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The Effects of the CACREP Standards on the Development of Counseling Skills

Description: This study was designed to measure the effectiveness of accreditation standards (specifically, CACREP Standards for counselor education programs) on the development of counseling skills. A measure of counseling skill (The Counselor Rating Form-Short Version) was used to measure the counseling skills of counselor trainees from various masters programs. These students were enrolled in a doctoral program in counselor education and were taking their first semester practicum. A T-Test of Independent Means revealed that the student counselors from CACREP accredited masters programs scored significantly higher on the CRF-S than did students from non CACREP accredited programs. These students generally had higher levels of counseling skill as judged by this measure. Given the convenience of the sample and its size, results must be analyzed carefully. These results do, however, seem to suggest the necessity of further study. There are several conclusions that may be reasonably drawn from these results. The emphasis that the CACREP Standards place on the supervised experience may account for the difference in skill levels between the two groups. Prior research and student self-report support this theory. The fact that these requirements are daunting to unaccredited programs suggests a gap in experiential learning between the two groups.
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Date: May 2002
Creator: McDuff, Laura
Partner: UNT Libraries

Parenting styles and spiritual maturity.

Description: Relationships between parenting styles practiced in individuals' families of origin and the measurement of individuals' spiritual maturity in adulthood were studied. Relationships between gender and the authoritative (facilitative) parenting style comprised the main focus of the study. Participants for this study were recruited from a large, non-denominational Christian church located in north Texas. A total of 300 individuals were randomly selected. A total of 160 individuals filled out the demographic sheet, the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), and the Spiritual Assessment Inventory (SAI). Canonical correlation procedures were performed among the set of SAI scales measuring individuals' spiritual maturity (awareness, instability, grandiosity, realistic acceptance, disappointment, and impression management) and the set of PAQ scales that measure parenting styles (authoritative or facilitative, authoritarian, and permissive) of mothers and fathers. Conclusions about female and male students raised in homes characterized by fathers and mothers with an authoritative (facilitative) parenting style were varied. Female adults raised in homes characterized by fathers and mothers with an authoritative (facilitative) parenting style were not correlated in a positive manner with spiritual maturity. Male adults raised in homes characterized by fathers with an authoritative (facilitative) parenting style demonstrated significance at only a large observed p value and therefore, could not be reported. Male students raised in homes characterized by mothers with an authoritative (facilitative) parenting style were correlated significantly with spiritual maturity in one correlation at the .04 level of significance. In another correlation, at the .003 level of significance, male adults raised in homes characterized by mothers with an authoritative (facilitative) parenting style were not correlated. Some cautions were discussed regarding the findings, and directions for future research on parenting styles and spiritual maturity were discussed.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Bryant, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of a Play Therapy Intervention Conducted by Trained High School Students on the Behavior of Maladjusted Young Children: Implications for School Counselors

Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of a child-centered play therapy intervention conducted by trained high school students on the behavior of preschool and kindergarten children with adjustment difficulties. Specifically, this research determined if play sessions conducted by high school students trained in child-centered play therapy skills and procedures facilitated change in the children's behaviors. The experimental group children (N=14) each received 20 weekly individual play sessions from a high school student enrolled in a Peer Assistance and Leadership class. The high school students were randomly paired with a referred child. The high school students completed 7 one-hour training sessions in child-centered play therapy procedures and skills prior to beginning the weekly, supervised play sessions. The control group (N=12) received no treatment during the study. Pre and post data were collected from parents who completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and teachers who completed the Early Childhood Behavior Scale (ECBS). Multivariate analyses of variance of gained scored revealed statistical significance in 2 of the 4 hypotheses. Specifically, the children in the experimental group showed significant decreases in internalizing behaviors (p = .025) and total behaviors (p = .025) on the CBCL. Although not in the statistically significant range, positive trends were noted in externalizing behaviors on the CBCL (p = .07) and total behaviors on the ECBS (p = .056). All play sessions were conducted in the primary school that the children attended. The high school student facilitated play sessions helped to maximize the school counselor's time by meeting the needs of more students. Implications for school counselors are noted with suggestions for how to begin and maintain a similar program in schools. This study supports the use of child-centered play therapy by trained high school students as an effective intervention for helping young children with a variety of adjustment ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Rhine, Tammy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learner-Centered Teacher Beliefs and Student-Perceived Teaching Effectiveness

Description: Following Barr and Tagg's formalization of the concept of learner-centered educational practice at the postsecondary level as described in their seminal article in Change in 1995, survey instruments have been developed to assess teachers' beliefs about their own learner-centeredness.. The research reported in this dissertation examined the connection between college students' perceptions of teacher effectiveness on each of four dimensions appearing as questions on the IDEA Survey of student reaction to instruction and courses (developed at the IDEA Center, Kansas State University, in the early 1970s) and the Assessment of Learner-Centered Practices (ALCP): Beliefs Portion of the Postsecondary Level Instructor Survey, College Level (developed in early 1999 by B. L. McCombs, University of Denver Research Institute; alpha reliabilities reported). Using scoring rubrics accompanying the ALCP instrument, instructors were identified as learner-centered or non-learner-centered based on their responses. Independent t-tests were performed to determine whether learner-centered instructors were perceived differently by students in terms of teaching effectiveness than non-learner-centered instructors on each of four dimensions: overall excellence of course, overall excellence of instructor, effectiveness of instructor in helping students achieve relevant objectives in the course, and effectiveness of course and instructor in improving students' attitude toward the field of study. Students rated learner-centered instructors higher in all dimensions, but results were not statistically significant. Instructors were also identified as possessing learner- or non-learner-centered beliefs to a greater degree than that necessary for an overall designation. Independent t-tests were performed to determine any differences in student perceptions of effectiveness between these two groups. Again, students rated learner-centered instructors higher in all dimensions, but results were not statistically significant. Recommendations for further research with the ALCP instrument are made, including research to determine whether specific factors and/or questions prove to be statistically significant in predicting student evaluations of effectiveness. Also recommended are replications ...
Date: May 2000
Creator: King, Jeffrey M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Structural Equation Model of Contributing Factors to Adolescent Social Interest

Description: The focus of the present study was to test through SEM the relationships between family influences (FI) and school influences (SI) on factors hypothesized to be associated with adolescent social interest: school belonging (SB), extracurricular participation (EP), and peer/romantic involvement (PRI). The final model consisted of FI and SI that contributed to the expression of adolescent social interest. FI included parental communication and parental caring. SI consisted of teacher fairness. SB consisted of a child's self-reported feelings of belonging at school, EP included self-reported involvement in sports or academic clubs, and PRI consisted of self-reported desire for romantic involvement or desire for participation with others. The proposed model suggested that FI contributed significantly to self-reported SB, EP, and PRI. Additionally, it was hypothesized that SI would contribute significantly to SB and EP, but not to PRI. The data used in the current study were part of an existing data set collected as part of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. The total sample size for the present study was 2,561 male and female adolescents aged 12-19 years. The data consisted of adolescent and parent self-report information. Results suggested a significant relationship between FI and self-reported SB and PRI. As expected, a significant relationship existed between SI and SB. Also as expected, no significant relationship existed between SI and PRI. Neither the relationship between FI and EP nor SI and EP were significant. When analyzed separately, a significant relationship existed between SB and PRI; however, no significant relationship was found between SB and EP. Results also indicated several of the fit indices, including the average off-diagonal absolute standardized residual, the comparative fit index (CFI), and the Bentler-Bonett non-normed fit index (BBNFI), were a low to moderate fit. However, the final model was highly skewed and the model chi-square and chi-square ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Craig, Stephen E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Domestic Violence Study for Counselor Education Masters Students

Description: The issue of domestic violence continues to be of great concern to society. It is crucial counselors have an understanding of dynamics of domestic violence and the impact it has on victims. Even with heightened awareness of the past decade, the issue continues to be misunderstood, missed altogether by counselors, and sometimes misdiagnosed. This study was created to explore the level of understanding masters level counseling students have of domestic violence, battering behavior, victimization, socioeconomic preconceptions, and counseling victims. Masters level counseling students from the University of North Texas, Denton, TX and staff members of two battered women's shelters from the Dallas, TX area participated in a survey to identify the level of knowing and sensitivity to the issue of domestic violence. Upon completion, an independent t-test was conducted to measure differences in these areas between the two groups. Results indicate a need for counseling students to better understand this issue and implications for client/victims.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Beechler, Judith
Partner: UNT Libraries

Priorities of the Professoriate in Historically Black Private Colleges and Universities

Description: The intent of the study was to ascertain the importance faculty at Historically Black Private Colleges and Universities in Texas place upon academic activities of research, teaching and service. A survey of faculty at 4 historically black private colleges and universities in Texas (HBCUs) was conducted to collect data from 158 faculty members; 107 usable questionnaires were returned. A response rate of 67.7 percent was achieved. The pattern that emerged from the data indicates the HBCU faculty in this study lean toward teaching and service as being a viable measure for tenure and promotion. The HBCU faculty in this study should remain cognizant that they are an intricate element within the higher education discipline. According to the perceptions of the HBCU faculty, several indicated that their college/university is important; however, they indicated that their academic discipline is less important in comparison. According to the perceptions of the HBCU faculty, many respondents indicated that their job is a source of considerable personal strain. A comparison with the findings of the 1989 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching reveals more similarities than differences.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Thornton, Artist
Partner: UNT Libraries

Presidents' Leadership Behaviors Associated with Followers' Job Satisfaction, Motivation Toward Extra Effort, and Presidential Effecitveness at Evangelical Colleges and Universities

Description: Transformational leaders have tendencies that include: 1) projecting confidence and optimism about goals and followers' ability, 2) providing a clear vision, 3) encouraging creativity through empowerment and rewarding experimentation, 4) setting high expectations and creating a supportive environment, and 5) establishing personal relationships with followers. Transactional leadership as a process in which leaders and followers decide on goals and how to achieve them through a mutual exchange. The leader provides followers with resources, rewards, and punishment in order to achieve motivation, productivity, and effective task accomplishment. Laissez-faire leadership is the process of letting followers work without direction or guidance from the leader. The laissez-faire leader avoids providing direction and support, shows a lack of active involvement in follower activity, and abdicates responsibilities by maintaining a line of separation between the leader and the followers. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the assumption that a combination of transformational and transactional leadership factors is more predictive of greater followers' job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness than either leadership style alone. The study investigated perceptions of the degree to which transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and laissez-faire leadership were practiced by presidents of member colleges and universities in the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU). In addition, the study considered whether some combination of transformational and transactional behaviors is more predictive of job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness than either transformational or transactional leadership alone. The independent variables in the study included the transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership behaviors of the college and university presidents and the dependent variables were job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness. This study points to specific behaviors that are predictive of job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness. By combining ...
Date: December 2003
Creator: Webb, Kerry S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pre- and Post-matriculation Demographic and Academic Profiles of Undergraduate Hispanic Students: A Single Institution Case Study

Description: This study sought to identify pre- and post-matriculation characteristics of undergraduate Hispanic students at the University of North Texas (UNT). The study also examined demographic trends among this population. Eleven purposes guided the study: 1) to determine geographic origins of the undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT in terms of location of educational institution attended prior to matriculation; 2) to establish whether students entered UNT as true freshmen or transfer students; 3) to ascertain the gender composition of undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT; 4) to report the highest level of education achieved by parents of undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT; 5) to explore patterns in major selection of undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT and who or what influenced that choice of major; 6) to ascertain the percentage of undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT who plan to use financial aid during their enrollment; 7) to examine the graduation rates among undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT; 8) to determine who is most influential in the academic decisions made by Hispanic undergraduate students at UNT; 9) to discover what type of emotional support is given to Hispanic students pertaining to their college enrollment and success; 10) to establish why Hispanic undergraduate students elect to attend UNT; and 11) to discover what factors prohibit new undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT from graduating. Data were collected from undergraduate Hispanic students attending spring 2003 orientation using a new-student survey instrument. Additional data were collected using UNT student information system reports. Chi-square statistics were performed to identify significant results. Results of the study indicated both characteristics substantiated in previous research and characteristics unique to this sample existed among the undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT. The results, particularly as concerned with the parental influence exerted on students in the study, departed from the finding of past research. Additional research ...
Date: August 2003
Creator: Lothringer, Rebecca Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceptions of Parents of Postsecondary Education Students Concerning Parental Notification and Underage Alcohol Offenses

Description: Since the inception of the Higher Education Reauthorization Act of 1998 by the United States Congress, there has been limited research conducted on parental notification policies on campuses of Higher Education concerning alcohol and drug offenses committed by students. This study surveyed parents of incoming freshmen at the University of North Texas regarding their perceptions of Parental Notification policies and their perceptions of underage alcohol offenses by gender, age, ethnicity, and parental status. The relationship between parental notification and underage alcohol offenses was also examined. This study, conducted in the summer of 2002, at the University of North Texas had 539 respondents. An instrument developed to determine parental perceptions of underage alcohol use and parental notification consisted of 20 dichotomous questions. Chi-square tests of independence were used to analyze the data because it could calculate the relationships between two sets of nominal data. Data show that most parents want to be notified in all situations involving underage alcohol offenses and their offspring. Generally, parents do not believe their offspring will use alcohol underage as they enter college and that they are not binge drinkers. Females want to be notified about their student's underage alcohol offenses at a higher rate than males. Males want to be notified at a higher rate than females if using alcohol jeopardizes housing or enrollment in school for their student. Native Americans have great concern for their students in all areas of alcohol use and binge drinking. Parents should stay actively involved in the lives of their offspring as they attend institutions of higher education as well as stay involved with the University community in which their student attends.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Clouse, Maureen McGuinness
Partner: UNT Libraries

Short-Term Child-Centered Play Therapy Training With School Counselors and Teachers in Israel

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of short-term child-centered play therapy training with school counselor and teachers in Israel. A short-term child-centered play therapy course is an intervention that focuses on changing trainees attitudes and beliefs towards children while teaching them child-centered play therapy theory and skills. The experimental group, consisting of 18 volunteer school counselors and teachers in Israel received a total of 15 hours of child-centered play therapy didactic training with a variety of learning experiences. The control group consisted of 15 volunteer school counselors and teachers in Israel. The control group did not receive any training. All participants completed the Play Therapy Attitude-Knowledge-Skill Survey (PTAKSS) before and after the training as a means of measuring change in attitude, knowledge and skill. A second purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of short-term child-centered play therapy training with a comparison group semester long child-centered play therapy training course at the University of North Texas. An analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant positive increase in Knowledge subscale as compared to the control group. However the differences between the experimental and the control group were not significant on the participant's total score on the PTAKSS, their attitudes and beliefs towards children or their skill level. A t-test revealed no significant difference between the experimental and comparison groups on the skill subscale of the PTKASS. Results indicated that there was a significant difference between the experimental and the comparison groups on the Total score, Attitude and Knowledge subscales of the PTAKSS. This study supports the use of short-term play therapy training as an effective training model for increasing the trainee's knowledge of child-centered play therapy. It does not support the use of short-term play therapy training as an effective training model for increasing the trainee's attitudes towards ...
Date: May 2003
Creator: Kagan, Suzi
Partner: UNT Libraries

Contributions of W. A. Criswell to the Establishment and Development of The Criswell College

Description: This study researched the role of W. A. Criswell as Chancellor of The Criswell College and his involvement in the areas of development, facilities acquisitions, personnel, and academics. This qualitative historical research was taken from Criswell's personal files from 1968 through 2001. W. A. Criswell gave written approval for this review and publication in November 2001. Included in Criswell's files were primary and secondary sources including copies of letters, board meeting minutes, personal notes, catalogs, newspaper articles, sermons, speeches, and other printed forms of communication. All documents pertaining to Criswell's involvement in these four categories were copied and the documents organized in chronological order, by the decade of the 1970s, the 1980s, and 1990s. Primary sources also included personal interviews and telephone interviews with eyewitnesses who were present at the events described, and board meeting minutes. Secondary sources included newspaper articles, magazine articles, national Christian magazines, and journals. Findings were summarized, evaluated and the following research questions answered (1) What was the purpose for establishing a Christian institution of higher education sponsored by First Baptist Church in Dallas, Texas? (2) What was the rationale for establishing a Christian institution of higher education in an area where a high density of Christian colleges already existed? (3) What was Chancellor Criswell's vision for a Christian institution of higher education in its infancy? (4) Do alumni survey results in 1999 reflect the vision Criswell had for The Criswell College? (5) How did Chancellor Criswell develop endowment for The Criswell College? (6) What involvement did Chancellor Criswell have in the acquisition of physical facilities for The Criswell College? (7) What influence did Chancellor Criswell have over the curriculum development process in the history of The Criswell College? (8) Were there changes in the gender and diversity make-up of student enrollment at The Criswell College ...
Date: May 2004
Creator: Cowan, Gloria
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Immigrant Korean Parents in the United States

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy training in: (a) increasing immigrant Korean parents' empathic behavior with their children; (b) increasing immigrant Korean parents' acceptance level toward their children; and (c) reducing immigrant Korean parents' stress related to parenting.The experimental group, consisting of 17 immigrant Korean parents in the United States, received 10 weekly 2-hour filial therapy training sessions and participated in weekly 30-minute play sessions with one of their children. The control group, consisting of 15 immigrant Korean parents in the United States, received no treatment during the ten weeks. All the parents were videotaped playing with their child before and after the training as a means of measuring change in empathic behavior. The two written self-report instruments completed for pretesting and posttesting purposes were the Porter Parental Acceptance Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Analyses of covariance revealed that the immigrant Korean parents in the experimental group had significant changes in 10 of 12 hypotheses, including (a) a significant increase in their level of empathic interactions with their children; (b) a significant increase in their attitude of acceptance toward their children; and (c) a significant reduction in their level of stress related to parenting. This study supports the use of filial therapy for promoting the parent-child relationship in immigrant Korean families in the United States. Filial therapy helps immigrant Korean parents to be therapeutic agents for their children. It helps them regain their own power as parents and restore positive relationships with their children.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Lee, Mi-Kyong
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation into the Current Practices of Group Counseling Instructors in the Delivery of the Required Experiential Group in Accredited Institutions

Description: This study was designed to determine the diverse practices of group counseling instructors in the delivery of the required experiential group. A small group experience (experiential group) is required of all counseling students in accredited institutions. The accreditation body for counseling programs is the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). The experiential group has been considered to be a valuable and integral part of counselor training. However, the group has been controversial because of ethical issues involving dual relationships and the right to privacy. The purpose of this study was to determine how group counseling instructors deliver the experiential group, compare current practices to recommended practices in the literature, and recommend changes based on disparities that may exist. The difference between this study and previous surveys of group counseling instructors is that the sample in this study involves CACREP institutions exclusively and the focus is on CACREP standards rather than the standards of the Association for Specialists in Group Work. The results of the study showed that approximately one third of the instructors surveyed indicated that they also serve as leaders of the experiential group. Many of these instructors who serve as group leaders also indicated that they use the group for gatekeeping. Instructors in this study also indicated that understanding group process was the most important goal of the required experiential group. Personal growth was not ranked highly as a goal of the experiential group.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Armstrong, Stephen A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Leadership Frames of Female Presidents of American Research Universities

Description: This study used case studies to examine the leadership frames of female presidents of four-year, public and private, coeducational research institutions both from the Intensive and Extensive Carnegie classifications within the United States. The population (N=30) surveyed was sent the Leadership Orientation Questionnaire (Self) developed from the previous research conducted by Lee Bolman and Terrance Deal. The Bolman and Deal leadership frame theory condensed existing organizational theories into a four-frame perspective consisting of a structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frame. Bolman and Deal theorized that the ability to use more than one frame is considered to be critical to the success of leaders and intensify that leader's capacity for making decisions and taking effective actions. The Leadership Orientation Questionnaire (Self) contains five sections that include rating scales for personal demographics, the four frames, eight leadership dimensions, and management and leadership effectiveness. The research questions sought to identify the demographic characteristics and academic histories of the survey participants and the associations between these variables, the leadership frames represented among the survey participants, and how many, and which, of the four frames the survey participants use collectively. This study allowed its participants to examine their perceptions of their own leadership frames in order to analyze the frame that dominates the way certain universities communicate. Thirteen of the thirty presidents (43%) completed and returned the survey. Survey participants who had 20 or more years of experience were more likely to exhibit the human resource or symbolic frame as their dominant style; presidents whose years of experience numbered less than 20 years exhibited a mulitframe perspective in their decision-making process. Overall, this research found that the survey participants exhibited most often the human resource frame, followed by the symbolic, structural, and political frames.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Welch, Courtney
Partner: UNT Libraries

Technology Standards for the Improvement of Teaching and Learning in Community College Music Programs

Description: Providing standards for music technology use in community college music programs presents both challenges and opportunities for educators in American higher education. A need exists to assess the current use of technology at the community college level for the purpose of improving instruction. Although limited research has been done on the use of technology to support music education K- 12 and in four-year universities, little research on the problem in the community college setting was found. This research employed a Delphi study, a method for the systematic solicitation and collection of professional judgments on a particular subject, to examine existing criteria, “best practices”, and standards, in an effort to develop a set of standards specifically for the community college level. All aspects of a complete music program were considered including: curriculum, staffing, equipment, materials/software, facilities and workforce competencies. The panel of experts, comprised of community college educators from throughout the nation, reached consensus on 50 of the 57 standards. Forty-one or 82%, were identified as minimal standards for the application of music technology in music education. Community college music educators, planning to successfully utilize music technology to improve teaching and learning should implement the 41 standards determined as minimal by the Delphi panel. As the use of music technology grows in our community college programs, the standards used to define the success of these programs will expand and mature through further research.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Crawford, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries

Facilitating Healthy Parenting Attitudes Among Adolescents Using Filial Therapy in a High School Curriculum

Description: This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a filial therapy training model with high school students enrolled in a Peer Assistance Leadership (PAL) program. Specifically, this study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy in: (1) increasing observed empathic behavior with children, (2) increasing acceptance toward children, (3) increasing the ability to allow children self-direction, and (4) increasing the level of involvement with children. Additionally, this study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy in facilitating healthy parenting attitudes of nonparenting adolescents. A research question was presented to determine if a relationship exists between empathy, acceptance, involvement and allowing children self-direction and other factors considered to be healthy parenting attitudes. An Analysis of Covariance on post-test scores revealed significant findings in the high school students ability to demonstrate empathy towards children, allowing the child self direction, communication of acceptance, and involvement as measured by the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interactions (MEACI). An Analysis of Covariance on post-test scores revealed no significant changes in parenting attitudes as measured by Adult- Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2). A Bivariate Correlation revealed a statistically significant correlation between the Empathy, Acceptance, Allowing the Child Self-Direction and Involvement scales on the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interactions (MEACI) and the Oppressing Children's Power and Independence scale on the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2). This study supports the use of filial therapy as an effective training model for increasing high school students' empathic behavior with children. Filial therapy training offers significant possibilities for future use in high school curricula to facilitate the development of healthy parenting attitudes and interactions between future parents and children.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Hilpl, Kimberly A.
Partner: UNT Libraries