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User and system considerations for the TCSTEK software library

Description: This report documents the idiosyncrasies of the Tektronix PLOT 10 Terminal Control System level 3.3 software as it currently exists on the ORNL Fusion Energy Division DECsystem-10 computer. It is intended to serve as a reference for future Terminal Control System updates in order that continuity between releases of Terminal Control System PLOT 10 software may be maintained.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Gray, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New developments in program STANSOL version 3

Description: STANSOL is a computer program that applied a solution for the mechanical displacement, stress, and strain in rotationally-transversely isotropic, homogeneous, axisymmetric solenoids. Careful application of the solution permits the complex mechanical behavior of multilayered, nonhomogeneous solenoids to be examined in which the loads may vary arbitrarily from layer to layer. Loads applied to the solenoid model by program STANSOL may consist of differential temperature, winding preload, internal and/or external surface pressure, and electromagnetic Lorentz body forces. STANSOL version 3, the latest update to the original version of the computer program, also permits structural analysis of solenoid magnets in which frictionless interlayer gaps may open or close. This paper presents the new theory coded into version 3 of the STANSOL program, as well as the new input data format and graphical output display of the resulting analysis.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Gray, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhancement to the Tektronix PLOT-10 Terminal Control System for creation of graphics metafiles

Description: Many data handling and analysis codes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) use the Tektronix PLOT-10 Terminal Control System to graphically display data upon Tektronix or Tektronix-emulating graphics devices. Prior to the development of the software libraries and postprocessors discussed within this report, ORNL users were limited to the type of hardcopy output obtainable from the Tektronix PLOT-10 software library. Only Tektronix graphics devices are supported by the PLOT-10 library. The graphics library presented here eliminates this restriction by implementing a suite of software that optionally creates a graphics metafile within the user's disk area while simultaneously drawing a display image on the screen of a user's Tektronix terminal. This graphics metafile can then be postprocessed onto any of the graphics devices at ORNL via the ORNL PLOT command.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Gray, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bending free toroidal shells for tokamak fusion reactors with nonideal magnetic field distributions

Description: This paper describes an extension of mathematical solutions to bending free shapes of toroidal pressure vessels. Previous work on this subject derived a pure tension shape of a toroidal membrane which was subjected to a uniform internal pressure and which was subjected to a pressure inversely proportional to the square of the toroidal radius. This family of shapes is derived by solving the equilibrium, constitutive, and kinematic relationships for a uniform toroidal shell using the linear membrane theory. This paper extends the previous work to the problem of finding bending free toroidal shell shapes for ''nonideal'' magnetic field distributions, i.e., for magnetic fields which do not vary inversely with toroidal radius. Since these bending free shells provide alternative methods of design for tokamak fusion reactors, serious consideration should be given to them.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Gray, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User and system considerations for the TCSTEK software library: a graphics library for displaying images on Tektronix 4000 series storage tube terminals

Description: This report documents the idiosyncrasies of the Tektronix PLOT 10 Terminal Control System (TCS) level 3.3 software as it currently exists on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fusion Energy Division DECsystem-10 computer. It pertains to the graphics software library called TCSTEK, which may be used to convert TCS subroutine calls into display images on the screens of Tektronix 4000 series storage tube terminals. Fully described here are several user-oriented enhancements and system efficiency modifications to the vendor-supplied TCS software library. It is intended that this report serve as a reference for future TCS updates so that continuity between releases of TCS PLOT 10 software may be maintained. 1 figure.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Gray, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photoelastic and analytical investigation of stress in toroidal magnetic field coils

Description: A series of two-dimensional photoelastic stress analyses on circular and oval toroidal magnetic field coils for fusion reactors were made. The circumferential variation of the coil's magnetic force was simulated by applying different pressures to sixteen segmented regions of the inner surface of the models. Isochromatics and isoclinics were measured at selected points on the loaded model in a transmission polariscope using a microphotometer. Separate principal stresses were obtained using the combination of photoelastic information and isopachic data measured from the solution of Laplace's equation by the electrical analog method. Analysis of the same coil geometries, loadings, and boundary conditions were made using the finite element method. General agreement between theory and experiment was realized. From this investigation several variations of coil geometry and methods of support were evaluated. Based upon this experiment, suggestions for optimum structural design of toroidal field coils are presented. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Pih, H. & Gray, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel tests of single- and dual-rotating pusher propellers having from three to eight blades

Description: Report presenting tests of 10-foot-diameter, single- and dual-rotating pusher propellers with three to eight blades that were conducted in the 20-foot propeller research tunnel as a continuation of previous investigations of tractor propellers. The propellers were mounted at the rear end of a streamline body in spinners that covered the hubs and part of the shanks. The effects as compared to previous testing differed only in degree of effect size.
Date: February 1942
Creator: Gray, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finite element stress analysis of orthotropic solenoids

Description: The mechanical behavior of superconducting magnets deviates from isotropy due to their construction techniques, which involve the layering of superconductor, insulation, and sometimes structural reinforcement within the windings. This paper describes a finite element stress analysis which has been extended to consider the effects of orthotropic material properties, as well as differential thermal contraction and spatially varying magnetic body forces. The procedure is applicable to all arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric magnets. A comparison between the finite element stress analysis and an analytical solution for a rotationally transversely isotropic solenoid is presented. Good agreement is obtained within the limits of the analytical solution.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Gray, W.H. & Akin, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the structural design of superconducting magnets for the Large Coil Program

Description: Fusion reactor designs based on magnetic confinement will require the use of superconducting magnets to make them economically viable. For a tokamak fusion reactor, large magnetic field coils are required to produce a toroidal magnetic confinement volume. Although superconductors have been used for approximately 20 years, several requirements for their application in fusion reactors are beyond demonstrated technology in existing magnets. The Large Coil Program (LCP) is a research, development, and demonstration effort specifically for the advancement of the technologies involved in the production of large superconducting magnets. This paper presents a review of the status of the structural designs, analysis methods, and verification tests being performed by the participating LCP design teams in the US, Switzerland, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany. The significant structural mechanics concerns being investigated with the LCP are presented.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Gray, W.H. & Long, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PAFMOV: a PAFEC to MOVIE. BYU conversion

Description: Described is a program, PAFMOV, that formats data from a PAFEC level 3.3 backing storage file (BSF) into a form suitable for MOVIE.BYU version 3.3. With the addition of a new control module, PAFMOV has been fully integrated into the PAFEC system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A discussion of the FORTRAN program is presented as well as a sample problem.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Baudry, T.V. & Gray, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel tests of two Hamilton Standard propellers embodying Clark Y and NACA 16 series blade sections

Description: Report presenting tests of two 10-foot Hamilton Standard propellers to determine the relative merits of the Clark Y and NACA 16-series sections and to determine the negative thrust available at negative angles. Little difference was noted between propellers at peak efficiency for the low Mach numbers used in the tunnel tests.
Date: August 1941
Creator: Gray, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Tests of Four Curtiss Propellers Embodying Different Blade Sections

Description: Tests of four 10-foot propellers were made in the propeller-research tunnel for the Army Air Corps to check flight and static thrust test results made on several propellers embodying Clark Y and modified NACA 16-series sections. These propellers were identical as to diameter and activity factor and very closely identical in thickness ratio and pitch distribution. The blades embodied sections with both single- and double-cambered Clark Y, modified NACA 16-series, and a combination of Clark Y and modified NACA-16 airfoils. Tests covered a range of blade angles from 20 deg. to 70 deg., and were all made at tip speeds below 280 feet per second. Although these tests were not conclusive in themselves, owing to the conditions under which they were made, the results seem to check the flight and static tests as closely as would be expected.
Date: August 1941
Creator: Gray, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel tests of a swept-blade propeller and related straight blades having thickness ratios of 5 and 6 percent

Description: Report discussing the aerodynamic characteristics of three sets of blades over as wide a range of operating conditions as possible. One set of blades was conventional, one had blades that embodied sweep, and one was a nonswept set with thinner blade sections. The sweptback blades were found to be generally inferior to the straight blades, but the Mach numbers tested were not high enough to include speeds that might benefit from sweepback.
Date: November 10, 1948
Creator: Gray, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel tests of dual-rotating propellers with systematic differences in number of blades, blade setting, and rotational speed of front and rear propellers

Description: Report presenting the results of aerodynamic tests of seven-blade propellers which were considered as a possible arrangement to avoid vibration difficulties. Variations of relative blade angle and rotational speeds of the front and rear components of a six-blade dual-rotating propeller were also investigated.
Date: May 1944
Creator: Gray, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved method for contouring on isoparametric surfaces

Description: A general nonlinear interpolation procedure for contouring on any isoparametric surface was presented in a previous article. This method used standard isoparametric interpolation functions and a predictor method for tracing element contour lines. The method presented here extends the previous work by using a predictor-corrector method to trace element contour lines, thereby making the contouring algorithm more accurate.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Gray, W.H. & Akin, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System software for the NMFECC CRAY-1 version of GIFTS 4B. [In CFT-FORTRAN]

Description: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) maintains a version of the GIFTS system structural analysis computer programs. Executable modules are supported on two different types of computer hardware, a DECsystem-10 and a CRAY-1. Without external difference to the user, these modules execute equivalently upon both types of hardware. Presented herein are the local software enhancements for the ORNL version of GIFTS for the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) CRAY-1 computer as well as a description of the ORNL implementation of the system-dependent portions of the GIFTS software library for the NMFECC CRAY-1.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Gray, W.H. & Baudry, T.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User's guide to the TCSTKF software library: a graphics library for emulation of TEKTRONIX display images in. TKF disk files

Description: This report documents the user-level subroutines of the TCSTKF software library for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fusion Energy Division (FED) DECsystem-10. The TCSTKF graphics library was written and is maintained so that large-production computer programs can access a small, efficient graphics library and produce device-independent graphics files. This library is presented as an alternative to the larger graphics software libraries, such as DISSPLA. The main external difference between this software and the TCSTEK software library is that the TCSTKF software will created .TKF formatted intermediate plot data files, as well as producing display images on the screen of a Tektronix 4000 series storage tube terminal. These intermediate plot data files can be subsequently postprocessed into report-quality images on a variety of other graphics devices at ORNL.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Gray, W.H. & Burris, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using PAFEC as a preprocessor for MSC/NASTRAN

Description: Programs for Automatic Finite Element Calculations (PAFEC) is a general-purpose, three-dimensional, linear and nonlinear finite element program. PAFEC's features include free-format input using engineering keywords, powerful mesh-generating facilities, sophisticated database management procedures, and extensive data validation checks. Presented here is a description of a software interface that permits PAFEC to be used as a preprocessor for MSC/NASTRAN. This user-friendly software, called PAFMSC, frees the stress analyst from the laborious and error-prone procedure of creating and debugging a rigid-format MSC/NASTRAN bulk data deck. By interactively creating and debugging a finite element model with PAFEC, thus taking full advantage of the free-format, engineering-keyword-oriented data structure of PAFEC, the stress analyst can drastically reduce the amount of time spent during model generation. The PAFMSC software will automatically convert a PAFEC data structure into an MSC/NASTRAN bulk data deck. The capabilities and limitations of the PAFMSC software are fully discussed in the following report.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Gray, W.H. & Baudry, T.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of loads on ailerons at transonic speeds

Description: From Summary: "Some aileron load characteristics for three thin wings varying in sweep have been presented for Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05. For the transonic Mach number range, shock effects exert a large influence on the loading, but the exact location of each shock for a specific wing design cannot be cataloged at the present time. It is shown, however, that the aileron loading, although greater in magnitude than at subsonic speeds, nevertheless varies in as uniform a fashion as at subsonic speeds."
Date: May 27, 1955
Creator: Runckel, Jack F. & Gray, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of propeller vibrations excited by wing wakes

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the principal variables affecting the excitation of a propeller for vibration at a frequency of twice propeller speed using a conventional propeller with solid aluminum-alloy blades operating in the wake of a wing. The drag of the wing and spacing between the flap trailing edge and propeller plane were all adjustable. Results regarding wing drag data, vibratory stresses, damping, and theoretical considerations of wake excited blade stresses are provided.
Date: January 10, 1952
Creator: Gray, W. H. & Solomon, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department