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Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

Description: We evaluate the feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative ion current densities. With regards to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to less than 5% while traversing a four -meter path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 5 x 10{sup -5} torr. Alternatively, even at chamber pressures that are too high to allow propagation of atomically neutral beams, the negative ion approach may still have appeal, since it precludes the possibly serious problem of electron contamination of a positive ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing.
Date: January 14, 2002
Creator: Grisham, Larry R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam ChargeNeutralization

Description: Plasmas are employed as a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce one-meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being developed. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic, and high voltage ({approx} 1-5 kV) applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long has produced plasma densities of 5 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The source was integrated into the previous Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K{sup +} ion beam. Presently, the one-meter source is being fabricated. The source is being characterized and will be integrated into NDCX for charge neutralization experiments.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson,Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

Description: Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -5} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr and electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10{sup -6} Torr range with densities of 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S. & Logan, B. Grant
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Develpoment of a one-meter plasma source for heavy ion beam chargeneutralization

Description: Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-1 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. A radio frequency (RF) source was constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization. Pulsing the source enabled operation at pressures {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr with plasma densities of 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Near 100% ionization was achieved. The plasma was 10 cm in length, but future experiments require a source 1 m long. The RF source does not easily scale to the length. Consequently, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. A 1 m long section of the drift tube inner surface of NTX will be covered with ceramic. A high voltage ({approx} 1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. Plasma densities of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} and neutral pressures {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr are expected. A test stand to produce 20 cm long plasma is being constructed and will be tested before a 1 m long source is developed.
Date: January 18, 2005
Creator: Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, RonaldC.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department