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Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

Description: For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 10/sup 7/-10/sup 9/ ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as /sup 11/C and /sup 19/Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs.
Date: May 1, 1985
Creator: Gough, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Present status of the Bevalac and design outline of proposed medical accelerator

Description: The Bevalac currently supports a strong and diverse program of scientific research with beams of relativistic heavy ions in the Biomedical and Nuclear Sciences. These programs utilize ions throughout the Periodic Table that range in energy from a few MeV to 2 GeV/nucleon, including radioactive secondary beams, such as neon-19. This paper first provides a brief overview of the Bevalac, its present operational status and the accelerator improvement program, followed by a rationale for the proposed construction of a hospital-based modern synchrotron dedicated to applications in Biomedicine, including the radiotherapeutic treatment of cancer and other human disorders. An outline of the proposed design for the new machine is given, including discussion of the design philosophy, a review of major accelerator components, and the expected performance and operating characteristics.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Gough, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of a small off-line computer in the operation of a versatile heavy ion cyclotron

Description: In a modern heavy ion cyclotron with variable energy and particle species, it is essential to provide the operations staff with fast and easy access to parameter information. At the Berkeley 88-Ion Cyclotron, which operates under manual control, an interactive computer program has been developed to meet this requirement. The program is written in BASIC on a small off-line computer to perform a variety of calculations for any ion species and energy. The program can provide the operator with cyclotron and beam line settings for any beam, regardless of whether or not the beam has been previously run, by utilizing the broad data base acquired over a decade of heavy ion operation. A number of additional calculations now being performed conveniently and routinely by the operations staff will be discussed. The use of this program has greatly streamlined the operation of the cyclotron because needed information can be obtained quickly and reliably.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Gough, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA)

Description: LIBRA is a concept to place a light-ion, charged-particle facility in a hospital environment, and to dedicate it to applications in biology and medicine. There are two aspects of the program envisaged for LIBRA: a basic research effort coupled with a program in clinical applications of accelerated charged particles. The operational environment to be provided for LIBRA is one in which both of these components can coexist and flourish, and one that will promote the transfer of technology and knowledge from one to the other. In order to further investigate the prospects for a Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA), discussions are underway with the Merritt Peralta Medical Center (MPMC) in Oakland, California, and the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF). In this paper, a brief discussion of the technical requirements for such a facility is given, together with an outline of the accelerator technology required. While still in a preliminary stage, it is possible nevertheless to develop an adequate working description of the type, size, performance and cost of the accelerator facilities required to meet the preliminary goals for LIBRA.
Date: March 1, 1987
Creator: Gough, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PET computer programs for use with the 88-inch cyclotron

Description: This report describes in detail several offline programs written for the PET computer which provide an efficient data management system to assist with the operation of the 88-Inch Cyclotron. This function includes the capability to predict settings for all cyclotron and beam line parameters for all beams within the present operating domain of the facility. The establishment of a data base for operational records is also described from which various aspects of the operating history can be projected.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Gough, R.A. & Chlosta, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy ion medical accelerator options

Description: This paper briefly explores the accelerator technology available for heavy ion medical accelerators in the mass range of 1 to 40 (protons through argon). Machines that are designed to produce the required intensities of a particular design ion, such as silicon (mass 28), can satisfy the intensity requirements for all lighter ions, and can produce beams with higher mass, such as argon, at somewhat reduced, but still useful intensity levels. They can also provide beams of radioactive ions, such as carbon-11 and neon-19, which are useful in diagnostic imaging and for directly verifiable treatments. These accelerators are all based on proven technology, and can be built at predictable costs. It is the conclusion of several design studies that they can be operated reliably in a hospital-based environment. 8 refs., 22 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Gough, R.A. & Alonso, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charge exchange losses during cyclotron acceleration: experiment and theory

Description: Quantitative estimates of charge exchange (CE) losses during acceleration are very important in the design and operation of heavy ion cyclotrons. Such estimates have been made using a vacuum model computer code which was developed to establish vacuum requirements for the MSU superconducting heavy ion cyclotron. This code uses pressure and cross-section data to calculate the radial loss of beam due to charge exchange. Since CE cross sections and radial pressure profiles are not always well known, certain specific measurements have been made using the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron to provide experimental data needed to test the code. These include measurements of pressure versus radius under vacuum conditions closely approximating those existing during acceleration of /sup 14/N/sup 4 -/ and /sup 40/Ar/sup 8 -/ beams. Beam intensity versus radius data demonstrating transmission losses for three beams are presented. Comparisons with theoretical predictions are given.
Date: May 26, 1978
Creator: Gough, R.A. & Mallory, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synchrotrons in cyclotron territory

Description: Synchrotrons and cyclotrons have an overlap in their particle and energy ranges. In proton radiotherapy, synchrotrons are proposed at 250 MeV, an energy usually served by cyclotrons. Heavy ion therapy has been synchrotron territory, but cyclotrons may be competitive. In nuclear science, heavy ion synchrotrons can be used in the cyclotron energy range of 10-200 MeV/u. Storage rings are planned to increase the flexibility of several cyclotrons. For atomic physics research, several storage rings are under construction for the energy range of 10 MeV/u and below.
Date: October 1, 1986
Creator: Clark, D.J. & Gough, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear science annual report, July 1, 1977-June 30, 1978. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory]

Description: Activities for the period July 1, 1977, through June 30, 1978, are reported in the following areas: experimental research (nuclear structure; nuclear reactions and scattering; relativistic heavy ions - projectile and target fragmentation, central collisions; the Table of Isotopes Project, atomic physics, and magnetic monopoles), theory of nuclear collisions (microscopic, macroscopic, relativistic), and apparatus (accelerator operations and development, nuclear instrumentation). Also included are thesis abstracts, publications lists, and an author index. Individual abstracts were prepared for 33 of the reports in this volume. (RWR)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Schroeder, L.S.; Gough, R.A. & Nurmia, M.J. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent developments in high charge state heavy ion beams at the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron

Description: Recent advances in design and operation of the internal PIG sources at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron have led to the development of high charge state (0.4 < or approx. = to Q/A < or approx. = to 0.5) heavy ion beams between lithium and neon with energies 20 < or approx. = to E/A < or approx. = to 32 MeV per nucleon, including fully stripped ions up to /sup 16/O/sup 8 +/. Total external intensities of these beams range from 10/sup 12/ particles/s for /sup 6/Li/sup 3 +/ to 0.1 particles/s for /sup 16/O/sup 8 +/. Techniques have been developed for routine tune-out of the low intensity beams. These include use of model beams and reliance on the large systematic data base of cyclotron parameters which has been developed over many years of operation. Techniques for delivery of these weak beams to the experimental target areas are presented. Source design and operation, including special problems associated with Li, Be, and B beams are discussed.
Date: September 13, 1978
Creator: Gough, R.A.; Clark, D.J. & Glasgow, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synchrotrons for heavy ions: Bevalac experience

Description: The Bevalac should be viewed not as a model of accelerator hardware - a modern heavy ion complex will look quite different, but as a model for an operating versatile multifaceted, multiuser heavy ion facility. Of value to the planning of a new accelerator such as MARIA is the knowledge of operating modes peculiar to heavy ions and specific hardware requirements to carry out its mission with the mandated flexibility and reliability. This paper starts with a discussion of parameters and machine characteristics most suitable for medical and nuclear science applications. It then covers experience in interleaving these two research programs, and finally, concentrates on accelerator configuratin questions; injectors, repetition rate, vacuum systems and cost criteria which will be relevant to the design of MARIA.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Grunder, H.A.; Gough, R.A. & Alonso, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of an RFQ-based, H/sup -/ injector for the BNL/FNAL 200 MeV proton linacs

Description: An LBL/BNL/FNAL collaboration has been formed to design an RFQ-based Cockcroft-Walton replacement, suitable for use at the Brookhaven and Fermilab 200 MeV proton linacs. A common design for the ion source and the RFQ will result in an economical construction and testing program compatible with both applications. The technical requirements have been evaluated and it appears that they can be satisfied with identical RFQs, capable of accelerating 50 mA of H/sup -/ from 35 to 750 keV, at a nominal frequency of 200 MHz.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Gough, R.A.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Yee, D.; Howard, D.; Curtis, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compact heavy ion RFQ preaccelerator for use at the CERN Linac I

Description: This paper describes the LBL contribution to a project designed to provide fully-stripped oxygen beams for acceleration in the CERN PS complex. A preaccelerator for Linac I, consisting of an ECR ion source, an RFQ linac, and rf matching cavities, is being assembled as part of a collaborative arrangement among LBL, GSI, and CERN. The RFQ, designed and built at LBL, will accept analyzed oxygen +6 beam from the ECR at 5.6 keV/amu, and accelerate it to 139.5 keV/amu, the injection energy required for 2 ..beta..lambda operation of Linac I. Stripping to +8 will be done with a foil stripper at 12.5 MeV/amu at the exit of Linac I. The RFQ operates at 202.56 MHz and is 0.86 meters in length. The structure is stabilized with vane coupling rings, and uses a single drive loop and a single tuning loop. 5 refs., 3 figs.
Date: May 1, 1985
Creator: Gough, R.A.; Staples, J.; Caylor, R.; Howard, D.; MacGill, R. & Tanabe, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High energy beam transport system for a Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator

Description: A beam transport system for a Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator is presented. The design allows for ease of tuning, similarity of tuning between different beam lines, and future expansion of the number of beamlines. An option for generating secondary beams with acceptable transmission losses to all treatment areas is also included in the design, as is a vertical beamline option for use with patients in a horizontal position. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1985
Creator: Renner, T.R.; Chu, W.T.; Gough, R.A.; Staples, J. & Tanabe, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emittance measurements of high charge state argon beams from a pig source

Description: The emittances of beams of Ar$sup 4+$ to Ar$sup 8+$ were measured in the axial and radial planes. The extraction voltage was 10 kV and the magnetic field was varied from about 0.5 to 0.6 Tesla. The anode slit was varied in distance from the arc, which was run both dc and pulsed. The emittance was nearly independent of charge state, but increased with total beam current. A small bowing of the arc column, which made evaluation of mirror field effects difficult, was discovered. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1975
Creator: Bex, L.; Clark, D.J.; Ellsworth, C.E.; Estrella, R.M.; Gough, R.A. & Holley, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of ion sources for ion projection lithography

Description: Multicusp ion sources are capable of generating ion beams with low axial energy spread as required by the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL). Longitudinal ion energy spread has been studied in two different types of plasma discharge: the filament discharge ion source characterized by its low axial energy spread, and the RF-driven ion source characterized by its long source lifetime. For He{sup +} ions, longitudinal ion energy spreads of 1-2 eV were measured for a filament discharge multicusp ion source which is within the IPL device requirements. Ion beams with larger axial energy spread were observed in the RF-driven source. A double-chamber ion source has been designed which combines the advantages of low axial energy spread of the filament discharge ion source with the long lifetime of the RF-driven source. The energy spread of the double chamber source is lower than that of the RF-driven source.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N. & Perkins, L.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Spallation Neutron Source Collaboration: Towards a new pulsed neutron source in the United States

Description: The US Department of Energy has commissioned Oak Ridge National Laboratory to initiate the conceptual design for a next-generation pulsed spallation neutron source. Current expectation is for a construction start in FY 1998, with commencement of operations in 2004. For this project, ORNL has entered into a collaborative arrangement with LBNL, BNL, LANL (and most recently ANL). The conceptual design study is now well underway, building on the strong base of the extensive work already performed by various Laboratories, as well as input from the user community (from special BESAC subpanels). Study progress, including accelerator configuration and plans for resolution of critical issues, is reported in this paper.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Appleton, B.R.; Ball, J.B.; Alonso, J.R.; Gough, R.A.; Weng, W.T.; Jason, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma ignition schemes for the SNS radio-frequency driven H- source

Description: The H{sup -} ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a cesiated, radio-frequency driven (2 MHz) multicusp volume source which operates at a duty cycle of 6% (1 ms pulses and 60 Hz). In pulsed RF driven plasma sources, ignition of the plasma affects the stability of source operation and the antenna lifetime. We are reporting on investigations of different ignition schemes, based on secondary electron generation in the plasma chamber by UV light, a hot filament, a low power RF plasma (cw, 13.56 MHz), as well as source operation solely with the high power (40 kW) 2 MHz RF. We find that the dual frequency, single antenna scheme is most attractive for the operating conditions of the SNS H{sup -} source.
Date: September 6, 2001
Creator: Schenkel, T.; Staples, J.W.; Thomae, W.; Reijonen, J.; Gough, R.A.; Leung, K.N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

Description: For the on-line production of a {sup 14}O{sup +} ion beam, an integrated target--transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. {sup 14}O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV {sup 3}He beam from the LBNL 88'' Cyclotron via the reaction {sup 12}C({sup 3}He,n){sup 14}O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O{sub 2} and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar{sup +}, 1% for CO, 0.7% for O{sup +}, 0.33 for C{sup +} have been measured.
Date: October 5, 1998
Creator: Burke, J.; Freedman, S.J.; Fujikawa, B.; Gough, R.A.; Lyneis, C.M.; Vetter, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Bevalac Upgrade Project

Description: This paper describes a proposed upgrade of the Bevalac accelerator complex in which the present Bevatron is replaced with a modern, strong-focusing 17 T-m synchrotron. This new ring is designed to accelerate all ions throughout the periodic table with intensities 100 to 1000 times higher than the present Bevatron. It will also provide a substantially improved beam spill structure and will reduce operating costs. A fast extraction capability can be used to inject a future heavy ion storage ring. Pulse-to-pulse switching of energy and ion species is an important goal. The existing injectors, shielding, experimental facilities and utilities of the present Bevalac will remain substantially intact.
Date: March 1, 1987
Creator: Alonso, J.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Feinberg, B.; Frias, R.; Gough, R.A.; Howard, D.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RFQ development at LBL

Description: The radio frequency quadrupole (FRQ) is a structure which can efficiently focus, bunch and accelerate low velocity ion beams. It has many features which make it particularly attractive for applications in the biomedical and nuclear sciences. There are two projects in progress at LBL where the incorporation of heavy ion RFQ technology offers substantial benefits: in the upgrade of the Bevatron local injector, and in the design of a dedicated heavy ion medical accelerator. In order to meet the requirements of these two important applications, a 200 MHz RFQ structure has been designed for ions with charge to mass ratios as low as 0.14, and a low rf power scale model has been built and tested. Construction of the high power model has begun. The status of this project is reviewed and a summary of technical specifications given.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Abbott, S.; Brodzik, D.; Gough, R.A.; Howard, D.; Lancaster, H.; MacGill, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department