district, with a master's degree. She was 48.3 years of age. Her first administrative position was the principalship and she moved directly from the principalship to the superintendency. The typical woman served in one district as superintendent. Her teaching and prior administrative experience was at the elementary level. Women superintendents perceived the position of teacher as the most beneficial experience prior to the superintendency. Women superintendents perceived leadership as the most important area of her professional development. School finance was the area perceived by women superintendents as needing to be more extensive in their professional development. Of the women superintendents who responded to this survey, 68.1 percent reported that they did not perceive discrimination in attaining the superintendency. Of the school board members who responded to this survey, 56.2 percent rated their women superintendents as excellent, 2 6 percent rated women superintendents as good, 12.5 percent rated women superintendents as average, 4.1 percent rated women superintendents as below average and 1 percent rated women superintendents as poor. Most school board members either strongly agreed or agreed with statements that women superintendents are capable in areas of school finance, school law, personnel, public relations, bonds and building programs and leadership. Women school board members rated women superintendents slightly higher, on the average, than male school board members.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Lea, Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evolution Incidence and Components of U.S. Police Agency Mental Health Services

Description: Postal survey research was conducted between September and November, 1986, to gather information concerning the evolution, existence and extent of mental health services available to police personnel. Questionnaires were mailed to all 366 municipal, county, and state police agencies in the United States that employed 200 or more workers. Usable data were obtained from 76.8% of the agencies surveyed. Of the 281 respondents who returned usable data, 65.1% reported the existence of mental health services available to their police personnel. The majority of respondents (58.6%) perceived their mental health programs as being equally reactive and preventive in orientation. The most frequently reported existing components were outside agency counseling, stress management seminars, and testing of potential police recruits. Over half (54.8%) of the responding police agencies reported having between 10 and 19 components in their respective mental health programs. The implementation dates and evolution of twenty-five (25) components were examined, and specific components of various police agencies were also revealed. The majority of respondents (70.7%) reported their mental health programs were available to sworn and nonsworn personnel and their families. Almost all respondents (98.3%) viewed their programs as being cost effective. Also, most agencies were satisfied with the four treatment resources listed, which included in-house counseling, outside agency counseling, hospital in-patient programs, and alcohol/drug rehabilitation centers. Slightly over half (50.8%) of the respondents stated their service programs were entitled "Employee Assistance Program." Of the 300 staff workers holding mental health degrees, 101 were reported to have doctoral degrees in psychology. The most frequently reported personality theory utilized by staff members was eclecticism (48.5%). The prevailing high interest in police mental health services is discussed as well as possible reasons why some police managers may be apathetic towards the implementation of such services. Ways of educating police managers as to the benefits ...
Date: May 1987
Creator: White, John H. (John Hubert)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personality Enhancement and the Summer Camp Experience

Description: The study was undertaken to discover if the summer camp experience enhanced personality traits of participants in the camp program. The study was implemented at Greene Family Camp in Bruceville, Texas, during the summer of 1985. Utilized were analyses of variance and two types of factor analyses: principal-components analysis with varimax rotation and principal axis factoring with oblique rotation of factor matrices elicited. Five personality areas were analyzed--sociability, independence, achievement, environmental awareness, and spirituality. Spirituality emerged so strongly that it was removed from further analyses. Remaining personality areas emerged, but groupings of variables, especially those relating to achievement and independence, suggest an inherent commonality among the complex facets of personality. Based on these findings, the researcher recommends further investigation and careful replication.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Kurtz, G. Brian (Gerald Brian)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Adult Children of Alcoholic Families with Adult Children From Non-Alcoholic Families on Depression, Self-Esteem, and Anxiety

Description: The problem of this study was to test the differences between adult children from alcoholic families with adult children from non-alcoholic families on levels of depression, self-esteem, and anxiety. The sample consisted of 203 volunteers, all from the Counselor Education Department, 150 females and 53 males, ages 19 and older. Volunteers who were noted as being adult children of alcoholic families numbered 60. Measures used were the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Coopersmith Adult Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used to test for differences between groups. In addition, a secondary analysis using a one-way MANOVA was used to test for differences between dysfunctional and functional family of origin status on the dependent variables of depression, self-esteem, and anxiety.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Dodd, David T. (David Tennyson), 1957-
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Ethnographic Study of the Use of Puppetry with a Children's Group

Description: This study utilized an ethnographic methodology to examine and describe the various aspects and processes occurring in a children's group as the members created their own puppets and accompanying puppet plays. Individual and interactive behavior patterns were isolated and analyzed as a means of gaining an in depth understanding of the puppetry process. The puppetry process, in turn, was viewed in terms of information it provided regarding the individual members and the group process. The facilitative and non-facilitative aspects of the procedure were delineated. The adult leader met with a group of six boys, in grades four and five, for 12 one-hour sessions in which they made puppets and then created puppet plays around issues that they had articulated as problems. The group sessions were videotaped and transcribed. The transcriptions were coded in an effort to extensively analyze the puppetry process and the group process, and the ways in which the two processes interacted. An independent observer/rater was utilized in order to provide some validity for the researcher's reported results. The puppet-making task appeared to offer an opportunity for individuals to begin to come together in a common, but individual task. Characteristic styles and individual personality dynamics were evidenced. General response to the task was enthusiastic, with varying degrees of satisfaction expressed regarding their finished products. The play-creating and performing process met with less success than the puppet-making. While the group members appeared to be generally amenable to contributing ideas for the puppet plays, the process met with far more resistance in the cooperative task of putting their ideas into a finished product. The group discussion and interaction that occurred around these tasks provided a vehicle by which to view levels of interpersonal skills and the group's overall stage of development. The puppets the children created appeared to act as ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Deniger, Marcy M. (Marcy Marble)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Aggression and Social Interest in Behavior Disordered Students

Description: This study investigated whether behavior disordered children would decrease aggressive behavior if their social interest were developed. Three hypotheses that were tested predicted that there would be a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group on adjusted mean scores on aggressive behavior on post test scores. The measuring instruments used were the Child Behavior Checklist Parent Report Form, the Child Behavior Checklist Teacher Report Form, and the Child Behavior Checklist Director Observation Form. It was also predicted that there would be a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group on post test adjusted mean scores as measured on the Social Interest Scale. An analysis of covariance was employed to test the data. Behavior disordered students in the experimental group participated in three activities designed to develop their social interest. They participated in peer tutoring, socialization with nursing home residents, and group discussions. Data were collected from parents, teachers, and observers of behavior disordered students in an elementary school in Northwest Louisiana during the summer term of 1987. Teachers did report a statistically significant difference between the experimental and the control groups in the decrease of aggressive behavior. These results are in accord with predictions generated by Adlerian theory and with naturalistic data. Parents and observers did not report a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the decrease of aggressive behavior. Significant differences were not found between the experimental and control groups in the development of social interest. Since the teachers did report statistically significant results in this study, it is recommended that these same activities to develop social interest be repeated, that counseling sessions be designed to be more therapeutic, and that additional modeling and role playing be included. It is further recommended that an instrument be developed to measure social interest ...
Date: May 1988
Creator: Brown, Deborah D. (Deborah Dairy)
Partner: UNT Libraries