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A Decay Scheme for 164 Ho

Description: The present investigation was prompted by several considerations. In previous studies there was considerable variance with regard to the reported values for the half-lives of the isomeric and ground states in 164 Ho. There was also considerable variance with regard to the values reported for the branching ratios and the relative intensities of the transitions. Thus a further study of the problem was needed.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Guertin, James
Partner: UNT Libraries

Proton-Induced L-shell X-Rays of Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy

Description: Characteristic L-shell x rays of the five rare earths Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy were studied in this work. The x rays were produced by ionization from 0.3 to 2.0 MeV protons from the 2.0 MV Van de Graaff at North Texas State University. Total L-shell ionization and x-ray production cross sections were measured for Sm and compared to the BEA, CBEA and PWBA theories. Total L-shell ionization cross sections were measured for Pr, Eu, Gd, and Dy and compared to the BEA, CBEA, and PWBA. The CBEA and PWBA fit the samarium data well for both ionization and x-ray production cross sections. The BEA was generally 40 per cent lower than the data. The CBEA and the PWBA also fit the ionization cross section data for Pr, Eu, Gd and Dy, while the BEA was generally 40 per cent lower than the data.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Abrath, Frederick G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

K-Shell Ionization Cross Sections of Selected Elements from Fe to As for Proton Bombardment from 0.5 to 2.0 MeV

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of making experimental measurements of proton-induced K-shell x-ray production cross sections and to study the dependence of these cross sections upon the energy of the incident proton. The measurements were made by detection of the characteristic x-rays emitted as a consequence of the ionization of the K-shell of the atom. The method for relating this characteristic x-ray emission to the x-ray production cross section is discussed in this work.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Lear, Richard Dean
Partner: UNT Libraries

K-Shell Ionization Cross Sections of Selected Elements from Ag to La for Proton Bombardment from 0.6 to 2.0 MeV

Description: The K-shell x-ray and ionization cross sections are measured for protons on Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, and La over the ion energy range of 0.6 to 2.0 MeV. The data are compared to the predictions of the PWBA, the PWBA with corrections for binding energy and/or Coulomb deflection, the BEA, and the constrained BEA predictions. In general, the non-relativistic PWBA with binding energy correction gives the best overall agreement with the measurements of proton-induced x-ray processes for the K-shell of the elements studied in this work. The data further suggest the need for relativistic PWBA treatment of the interactions in the K-shell for the range of binding energies represented by the elements investigated in this work.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Khelil, Najat Arafat
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Calculation of the Excitation Spectrum of Superfluid Helium-4

Description: The Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory of homogeneous boson systems at finite temperatures is rederived using, a free energy variational principle. It is shown that a t-matrix naturally emerges in the theory. Phenomenological modifications are made (1) to remove the energy gap at zero momentum, and (2) to eliminate the Hartree-Fock-like terms, which dress the kinetic energy of the particle. A numerical calculation of the energy spectrum is made over a temperature range of 0.00 to 3.14 K using the Morse dipole-dipole-2 potential and the Frost-Musulin potential. The energy spectrum of the elementary excitations is calculated self-consistently. It has a phonon behavior at low momentum and a roton behavior at higher momentum, so it is in qualitative agreement with the observed energy spectrum of liquid He II. However, the temperature dependence of the spectrum is incorrectly given. At the observed density of 0.0219 atoms A-3, the depletion of the zero-momentum state at zero temperature is 40.5% for the Morse dipole-dipole-2potential, and 43.2% for the Frost- Musulin potential. The depletion increases gradually until at 3.14 K the zero momentum density becomes zero discontinuously, which indicates a transition to the ideal Bose gas.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Goble, Gerald W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Target Thickness Dependence of Cu K X-Ray Production for Ions Moving in Thin Solid Cu Targets

Description: Measurements of the target thickness dependence of the target x-ray production yield for incident fast heavy ions are reported for thin solid Cu targets as a function of both incident projectile atomic number and energy. The incident ions were F, Al, Si, S, and CI. The charge state of the incident ions was varied in each case to study the target x-ray production for projectiles which had an initial charge state, q, of q = Z₁, q = Z₁ - 1, and q < Z₁ - 1 for F, Al, Si, and S ions and q = Z₁ - 1 and q < Z₁ - 1 for C1 ions. The target thicknesses ranged from 2 to 183 ug/cm². In each case the Cu K x-ray yield exhibits a complex exponential dependence on target thickness. A two-component model which includes contributions to the target x-ray production due to ions with 0 and 1 K vacancies and a three-component model which includes contributions due to ions with 0, 1, and 2 K vacancies are developed to describe the observed target K x-ray yields. The two-component model for the C1 data and the three-component model for the F, Al, Si, S, and C1 data are fit to the individual data for each projectile, and the cross sections for both the target and projectile are determined. The fits to the target x-ray data give a systematic representation of the processes involved in x-ray production for fast heavy ions incident on thin solid targets.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Gardner, Raymond K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Density Profile of a Quantized Vortex Line in Superfluid Helium-4

Description: The density amplitude of an isolated quantum vortex line in superfluid 4He is calculated using a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii (G-P) equation. The generalized G-P equation for the order parameter extends the usual mean-field approach by replacing the interatomic potential in the ordinary G-P equation by a local, static T matrix, which takes correlations between the particles into account. The T matrix is a sum of ladder diagrams appearing in a diagrammatic expansion of the mean field term in an exact equation for the order parameter. It is an effective interaction which is much softer than the realistic interatomic Morse dipole-dipole potential from which it is calculated. A numerical solution of the generalized G-P equation is required since it is a nonlinear integro-differential equation with infinite limits. For the energy denominator in the T matrix equation, a free-particle spectrum and the observed phonon-roton spectrum are each used. For the fraction of particles in the zero-momentum state (Bose-Einstein dondensate) which enters the equation, both a theoretical value of 0.1 and an experimental value of 0.024 are used. The chemical potential is adjusted so that the density as a function of distance from the vortex core approaches the bulk density asymptotically. Solutions of the generalized G-P equation are not very dependent on the choice of energy denominator or condensate fraction. The density profile is a monotonically increasing function of the distance from the vortex core. The core radius, defined to be the distance to half the bulk density, varies from 3.7 A to 4.7 A, which is over three times the experimental value of 1.14 A at absolute zero.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Harper, John Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries

K-Shell Ionization Cross Sections For Elements Se To Pd: 0.4 To 2.0 MeV

Description: K-Shell ionization cross section for protons over the energy range of 0.4 to 2.0 MeV have been measured on thin targets of the elements Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo and Pd. Total x-ray and ionization cross sections for the K-shell are reported. The experimental values of the ionization cross sections are compared to the non-relativistic plane-wave Born approximation, the binary-encounter approximation, the constrained binary-encounter approximation, and the plane-wave Born approximation with corrections for Coulomb-deflection and binding energy effects.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Criswell, Tommy L.
Partner: UNT Libraries