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Geothermal potential on Kirtland Air Force Base lands, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

Description: Extensive sampling and geochemical analysis of groundwater in and near the base disclosed no significant geothermal parameters. However, structural conditions and current hydrologic regimes strongly suggest that thermal waters would be masked by near surface, low temperature meteoric water originating as rain and snowfall in the nearby mountains. Controlled source audio-magnetotelluric (CSAMT) electromagnetic techniques, refraction seismic experiments, and gravity traverses were utilized on the base. These, together with published geohysical information that presents evidence for a shallow magma body beneath the Albuquerque Basin; favorable terrestrial heat flow, water chemistry, and shallow temperature gradient holes on the nearby mesa west of the Rio Grande; interpretation of regional gravity data; and geological data from nearby deep wells tend to confirm structural, stratigraphic, and hydrologic conditions favorable for developing an extensive intermediate to high-temperature hydrothermal regime on portions of Kirtland AFB lands where intensive land use occurs. Two possible exploration and development scenarios are presented. One involves drilling a well to a depth of 3000 to 5000 ft (914 to 1524 m) to test the possibility of encountering higher than normal water temperatures on the basinward side of the faults underlying the travertine deposits. The other is to conduct limited reflection seismograph surveys in defined areas on the base to determine the depth to basement (granite) and thickness of the overyling, unconfined, water filled, relatively unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Grant, P.R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel, convenient, and nonpersistent radiotracer for environmental and energy applications

Description: A newly-available radioisotopic system, /sup 172/Hf-/sup 172/Lu, has excellent potential for tracer applications in which nuclear data acquisition must be accomplished in real time. The 6.7-day half-life of /sup 172/Lu is sufficient for a large fraction of tracer experiments, and should allow the direct incorporation of /sup 172/Lu into tests that have traditionally utilized much longer-lived radionuclides. Since /sup 172/Lu is the daughter component of a radioisotope generator, however, its effective shelf-life is determined by the half-life of its 1.9-year /sup 172/Hf parent. Consequently, the frequency of isotope procurement need not be any more extensive than investigators would normally be accustomed to. Discussion relevant to isotope production, generator operation, and nuclide acquisition is presented in this paper.
Date: March 12, 1984
Creator: Grant, P.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal-resource verification for Air Force bases

Description: This report summarizes the various types of geothermal energy reviews some legal uncertainties of the resource and then describes a methodology to evaluate geothermal resources for applications to US Air Force bases. Estimates suggest that exploration costs will be $50,000 to $300,000, which, if favorable, would lead to drilling a $500,000 exploration well. Successful identification and development of a geothermal resource could provide all base, fixed system needs with an inexpensive, renewable energy source.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Grant, P.R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proper Assessment of the JFK Assassination Bullet Lead Evidence from Metallurgical and Statistical Perspectives

Description: The bullet evidence in the JFK assassination investigation was reexamined from metallurgical and statistical standpoints. The questioned specimens are comprised of soft lead, possibly from full-metal-jacketed Mannlicher-Carcano, 6.5-mm ammunition. During lead refining, contaminant elements are removed to specified levels for a desired alloy or composition. Microsegregation of trace and minor elements during lead casting and processing can account for the experimental variabilities measured in various evidentiary and comparison samples by laboratory analysts. Thus, elevated concentrations of antimony and copper at crystallographic grain boundaries, the widely varying sizes of grains in Mannlicher-Carcano bullet lead, and the 5-60 mg bullet samples analyzed for assassination intelligence effectively resulted in operational sampling error for the analyses. This deficiency was not considered in the original data interpretation and resulted in an invalid conclusion in favor of the single-bullet theory of the assassination. Alternate statistical calculations, based on the historic analytical data, incorporating weighted averaging and propagation of experimental uncertainties also considerably weaken support for the single-bullet theory. In effect, this assessment of the material composition of the lead specimens from the assassination concludes that the extant evidence is consistent with any number between two and five rounds fired in Dealey Plaza during the shooting.
Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Randich, E & Grant, P M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

Description: The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Baroch, C.J. & Grant, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix H: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

Description: This report develops and presents estimates for a set of three values that represent a reasonable range for the packaging factors for several waste streams that are potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a greater-than-Class C low-level waste disposal container divided by the original, as-generated or ``unpackaged,`` volume of the wastes loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors take into account any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of a greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. The three values developed represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated volume of waste for disposal, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. Three categories of greater-than-Class C low-level waste are evaluated in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other wastes. Estimates of reasonable packaging factors for the low, base, and high cases for the specific waste streams in each category are shown in Table H-1.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Quinn, G. & Grant, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron yields from (. cap alpha. ,n) reactions of importance to reactors. Progress report, January 1, 1979-October 15, 1979. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle]

Description: The goal of the first phase of this project is the accurate measurement of (..cap alpha..,n) yields from the isotopes of oxygen (especially /sup 18/O) in matrices that are characteristic of reactor fuels. Progress is reported for the period January 1, 1979 to October 1, 1979. During this time progress was achieved in the following areas: analysis of measurements of the near-equilibrium delayed neutron spectrum of /sup 240/Pu; design and construction of an assembly for the measurement of neutron yields from (..cap alpha..,n) reactions; analysis devoted to methods for calibration of the above assembly. Details of this work are given. 4 figures, 4 tables.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Woodruff, G.L.; Johnson, D.L. & Grant, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suncatcher Monitoring Project. Final report, September 1, 1977-December 31, 1978

Description: The Suncatcher Monitoring Project has to date accumulated a wide variety of data on the Nittler/Maeda Suncatcher house in Davis, California, designed by Living Systems. Highlights of the data indicate 70% solar heating during 1978 despite unusually adverse winter weather conditons and a 40% increase of solar energy in winter through clerestory glazing as compared to ordinary south glazing. The data acquisition system (DAS) only worked intermittently during 1978, but hourly data was gathered during several intervals and daily data was virtually continuous. As a back-up to this hourly gathering of data hand read data was taken daily from September 1977 to the present. This manually collected data has allowed a reliable estimate of the Suncatcher house's performance. Summer data on Suncatcher window performance has been collected for comparison purposes, but budget constraints have delayed completion of computer modeling of the Suncatcher performance. Comparison of the overall Suncatcher's performance with the estimation models, SOLEST and LASL6, and simulation model, SOLSIM, appear accurate, although completion of the reflector enhancement algorithm remains desirable.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Maeda, B.T.; Grant, P.W. & Anson, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power applications of high-temperature superconductivity: Variable speed motors, current switches, and energy storage for end use

Description: The objective of this project is to conduct joint research and development activities related to certain electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS). The new superconductors may allow development of an energy-efficient switch to control current to variable speed motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, and other power conversion equipment. Motor types that were considered include induction, permanent magnet, and superconducting ac motors. Because it is impractical to experimentally alter certain key design elements in radial-gap motors, experiments were conducted on an axial field superconducting motor prototype using 4 NbTi magnets. Superconducting magnetic energy storage technology with 0.25--5 kWh stored energy was studied as a viable solution to short duration voltage sag problems on the customer side of the electric meter. The technical performance characteristics of the device wee assembled, along with competing technologies such as active power line conditioners with storage, battery-based uninterruptible power supplies, and supercapacitors, and the market potential for SMES was defined. Four reports were prepared summarizing the results of the project.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Hawsey, R.A.; Banerjee, B.B. & Grant, P.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forensic analyses of explosion debris from the January 2, 1992 Pd/D{sub 2}O electrochemistry incident at SRI International

Description: The January 2, 1992 explosion in an electrochemistry laboratory at SRI International (SRI) resulted in the death of scientist Andrew Riley, and gained some notoriety due to its association with experimental work in the controversial field of cold fusion research. Selected components of explosion debris were subjected to forensic analyses at LLNL to elucidate potential causes of, or contributing factors to, the explosion. Interrogation of the debris by LLNL encompassed nuclear, chemical, physical, and materials investigations. Nuclear studies for the determination of tritium and neutron-activation products in stainless steel and brass were negative. No evidence of signature species indicative of orthodox nuclear events was detected. The inorganic and particulate analyses were likewise negative with respect to residues of unexpected chemical species. Such target compounds included conventional explosives, accelerants, propellants, or any exceptional industrial chemicals. The GC-MS analyses of trace organic components in the explosion debris provided perhaps the most interesting results obtained at LLNL. Although no evidence of organic explosives, oxidizers, or other unusual compounds was detected, the presence of a hydrocarbon oil in the interior of the electrochemical cell was established. It is likely that its source was lubricating fluid from the machining of the metal cell components. If residues of organic oils are present during electrolysis experiments, the potential exists for an explosive reaction in the increasingly enriched oxygen atmosphere within the headspace of a metal cell.
Date: August 15, 1992
Creator: Andresen, B.; Whipple, R.; Vandervoort, D. & Grant, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-4: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

Description: This report estimates packaging factors for several waste types that are potential greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a GTCC LLW disposal container divided by the as-generated or ``unpackaged`` volume of the waste loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors reflect any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of GTCC LLW, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. Three values are developed that represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated disposal volume of waste, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. GTCC LLW is placed in three categories for evaluation in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other waste.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Quinn, G.; Grant, P.; Winberg, M. & Williams, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature spectroscopy for nuclear waste applications

Description: Instrumentation has been developed to perform uv-vis-nir absorbance measurements remotely and at elevated temperatures and pressures. Fiber-optic spectroscopy permits the interrogation of radioactive species within a glovebox enclosure at temperatures ranging from ambient to >100{degree}C. Spectral shifts as a function of metal- ligand coordination are used to compute thermodynamic free energies of reaction by matrix regression analysis. Pr{sup 3+} serves as a convenient analog for trivalent actinides without attendant radioactivity hazards, and recent results obtained from 20{degree}--95{degree}C with the Pr-acetate complexation system are presented. Preliminary experimentation on Am(3) hydrolysis is also described. 16 refs., 1 tab.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Grant, P.M.; Robouch, P.; Torres, R.A. & Silva, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation effects on resins and zeolites at Three Mile Island Unit II

Description: Radiation effects on resin and zeolite used in the waste cleanup at Three Mile Island Unit II have been examined both experimentally and in-situ. Hydrogen and organic gases are generated due to absorbed radiation as a function of resin material, curie loading and residual water content. Significant oxygen scavaging was demonstrated in the organic resin liners. Hydrogen and oxygen gases in near stoichiometric quantities are generated from irradiation of residual water in inorganic zeolites. Gas generation was determined to be directly proportional to curie content but correlates poorly with residual water content in zeolite vessels. Results of the gas generation analyses of EPICOR II liners show that vessels with less than 166 curies had almost no hydrogen generated during two years of storage and therefore did not require safety measures for shipment or storage. Experimental measurements done at research laboratories predicted similar results associated with hydrogen gas generation and oxygen depletion. X-ray diffraction examinations and ion exchange capacity measurements indicated no evidence of irradiation effects on the structure or cesium exchange capacity for zeolites exposed to 10/sup 10/ rads. Darkening and damage of organic resin due to radiation has been identified. Breaking and agglomeration of the purification demineralizer resin is believed to be the result of temperature effects. No damage was identified from radiation effects on zeolite. Organic and inorganic sorbents used in the processing of contaminated waters at TMI-2 have been shown to be effective in maintaining long-term stability under high radiation conditions. The effects of radiolytic degradation have been shown by direct measurements and simulation tests and are of use in their general application throughout the industry.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Reilly, J.K.; Grant, P.J.; Quinn, G.J. & Hofstetter, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interaction analysis method for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

Description: In order to anticipate potential problems as early as possible during the design effort, a method for interaction analysis was developed to meet the specific hazards of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The requirement for interaction analysis is given in DOE Order 6430.1B and DOE-STD-1021-92. The purpose of the interaction analysis is to ensure that non-safety class items will not fail in a manner that will adversely affect the ability of any safety class item to perform its safety function. In the HWVP there are few structures, equipment, or controls that are safety class. In addition to damage due to failure of non-safety class items as a result of natural phenomena, threats to HWVP safety class items include the following: room flooding from firewater, leakage of chemically reactive liquids, high-pressure gas impingement from leaking piping, rocket-type impact from broken pressurized gas cylinders, loss of control of mobile equipment, cryogenic liquid spill, fire, and smoke. The time needed to perform the interaction analysis is minimized by consolidating safety class items into segregated areas. Each area containing safety class items is evaluated, and any potential threat to the safety functions is noted. After relocation of safety class items is considered, items that pose a threat are generally upgraded to eliminate the threat to the safety class items. Upgrading is the preferred option when relocation is not possible. An example will illustrate the method and application in the phased design, procurement, and construction environment of the HWVP.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Grant, P. R.; Deshotels, R. L. & Van Katwijk, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elevated temperature effects on concrete properties

Description: The design of facilities to process or store radioactive wastes presents many challenging engineering problems. Such facilities must not only provide for safe storage of radioactive wastes but they must also be able to maintain confinement of these materials during and after natural phenomena events. Heat generated by the radioactive decay of the wastes will cause the temperature of the concrete containment structure to increase to a magnitude higher than that found in conventional structures. These elevated temperatures will cause strength-related concrete properties to degrade over time. For concrete temperatures less than 150{degree}F, no reduction in strength is taken and the provisions of ACI 349, which states that higher temperatures are allowed if tests are provided to evaluate the reduction in concrete strength properties, apply. Methods proposed in a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) report, Modeling of Time-Variant Concrete Properties at Elevated Temperatures, can be used to evaluate the effects of elevated temperatures on concrete properties. Using these modified concrete properties the capacity of a concrete structure, subjected to elevated temperatures, to resist natural phenomena hazards can be determined.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Grant, P. R.; Gruber, R. S. & Van Katwijk, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Extraction of Dust Impact Tracks from Silica Aerogel by Ultrasonic Micro-blades

Description: In January 2006, NASA's Stardust Mission will return with its valuable cargo of cometary dust particles, the first brought back to Earth, captured at hypervelocity speeds in silica aerogel collectors. Aerogel, a proven capture medium, is also a candidate for future sample return missions and low-earth orbit (LEO) deployments. Critical to the science return of Stardust and future missions using aerogel is the ability to efficiently extract impacted particles from collector tiles. Researchers will be eager to obtain Stardust samples as quickly as possible, and tools for the rapid extraction of particle impact tracks that require little construction, training, or investment would be an attractive asset. To this end, we have experimented with diamond and steel micro-blades. Applying ultrasonic frequency oscillations to these micro-blades via a piezo-driven holder produces rapid, clean cuts in the aerogel with minimal damage to the surrounding collector tile. With this approach, impact tracks in aerogel fragments with low-roughness cut surfaces have been extracted from aerogel tiles flown on NASA's Orbital Debris Collector Experiment. The smooth surfaces produced during cutting reduce imaging artifacts during analysis by SEM. Some tracks have been dissected to expose the main cavity for eventual isolation of individual impact debris particles and further analysis by techniques such as TEM and nanoSIMS.
Date: February 17, 2005
Creator: Ishii, H; Graham, G; Kearsley, A T; Grant, P G; Snead, C J & Bradley, J P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of high-temperature UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy for the measurement of free energies of complexation at elevated temperatures

Description: We have developed instrumentation capable of measuring optical absorption spectra over a wavelength range of 200--1200 nm and a temperature range of 20--100{degree}C. This fiber-optic based spectrometer generates data which allow the computation of metal-ligand equilibrium constants. Studies at five temperatures have been completed using praseodymium-diglycolate as a model system. Fundamental thermodynamic values (free energies, enthalpies, entropies) were obtained from the experimentally-determined stability constants. Thermodynamic data pertinent to the interactions of actinides and long-lived fission products with groundwater, waste package components, and geologic media are critical input to modeling programs. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Date: September 26, 1990
Creator: Robouch, P.; Grant, P.; Torres, R.A.; Baisden, P.A. & Silva, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerator-Based Surface Chemistry by Combined Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOF-MS) and Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

Description: We describe the development of a new capability for performing microscopic chemical analysis in the near surface of a sample. The technology uses a focused high-energy ion beam from an accelerator to cause characteristic elemental x-rays to be emitted and, simultaneously, molecules and fragments to be desorbed from the surface of the sample. Spectroscopic analysis of the fluoresced x-rays provides quantitative trace element information of the sample volume probed by the beam. The elemental data are subsequently used to identify peaks in the mass analysis of the desorbed species, thereby providing a detailed description of the local surface chemistry. High-resolution (micron-scale) chemical imaging is possible by scanning the beam over the sample.
Date: May 31, 2002
Creator: Morse, D H; Grant, P G; Antolak, A J; Sproch, N & Fernando, Q
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organization (ANSTO) Interdicted Samples 24-Hour Report

Description: Categorization is complete. Samples 11-3-1 (NSR-F-270409-01) and 11-3-2 (NSR-F-270409-02) are depleted uranium powders of moderate purity ({approx}65-80 % U). The uranium feed stocks for 11-3-1 and 11-3-2 have both experienced a neutron flux (as demonstrated by the presence of {sup 232}U). Sample 11-3-3 is indistinguishable from a natural uranium ore concentrate of moderate purity ({approx}70-80% U). Two anomalous objects (11-3-1-4 and 11-3-2-5) were found in the material during aliquoting. These objects might be valuable for route attribution.
Date: January 27, 2011
Creator: Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D; Grant, P M; Borg, L E; Sharp, M A; Moody, K J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Radiochemical analysis of post-shot debris inside the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber can help determine various diagnostic parameters associated with the implosion efficiency of the fusion capsule. This capability is limited by the amount of target isotope that can be loaded inside the capsule ablator without affecting performance and the collection efficiency of the capsule debris after implosion. Prior to designing a collection system, the chemical nature and distribution of the debris inside the chamber must be determined and analysis methods developed. The focus of our current work has been on determining the elemental composition and distribution of debris on various blast shields and witness plates that were exposed to the chamber during ignition shots that occurred in 2009. These passive collection plates were used to develop both non-destructive and chemical analysis techniques to determine debris composition and melt depth at various shot energy profiles. A summary of these data will be presented along with our current strategy for the 2011 campaign.
Date: December 15, 2011
Creator: Gostic, J M; Shaughnessy, D A; Grant, P M; Hutcheon, I D; Lewis, L A & Moody, K J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Sample Handling and Analytical Expertise For the Stardust Comet Sample Return

Description: NASA's Stardust mission returned to Earth in January 2006 with ''fresh'' cometary particles from a young Jupiter family comet. The cometary particles were sampled during the spacecraft flyby of comet 81P/Wild-2 in January 2004, when they impacted low-density silica aerogel tiles and aluminum foils on the sample tray assembly at approximately 6.1 km/s. This LDRD project has developed extraction and sample recovery methodologies to maximize the scientific information that can be obtained from the analysis of natural and man-made nano-materials of relevance to the LLNL programs.
Date: February 9, 2006
Creator: Bradley, J; Bajt, S; Brennan, S; Graham, G; Grant, P; Hutcheon, I et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

Description: The ability to collect solid debris from the target chamber following a NIF shot has application for both capsule diagnostics, particularly for fuel-ablator mix, and measuring cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship program and nuclear astrophysics. Simulations have shown that doping the capsule with up to 10{sup 15} atoms of an impurity not otherwise found in the capsule does not affect its performance. The dopant is an element that will undergo nuclear activations during the NIF implosion, forming radioactive species that can be collected and measured after extraction from the target chamber. For diagnostics, deuteron or alpha induced reactions can be used to probe the fuel-ablator mix. For measuring neutron cross sections, the dopant should be something that is sensitive to the 14 MeV neutrons produced through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Developing the collector is a challenge due to the extreme environment of the NIF chamber. The collector surface is exposed to a large photon flux from x-rays and unconverted laser light before it is exposed to a debris wind that is formed from vaporized material from the target chamber center. The photons will ablate the collector surface to some extent, possibly impeding the debris from reaching the collector and sticking. In addition, the collector itself must be mechanically strong enough to withstand the large amount of energy it will be exposed to, and it should be something that will be easy to count and chemically process. In order to select the best material for the collector, a variety of different metals have been tested in the NIF chamber. They were exposed to high-energy laser shots in order to evaluate their postshot surface characterization, morphology, degree of melt, and their ability to retain debris from the chamber center. The first set of samples consisted of 1 mm ...
Date: November 21, 2011
Creator: Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Lewis, L A & Hutcheon, I D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department