9 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Determination of the solid-liquid-vapor triple point pressure of carbon

Description: A detailed experimental study of the triple point pressure of carbon using laser heating techniques has been completed. Uncertainties and conflict in previous investigations have been addressed and substantial data presented which places the solid-liquid-vapor carbon triple point at 107 +- 2 atmospheres. This is in agreement with most investigations which have located the triple point pressure between 100 and 120 atmospheres, but is in disagreement with recent low pressure carbon experiments. The absence of any significant polymorphs of carbon other than graphite suggests that the graphite-liquid-vapor triple point has been measured. Graphite samples were melted in a pressure vessel using a 400 W Nd:YAG continuous-wave laser focused to a maximum power density of approximately 80 kW/cm/sup 2/. Melt was confirmed by detailed microstructure analysis and x-ray diffraction of the recrystallized graphite. Experiments to determine the minimum melt pressure of carbon were completed as a function of sample size, type of inert gas, and laser power density to asure that laser power densities were sufficient to produce melt at the triple point pressure of carbon, and the pressure of carbon at the surface of the sample was identical to the measured pressure of the inert gas in the pressure vessel. High-speed color cinematography of the carbon heating revealed the presence of a laser-generated vapor or particle plume in front of the sample. The existence of this bright plume pevented the measurement of the carbon triple point temperature.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Haaland, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthetic Multivariate Models to Accommodate Unmodeled Interfering Components During Quantitative Spectral Analyses

Description: The analysis precision of any multivariate calibration method will be severely degraded if unmodeled sources of spectral variation are present in the unknown sample spectra. This paper describes a synthetic method for correcting for the errors generated by the presence of unmodeled components or other sources of unmodeled spectral variation. If the spectral shape of the unmodeled component can be obtained and mathematically added to the original calibration spectra, then a new synthetic multivariate calibration model can be generated to accommodate the presence of the unmodeled source of spectral variation. This new method is demonstrated for the presence of unmodeled temperature variations in the unknown sample spectra of dilute aqueous solutions of urea, creatinine, and NaCl. When constant-temperature PLS models are applied to spectra of samples of variable temperature, the standard errors of prediction (SEP) are approximately an order of magnitude higher than that of the original cross-validated SEPs of the constant-temperature partial least squares models. Synthetic models using the classical least squares estimates of temperature from pure water or variable-temperature mixture sample spectra reduce the errors significantly for the variable temperature samples. Spectrometer drift adds additional error to the analyte determinations, but a method is demonstrated that can minimize the effect of drift on prediction errors through the measurement of the spectra of a small subset of samples during both calibration and prediction. In addition, sample temperature can be predicted with high precision with this new synthetic model without the need to recalibrate using actual variable-temperature sample data. The synthetic methods eliminate the need for expensive generation of new calibration samples and collection of their spectra. The methods are quite general and can be applied using any known source of spectral variation and can be used with any multivariate calibration method.
Date: July 14, 1999
Creator: Haaland, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New prediction-augmented classical least squares (PACLS) methods: Application to unmodeled interferents

Description: A significant improvement to the classical least squares (CLS) multivariate analysis method has been developed. The new method, called prediction-augmented classical least squares (PACLS), removes the restriction for CLS that all interfering spectral species must be known and their concentrations included during the calibration. The authors demonstrate that PACLS can correct inadequate CLS models if spectral components left out of the calibration can be identified and if their spectral shapes can be derived and added during a PACLS prediction step. The new PACLS method is demonstrated for a system of dilute aqueous solutions containing urea, creatinine, and NaCl analytes with and without temperature variations. The authors demonstrate that if CLS calibrations are performed using only a single analyte's concentration, then there is little, if any, prediction ability. However, if pure-component spectra of analytes left out of the calibration are independently obtained and added during PACLS prediction, then the CLS prediction ability is corrected and predictions become comparable to that of a CLS calibration that contains all analyte concentrations. It is also demonstrated that constant-temperature CLS models can be used to predict variable-temperature data by employing the PACLS method augmented by the spectral shape of a temperature change of the water solvent. In this case, PACLS can also be used to predict sample temperature with a standard error of prediction of 0.07 C even though the calibration data did not contain temperature variations. The PACLS method is also shown to be capable of modeling system drift to maintain a calibration in the presence of spectrometer drift.
Date: January 26, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Window Classical Least Squares Multivariate Calibration Methods for Quantitative ICP-AES Analyses

Description: The advent of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometers (ICP-AES) equipped with charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector arrays allows the application of multivariate calibration methods to the quantitative analysis of spectral data. We have applied classical least squares (CLS) methods to the analysis of a variety of samples containing up to 12 elements plus an internal standard. The elements included in the calibration models were Ag, Al, As, Au, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Pd, and Se. By performing the CLS analysis separately in each of 46 spectral windows and by pooling the CLS concentration results for each element in all windows in a statistically efficient manner, we have been able to significantly improve the accuracy and precision of the ICP-AES analyses relative to the univariate and single-window multivariate methods supplied with the spectrometer. This new multi-window CLS (MWCLS) approach simplifies the analyses by providing a single concentration determination for each element from all spectral windows. Thus, the analyst does not have to perform the tedious task of reviewing the results from each window in an attempt to decide the correct value among discrepant analyses in one or more windows for each element. Furthermore, it is not necessary to construct a spectral correction model for each window prior to calibration and analysis: When one or more interfering elements was present, the new MWCLS method was able to reduce prediction errors for a selected analyte by more than 2 orders of magnitude compared to the worst case single-window multivariate and univariate predictions. The MWCLS detection limits in the presence of multiple interferences are 15 rig/g (i.e., 15 ppb) or better for each element. In addition, errors with the new method are only slightly inflated when only a single target element is included in the calibration (i.e., knowledge of all other elements is excluded ...
Date: October 1999
Creator: Chambers, William B.; Haaland, David M.; Keenan, Michael R. & Melgaard, David K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring Dielectric Thin-Film Production on Product Wafers Using Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

Description: Monitoring of dielectric thin-film production in the microelectronics industry is generally accomplished by depositing a representative film on a monitor wafer and determining the film properties off line. One of the most important dielectric thin films in the manufacture of integrated circuits is borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG). The critical properties of BPSG thin films are the boron content, phosphorus content and film thickness. We have completed an experimental study that demonstrates that infrared emission spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis can be used to simultaneous y determine these properties directly from the spectra of product wafers, thus eliminating the need of producing monitor wafers. In addition, infrared emission data can be used to simultaneously determine the film temperature, which is an important film production parameter. The infrared data required to make these determinations can be collected on a time scale that is much faster than the film deposition time, hence infrared emission is an ideal candidate for an in-situ process monitor for dielectric thin-film production.
Date: December 18, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reducing System Artifacts in Hyperspectral Image Data Analysis with the Use of Estimates of the Error Covariance in the Data

Description: Hyperspectral Fourier transform infrared images have been obtained from a neoprene sample aged in air at elevated temperatures. The massive amount of spectra available from this heterogeneous sample provides the opportunity to perform quantitative analysis of the spectral data without the need for calibration standards. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods with non-negativity constraints applied to the iterative alternating least squares analysis of the spectral data has been shown to achieve the goal of quantitative image analysis without the use of standards. However, the pure-component spectra and the relative concentration maps were heavily contaminated by the presence of system artifacts in the spectral data. We have demonstrated that the detrimental effects of these artifacts can be minimized by adding an estimate of the error covariance structure of the spectral image data to the MCR algorithm. The estimate is added by augmenting the concentration and pure-component spectra matrices with scores and eigenvectors obtained from the mean-centered repeat image differences of the sample. The implementation of augmentation is accomplished by employing efficient equality constraints on the MCR analysis. Augmentation with the scores from the repeat images is found to primarily improve the pure-component spectral estimates while augmentation with the corresponding eigenvectors primarily improves the concentration maps. Augmentation with both scores and eigenvectors yielded the best result by generating less noisy pure-component spectral estimates and relative concentration maps that were largely free from a striping artifact that is present due to system errors in the FT-IR images. The MCR methods presented are general and can also be applied productively to non-image spectral data.
Date: January 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department