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Experiment DTA report for semiscale transparent vessel countercurrent flow tests

Description: Steady state air-water tests were performed as part of the Semiscale Blowdown and Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) Project to investigate downcomer countercurrent flow and downcomer bypass flow phenomena. These tests were performed in a plexiglass representation of the Semiscale pressure vessel which allowed changes to be madein the geometry of the upper annulus and downcomer for the purpose of investigating the sensitivity of downcomer and bypass flow to changes in system geometry. Tests were also performed to investigate the effects of two-phase inlet flows and different initial system pressures on countercurrent and bypass flow. Results for each test are presented in the form of computer printout of the measurements and of a summary of the pertinent calculated flow rates, pressures, and dimensionless volumetric fluxes. Descriptions of the test facility, instrumentation, operating procedures, and test conditions are also presented. An error analysis is presented for selected volumetric flux calculations. 10 references. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1975
Creator: Hanson, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of fission product plateout investigations at General Atomic. [HTGR]

Description: The status of fission product plateout studies at General Atomic is reviewed and suggestions are offered for future work. The deposition, or plateout, of condensible radionuclides in the primary circuits of gas-cooled reactors affects shielding requirements, maintenance procedures, and plant availability as well as representing a significant radiological source and/or sink for certain hypothetical accidents. Physical models and computer codes used to describe these plateout phenomena for reactor analysis are presented along with their limitations and possible refinements. The review includes portions of the recent AIPA study which sought to quantify the effects of uncertainties in input parameters on plateout code predictions. Major emphasis is placed upon the design methods verification program to assess the validity of plateout predictions by comparison of calculated behavior with experimental transport data.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Hanson, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Incorporating uncertainty into electric utility projections and decisions

Description: This paper focuses on how electric utility companies can respond in their decision making to uncertain variables. Here we take a mean- variance type of approach. The mean'' value is an expected cost, on a discounted value basis. We assume that management has risk preferences incorporating a tradeoff between the mean and variance in the utility's net income. Decisions that utilities are faced with can be classified into two types: ex ante and ex post. The ex ante decisions need to be made prior to the uncertainty being revealed and the ex post decision can be postponed until after the uncertainty is revealed. Intuitively, we can say that the ex ante decisions provide a hedge against the uncertainties and the ex post decisions allow the negative outcomes of uncertain variables to be partially mitigated, dampening the losses. An example of an ex post decision is how the system is operated i.e., unit dispatch, and in some cases switching among types of fuels, say with different sulfur contents. For example, if gas prices go up, natural gas combined cycle units are likely to be dispatched at lower capacity factors. If SO{sub 2} emission allowance prices go up, a utility may seek to switch into a lower sulfur coal. Here we assume that regulated electric utilities do have some incentive to lower revenue requirements and hence an incentive to lower the electric rates needed for the utility to break even, thereby earning a fair return on invested capital. This paper presents the general approach first, including applications to capacity expansion and system dispatch. Then a case study is presented focusing on the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments including SO{sub 2} emissions abatement and banking of allowances under uncertainty. It is concluded that the emission banking decisions should not be made in isolation ...
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Hanson, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

Description: Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Hanson, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron activation system for spectral measurements of pulsed ion diode neutron production

Description: A neutron energy spectrometer has been developed to study intense ion beam-target interactions in the harsh radiation environment of a relativistic electron beam source. The main component is a neutron threshold activation system employing two multiplexed high efficiency Ge(Li) detectors, an annihilation gamma coincidence system, and a pneumatic sample transport. Additional constraints on the neutron spectrum are provided by total neutron yield and time-of-flight measurements. A practical lower limit on the total neutron yield into 4..pi.. required for a spectral measurement with this system is approx. 10/sup 10/ n where the neutron yield is predominantly below 4 MeV and approx. 10/sup 8/ n when a significant fraction of the yield is above 4 MeV. Applications of this system to pulsed ion diode neutron production experiments on Hermes II are described.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Hanson, D.L. & Kruse, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A two-period model of emission abatement and allowance banking under uncertainty

Description: This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO{sub 2} emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide about twice as many SO{sub 2} allowances to be issued per year in Phase I (1995--1999) than in Phase II. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase I, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase II. Allowance prices may increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments with allowances being banked only by risk averse electric utilities. Speculators are likely to be willing to set allowances in forward markets, which will lower current market prices of allowances relative to a situation with only risk averse utilities in the market. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO{sub 2} allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Hanson, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

Description: Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.
Date: July 1, 1992
Creator: Hanson, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemistry induced by the selective excitation of core electrons in biomolecules. Final project report, April 1, 1993--April 30, 1996

Description: The key feature of this research is the use of tunable monochromatic x-rays from synchrotron sources to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on uracil and prolinamide. These sources provide the new capability of enhancing significantly the selective ionization or excitation of a specific atom in a molecule by tuning the photon energy to the core-ionization threshold for that atom or by tuning to a neutral core-hole resonance associated with that atom. As a result, chemical transformations caused directly by the core-electron ionization or excitation can be separated from those caused by secondary excitation steps. The chemistry associated with the secondary excitations also can be examined more precisely than has been done in the past because the energy of the emitted photoelectrons and Auger electrons can be controlled and varied, and direct ionization of the solvent or matrix also can be controlled, i.e. reduced or enhanced selectively by varying the x-ray energy and selecting matrix materials with small or large x-ray absorption cross sections. Experiments are performed by isolating target molecules in thin solid films.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Hanson, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future market for ceramics in vehicle engines and their impacts

Description: Ceramic engine components have potential to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some recent tests have also shown their environmental benefits, particularly in reducing particulate emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines. The authors used the data from a survey of the US vehicle engine and component manufacturers relating to ceramic engine components to develop a set of market penetration models. The survey identified promising ceramic components and provided data on the timing of achieving introductory shares in light and heavy-duty markets. Some ceramic components will penetrate the market when the pilot-scale costs are reduced to one-fifth of their current values, and many more will enter the market when the costs are reduced to one-tenth of the current values. An ongoing ceramics research program sponsored by the US Department of Energy has the goal of achieving such price reductions. The size and value of the future ceramic components market and the impacts of this market in terms of fuel savings, reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, and potential reduction in other criteria pollutants are presented. The future ceramic components market will be 9 million components worth $29 million within 5 years of introduction and will expand to 692 million components worth $3,484 million within 20 years. The projected annual energy savings are 3.8 trillion Btu by 5 years, increasing to 526 trillion Btu during the twentieth year. These energy savings will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 41 million tons during the twentieth year. Ceramic components will help reduce particulate emissions by 100 million tons in 2030 and save the nation`s urban areas $152 million. The paper presents the analytical approach and discusses other economic impacts.
Date: February 1995
Creator: Vyas, A.; Hanson, D. & Stodolsky, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy-economy interactions revisited within a comprehensive sectoral model

Description: This paper describes a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with considerable sector and technology detail, the ``All Modular Industry Growth Assessment'' Model (AMIGA). It is argued that a detailed model is important to capture and understand the several rolls that energy plays within the economy. Fundamental consumer and industrial demands are for the services from energy; hence, energy demand is a derived demand based on the need for heating, cooling mechanical, electrical, and transportation services. Technologies that provide energy-services more efficiently (on a life cycle basis), when adopted, result in increased future output of the economy and higher paths of household consumption. The AMIGA model can examine the effects on energy use and economic output of increases in energy prices (e.g., a carbon charge) and other incentive-based policies or energy-efficiency programs. Energy sectors and sub-sector activities included in the model involve energy extraction conversion and transportation. There are business opportunities to produce energy-efficient goods (i.e., appliances, control systems, buildings, automobiles, clean electricity). These activities are represented in the model by characterizing their likely production processes (e.g., lighter weight motor vehicles). Also, multiple industrial processes can produce the same output but with different technologies and inputs. Secondary recovery, i.e., recycling processes, are examples of these multiple processes. Combined heat and power (CHP) is also represented for energy-intensive industries. Other modules represent residential and commercial building technologies to supply energy services. All sectors of the economy command real resources (capital services and labor).
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: Hanson, D. A. & Laitner, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of predicted and measured fission product behavior in the Fort St. Vrain HTGR during the first three cycles of operation

Description: Fission product release from the reactor core has been predicted by the reference design methods and compared with reactor surveillance measurements and with the results of postirradiation examination (PIE) of spent FSV fuel elements. Overall, the predictive methods have been shown to be conservative: the predicted fission gas release at the end of Cycle 3 is about five times higher than observed. The dominant source of fission gas release is as-manufactured, heavy-metal contamination; in-service failure of the coated fuel particles appears to be negligible which is consistent with the PIE of spent fuel elements removed during the first two refuelings. The predicted releases of fission metals are insignificant compared to the release and subsequent decay of their gaseous precursors which is consistent with plateout probe measurements.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Hanson, D.L.; Jovanovic, V. & Burnette, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final amplifier design and mercury

Description: The final amplifier for the Mercury KrF excimer facility is being designed. The design exercise involves extensive modeling to predict amplifier performance. Models of the pulsed-power system, including a Child-Langmuir diode with closure, electron-beam energy deposition, KrF laser kinetics, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a time-dependent laser extraction in the presence of ASE are presented as a design package. The design exercise indicates that the energy objective of Phase I -- 100 joules -- will be met.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Rose, E.A. & Hanson, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A national aggregate projection of utility compliance decisions

Description: Previous emission limits on electric utility boilers have taken the form of performance standards, e.g., pounds of pollutant permitted per million Btu heat input or a percent reduction from uncontrolled emission levels Growth in generation, which necessarily accompanies growth in demand, results in increasing emissions under this type of standard. The Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) 90 addresses this difficulty by setting an absolute cap on utility SO{sub 2} emissions. The Act allocates emission allowances only up to the level of the cap. Owners of new capacity must purchase or otherwise obtain allowances sufficient to cover that capacity's anticipated emissions from this limited pool of available allowances. The Act includes other innovative features, such as allowance trading and banking, which are intended to minimize the cost of the prescribed emission reductions. These features are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Molburg, J. & Hanson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission product behavior in the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain HTGRs

Description: Actual operating data from Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain were compared with code predictions to assess the validity of the methods used to predict the behavior of fission products in the primary coolant circuit. For both reactors the measured circuit activities were significantly below design values, and the observations generally verify the codes used for large HTGR design.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Hanson, D.L.; Baldwin, N.L. & Strong, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A megajoule class krypton fluoride amplifier for single shot, high gain ICF application

Description: A design study is underway to define the optimal architecture for a KrF laser system which will deliver 10 MJ of 248-nm light to an ICF target. We present one approach which incorporates final power amplifiers in the megajoule class, achieving 10 MJ with four final amplifiers. Each double-pass laser amplifier employs two-sided electron-beam pumping of the laser gas medium. Details of the design are based on a Monte-Carlo electron-beam deposition code, a one-dimensional, time-dependent kinetics code, and pulsed power circuit modeling. Linear dimensions of the amplifier's extracted gain volume are 6.25 m in height and length and 5.12 m in width. Each amplifier handles 160 angularly multiplexed laser channels. The one-amagat, krypton-rich laser medium is e-beam pumped at 60-kW cm/sup /minus/3/ (4-MA at3.3-MV) over the 2-microsecond duration of the laser beam pulse train. 5 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Rose, E.; Hanson, D.; Krohn, B.; McLeod, J. & Kang, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final amplifier design and mercury

Description: The final amplifier for the Mercury KrF excimer facility is being designed. The design exercise involves extensive modeling to predict amplifier performance. Models of the pulsed-power system, including a Child-Langmuir diode with closure, electron-beam energy deposition, KrF laser kinetics, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a time-dependent laser extraction in the presence of ASE are presented as a design package. The design exercise indicates that the energy objective of Phase I -- 100 joules -- will be met.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Rose, E. A. & Hanson, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High energy neutron sources using pulsed ion beam accelerators

Description: A new high energy (1 < E < 10 MeV) neutron source based on existing pulsed Sandia accelerators operated in the ion mode is described. In addition to its application in weapons effects testing, this source could be used in studying transient annealing effects at high neutron energies and for calibration of semiconductor damage curves. Finally, such a pulsed neutron source makes it possible to begin dose rate damage effect studies in ICF reactor materials.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Bolduc, P.E.; Kruse, L.W.; Hanson, D.L. & Beezhold, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advances in HTGR fuel performance models

Description: Fuel performance models based on empirical evidence are used to predict particle failure and fission product release in the design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Advances in HTGR fuel performance models have improved the agreement between observed and predicted performance and contributed to an enhanced position of the HTGR with regard to investment risk and passive safety. Heavy metal contamination is the source of about 55% of the circulating activity in the HTGR during normal operation, and the remainder comes primarily from particles which failed because of defective or missing buffer coatings. These failed particles make up about 5 x 10/sup -4/ fraction of the total core inventory. In addition to prediction of fuel performance during normal operation, the models are used to determine fuel failure and fission product release during core heat-up accident conditions. The mechanistic nature of the models, which incorporate all important failure modes, permits the prediction of performance from the relatively modest accident temperatures of a passively safe HTGR to the much more severe accident conditions of the larger 2240-MW(t) HTGR.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: Stansfield, O.M.; Goodin, D.T.; Hanson, D.L. & Turner, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GCFR thermal-hydraulic experiments

Description: The thermal-hydraulic experimental studies performed and planned for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) core assemblies are described. The experiments consist of basic studies performed to obtain correlations, and bundle experiments which provide input for code validation and design verification. These studies have been performed and are planned at European laboratories, US national laboratories, Universities in the US, and at General Atomic Company
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Schlueter, G.; Baxi, C.B.; Dalle Donne, M.; Gat, U.; Fenech, H.; Hanson, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of cavities in the bacterial reaction center

Description: A site-specific double mutant of Rhodobacter capsulatus, in which the large aromatic residues M208Tyr and L181Phe in the interior of the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) complex were replaced by smaller theonine residues, showed a dramatic reduction in the number of assembled complexes and was incapable of photosynthetic growth. The cavity created by the smaller side chains interferes mostly with the assembly of the complex. Phenotypic revertants were recovered in which a spontaneous second-site mutation restored photocompetence in the presence of the original site-specific mutations. In these strains, an Ala to Pro substitution in neighboring transmembrane helix (at M271) resulted in an increased yield of RC complexes. To test the hypothesis that the original phenotype was due to a cavity, other mutants were constructed where L180Phe and M207Leu were replaced with alanines that created similar-sized voids at other positions in the membrane-spanning interior. The L180Ala-M207A mutant had the same phenotype. Coupling of the above proline substitution to these new cavity mutants also resulted in photocompetant strains that carry increased levels of RC complexes. Therefore, the proline substitution at M271 serves as a global suppressor of the phenotype caused by these internal cavities.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Schiffer, M.; Deng, Y.-L.; Marrufo, A. & Hanson, D.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department