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DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

Description: Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met.
Date: March 26, 2003
Creator: Gordon, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The work performed augments that portion of ASAE-S-5 devoted to a study of the economics of nuclear tankers by presenting economic data on three additional tanker sizes, each driven at three different speeds. Some of the previous dath are repeated to facilitate direct comparison of the different ship sizes. Operating costs and return on investment are tabulated for all six ship sizes on three specific trade routes. (W.D.M.)
Date: October 10, 1958
Creator: Gordon, J.J. & Buck, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of a Sixth Order Generalized Stress Function To Determine Limit Loads for Plates with Triangular Penetration Patterns

Description: The capabilities to obtain limit load solutions of plates with triangular penetration patterns using fourth order functions to represent the collapse surface has been presented in previous papers. These papers describe how equivalent solid plate elastic-perfectly plastic finite element capabilities are generated and demonstrated how such capabilities can be used to great advantage in the analysis of tubesheets in large heat exchanger applications. However, these papers have pointed out that although the fourth order functions can produce sufficient accuracy for many practical applications, there are situations where improvements in the accuracy of inplane and transverse shear are desirable. This paper investigates the use of a sixth order function to represent the collapse surface for improved accuracy of the inplane response. Explicit elastic-perfectly plastic finite element solutions are obtained for unit cells representing an infinite array of circular penetrations arranged in an equilateral triangular array. These cells are used to create a numerical representation of the complete collapse surfaces for a number of ligament efficiencies (h/P where h is the minimum ligament width and P is the distance between hole centers). Each collapse surface is then fit to a sixth order function that satisfies the periodicity of the hole pattern. Sixth-order collapse functions were developed for h/P values between .05 and .50. Accuracy of the sixth order and the fourth order functions are compared. It was found that the sixth order function is indeed more accurate, reducing the error from 12.2% for the fourth order function to less than 3% for the sixth order function.
Date: December 20, 2001
Creator: Gordon, J.L. & Jones, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparision of Limit Load Solutions with Results of a Collapse Tests of Perforated Plates with a Triangular Penetration Pattern

Description: Limit load solutions obtained by elastic-perfectly plastic finite element analysis (EPP-FEA) are compared to results of tests of low-alloy steel perforated plate geometries loaded to full plastic collapse. Results are given for two plastic-collapse tests of flat circular disks with circular penetrations arranged in a triangular pattern and drilled normal to the surface of the plate. The ligament efficiency (minimum distance between holes divided by the distance between the centers of the holes) of the pattern is 0.32 and the plate thickness is 2.39 inches (60.7 mm). The tests were designed so that a transverse load generated plastic collapse in the outer row of penetrations due to a combination of transverse shear and in-plane bending. Limit-load solutions were obtained using EPP-FEA with small-strain, small-defection linear geometry assumptions. Two FEA models are used: one where the perforated region is modeled using an equivent solid plate (EQS) representation and another where each hole is explicitly modeled by FEA. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the deformation patterns produced by the EPP-FEA solutions match exactly with the deformation patterns produced by the test. The EQS-EPP FEA solution is about 15% lower than the explicit-hole EPP-FEA solution. Using one-third the actual ultimate strength of the material as the strength parameter in the limit load calculation produces a calculated limit load that is greater than a factor of three less than the mean measured plastic-collapse load obtained in the tests. This paper adds to the qualification of the use of limit-load solutions obtained using small-strain, small deflection EPP-FEA programs for the calculation of the limit load for perforated plates.
Date: December 13, 2001
Creator: Jones, D.P. & Gordon, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS): executive summary and overview

Description: Two self-consistent MARS configurations are discussed - a 1200-MWe commercial electricity-generating plant and a synguels-generating plant that produces hydrogen with an energy equivalent to 26,000 barrels of oil per day. The MARS machine emphasizes the attractive features of the tandem mirror concept, including steady-state operation, a small-diameter high-beta plasma, a linear central cell with simple low-maintenance blankets, low first-wall heat fluxes (<10 W/cm/sup 2/), no driven plasma currents or associated disruptions, natural halo impurity diversion, and direct conversion of end-loss charged-particle power. The MARS electric plant produces 2600 MW of fusion power in a 130-m-long central cell. Advanced tandem-mirror plasma-engineering concepts, a high-efficiency liquid lithium-lead (Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/) blanket, and efficient direct electrical conversion of end loss power combine to produce a high net plant efficiency of 36%. With a total capital cost of $2.9 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the MARS electric plant produces busbar electricity at approx. 7 cents/kW-hour. The MARS synfuels plant produces 3500 MW of fusion power in a 150-m-long central cell. A helium-gas-cooled silicon carbide pebble-bed blanket provides high-temperature (1000/sup 0/C) heat to a thermochemical water-splitting cycle and the resulting hydrogen is catalytically converted to methanol for distribution. With a total capital cost of $3.6 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the synfuels plant produces methanol fuel at about $1.7/gal. The major features of the MARS reactor include sloshing-ion thermal barrier plugs for efficient plasma confinement, a high efficiency blanket, high-field (24-T) choke cells, drift pumping for trapped plasma species, quasi-optical electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) systems, and a component gridless direct converter.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J. & Gordon, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance to the study of electrocatalytic films

Description: The EQCM was used to study the deposition and composition of electrodeposited pure PbO{sub 2} and Bi-doped PbO{sub 2} active toward anodic oxygen-transfer reactions. Within the doped films, Bi is incorporated as Bi{sup +5} in the form of BiO{sub 2}A, where A is ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} or NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. For deposition of these 2 materials, changes in hydration between the Au oxide and the depositing film resulted in higher mass-to-charge ratios. XRD and XPS were used to study the films; the rutile structure of PbO{sub 2} is retained even with the Bi doping. The EQCM was also used to study the formation and dissolution of Au oxide and preoxide structures formed on the Au substrate electrodes in acidic media. The preoxide structures were AuOH and increased the surface mass. For the formation of stable Au films on quartz wafers, Ti interlayers between Au and quartz was found to be very effective.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Gordon, J. S. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MARS high-temperature blanket

Description: The MARS high temperature blanket is designed for the dual applications of either high efficiency electricity production or process heat for synthetic fuel production. Other blanket design goals are tritium self-sufficiency, low tritium inventory, more than 40% of the blanket energy extracted at high energy, long lifetime in the neutron environment, no use of reactive liquid metals, minimization of long term activation and use of characterized materials and fabrication techniques. This challenging set of goals has been met with a novel blanket design that uses radial zoning and the unique properties of the lead-lithium eutectic, Pb/sub 83/Li/sub 17/, as a coolant/neutron multiplier/breeder. During the first year of MARS, the blanket design was optimized for electricity production. A reoptimization for the synthetic fuel application is in progress.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Gordon, J.D.; Berwald, D.H. & Flanders, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automation in a material processing/storage facility

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Peterson, K. & Gordon, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thickness effects on the plastic collapse of perforated plates with triangular penetration patterns

Description: This paper investigates the effects of plate thickness on the accuracy of limit load solutions obtained using an elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] equivalent solid [EQS] procedure for flat perforated plates with a triangular array of penetrations. The EQS approach for limit loads is based on an EQS collapse surface that is valid for generalized plane strain. This assumption is applicable for very thick plates but is known to be less reasonable for very thin plates where plane stress may be a better assumption. The limits of applicability of the generalized plane strain assumption are investigated by obtaining limit load solutions for perforated plates of various thicknesses that are subjected to in-plane and bending loads. Plastic limit load solutions obtained using three-dimensional EPP finite element analysis [FEA] of models which include each penetration explicitly are compared with solutions obtained using the EQS approximation. The penetration pattern chosen for this study has a ligament efficiency (ligament width-to-pitch ratio, h/P) of 0.32. For plates thicker than the pitch, the limit load calculated using the EQS method for both in-plane and bending loads is shown to be very accurate (within 4%) of the limit load calculated for the explicit model. On the other hand, for thin plates (t/P&lt; 2), the EQS limit load is 5% greater than the explicit limit load for bending and 8% greater than the explicit limit load for in-plane loads. For thinner plates, the collapse surface is tied to the local geometry deformation and, hence, an equivalent solid plate representation of plastic collapse is a function of deformation mode and thickness.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Gordon, J.L.; Jones, D.P. & Holliday, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A collapse surface for a perforated plate with an equilateral triangular array of penetrations

Description: This paper describes the development of incipient yield and subsequent collapse surfaces for a plate containing a large number of small circular penetrations arranged in an equilateral triangular array. The collapse surface developed here is appropriate for formulating a generic elastic-plastic flow theory for perforated materials. A unit cell is defined to characterize the mechanical response of an equilateral triangular array of penetrations. An elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] finite element analysis [FEA] computer program is used to calculate the EPP response of the unit cell. A sufficient number of load cases are solved to define the complete incipient yield and collapse surfaces for the unit cell. A fourth order yield function is defined by squaring the Von Mises quadratic yield function and retaining only those terms that are required for the symmetry dictated by the triangular array. Curve fitting is used to determine the coefficients of the fourth order function to match the incipient yield and collapse data calculated for the unit cell by FEA. The incipient yield function in the plane of the plate incorporating the penetration pattern is shown to be almost rhomboidal in shape while the collapse curve is more elliptical. The fourth order yield function which passes through the incipient yield data possess regions where the surface is concave--a concern when developing a plasticity theory based on the function. Fitting the coefficients of the fourth order function to the collapse data results in a curve which is shown to be always convex thus having all positive outward normal vectors which is a required property for the development of plasticity flow theories.
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Gordon, J.L.; Jones, D.P.; Hutula, D.N. & Banas, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lower granite GIS data description and collection guidelines

Description: The Lower Granite Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) Walla Walla District and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of the project is to use GIS technology to analyze impacts of the drawdown mitigation option on the physical and biological environment of the Lower Granite Reservoir. The drawdown mitigation option is based on the hypothesis that faster juvenile salmon travel to the ocean would result in higher juvenile survival and greater smolt-to-adult return ratios; to accomplish this, reservoir elevations would be lowered to increase channel velocities. Altering the elevation of the reservoirs on the Snake River is expected to have a variety of impacts to the Physical environment including changes to water velocity, temperature, dissolved gases, and turbidity. The GIS was developed to evaluate these changes and the resulting impacts on the anadromous and resident fish of the Snake River, as well as other aquatic organisms and terrestrial wildlife residing in the adjacent riparian areas. The Lower Granite GIS was developed using commercial hardware and software and is supported by a commercial relational database. Much of the initial system development involved collecting and incorporating data describing the river channel characteristics, hydrologic properties, and aquatic ecology. Potentially meaningful data for the Lower Granite GIS were identified and an extensive data search was performed. Data were obtained from scientists who are analyzing the habitats, limnology, and hydrology of the Snake River. The next six sections of this document describe the bathymetry, fish abundance, substrate, sediment chemistry, and channel hydrology data.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Gordon, J.L.; Evans, B.J. & Perry, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

Description: In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.
Date: February 26, 2002
Creator: Church, A.; Gordon, J. & Montrose, J. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central-cell blanket-module-maintenance approach for the MARS high-temperature blanket

Description: The general maintenance philosophy for replacement of modules is reviewed in this paper. This includes a discussion of the method for disassembly of the spent module in a hot bay area. An initial equipment requirements list is developed to support the maintenance approach.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Young, N.; Sutliff, D.; Tait, D.; Siebert, R.; Coulahan, J.; Garner, J.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering, safety, and economic evaluations of ASPIRE (Advanced Safe Pool Immersed REactor)

Description: A preconceptual design of a tokamak fusion reactor concept called ASPIRE (Advanced Safe Pool Immersed REactor) has been developed. This concept provides many of the attractive features that are needed to enhance the capability of fusion to become the power generation technology for the 21st century. Specifically, these features are: inherent safety, low pressure, environmental compatibility, moderate unit size, high availability, high thermal efficiency, simplicity, low radioactive inventory, Class C radioactive waste disposal, and low cost of electricity. We have based ASPIRE on a second stability tokamak. However, the concept is equally applicable to a first stability tokamak or to most other magnetic fusion systems.
Date: February 1, 1988
Creator: Sze, D.K.; Gordon, J.; Piet, S.; Cheng, E.T. & Klein, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ICF tritium production reactor

Description: The conceptual design of an ICF tritium production reactor is described. The chamber design uses a beryllium multiplier and a liquid lithium breeder to achieve a tritium breeding ratio of 2.08. The annual net tritium production of this 532 MW/sub t/ plant is 16.9 kg, and the estimated cost of tritium is $8100/g.
Date: February 28, 1985
Creator: Meier, W.R.; McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Gordon, J.D. & Steele, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Evaluation of Alternative Reactor Vessel Cutting Technologies for the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

Description: Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Boing, L. E.; Henley, D. R.; Manion, William J. & Gordon, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Debye temperature of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} and its dependence on the volume fraction of superconductivity

Description: Specific-heat measurements, on polycrystalline samples of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, YBCO, have shown sample-to-sample variations in the volume fraction of superconductivity, f{sub s}, which is correlated with the concentration of Cu{sup 2+} magnetic moments in the YBCO lattice. At low temperatures the lattice specific heat also varies with f{sub s}, but these variations do not persist above {approximately}20K. The low-temperature data show that {Theta}{sub 0}{sup {minus}3} varies linearly with f{sub 3}, and give values of 520 and 390K for {Theta}{sub o} for fully-superconducting and ``fully-normal`` YBCO, respectively. These results suggest that the long wavelength phonon modes are altered when Cu{sup 2+} magnetic moments are present in the lattice. The fact that different samples have the same lattice specific heat at {approximately}20K and above T{sub c} indicates that the higher energy phonon modes are insensitive to these Cu{sup 2+} moments.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Fisher, R. A.; Phillips, N. E. & Gordon, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An elastic-perfectly plastic flow model for finite element analysis of perforated materials

Description: This paper describes the formulation of an elastic-perfectly plastic flow theory applicable to equivalent solid [EQS] modeling of perforated materials. An equilateral triangular array of circular penetrations is considered. The usual assumptions regarding geometry and loading conditions applicable to the development of elastic constants for EQS modeling of perforated plates are considered to apply here. An elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] EQS model is developed for a collapse surface that includes fourth-order stress terms. The fourth order yield function has been shown to be appropriate for plates with a triangular array of circular holes. A complete flow model is formulated using the consistent tangent modulus approach based on the fourth order yield function.
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Jones, D.P.; Gordon, J.L.; Hutula, D.N.; Banas, D. & Newman, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Java Tool Framework for Automation of Hardware Commissioning and Maintenance Procedures

Description: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192-beam laser system designed to study high energy density physics. Each beam line contains a variety of line replaceable units (LRUs) that contain optics, stepping motors, sensors and other devices to control and diagnose the laser. During commissioning and subsequent maintenance of the laser, LRUs undergo a qualification process using the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) to verify and calibrate the equipment. The commissioning processes are both repetitive and tedious when we use remote manual computer controls, making them ideal candidates for software automation. Maintenance and Commissioning Tool (MCT) software was developed to improve the efficiency of the qualification process. The tools are implemented in Java, leveraging ICCS services and CORBA to communicate with the control devices. The framework provides easy-to-use mechanisms for handling configuration data, task execution, task progress reporting, and generation of commissioning test reports. The tool framework design and application examples will be discussed.
Date: October 2, 2007
Creator: Ho, J. C.; Fisher, J. M.; Gordon, J. B.; Lagin, L. J. & West, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Prior Work on Joining of Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys

Description: There is a range of joining techniques available for use with ODS alloys, but care should be exercised in matching the technique to the final duty requirements of the joint. The goal for joining ODS alloys is a joint with no local disruption of the distribution of the oxide dispersion, and no significant change in the size and orientation of the alloy microstructure. Not surprisingly, the fusion welding processes typically employed with wrought alloys produce the least satisfactory results with ODS alloys, but some versions, such as fusion spot welding, and the laser and electron-beam welding technologies, have demonstrated potential for producing sound joints. Welds made using solid-state spot welding reportedly have exhibited parent metal properties. Thus, it is possible to employ processes that result in significant disruption of the alloy microstructure, as long as the processing parameters are adjustment to minimize the extent of or influence of the changes in the alloy microstructure. Selection among these joining approaches largely depends on the particular application and component configuration, and an understanding of the relationships among processing, alloy microstructure, and final properties is key. Recent developments have resulted in friction welding evolving to be a prime method for joining ODS sheet products, and variants of brazing/diffusion bonding have shown excellent promise for use with tubes and pipes. The techniques that come closest to the goal defined above involve solid-state diffusion bonding and, in particular, it has been found that secondary recrystallization of joints made by pulsed plasma-assisted diffusion can produce the desired, continuous, large alloy grain structure through the joint. Such joints have exhibited creep rupture failure at >82% of the load needed to fail the monolithic parent alloy at 1000 C.
Date: August 1, 2009
Creator: Wright, Ian G; Tatlock, Gordon J; Badairy, H. & Chen, C-L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Specific heat evidence for strong coupling in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7

Description: Specific heat data for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are consistent with {gamma} = 15 {plus minus} 3 mJ/mole{center dot}K{sup 2} and 2{Delta}{sub 0}/k{Tc} = 6.8 {plus minus} 0.6. These results indicate that strong-coupling effects are present but that the coupling is unlikely to be predominantly a conventional electron-phonon interaction. 8 refs., 1 fig.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Gordon, J.E.; Fisher, R.A.; Kamin, S. & Phillips, N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of geographic information systems technology for salmon habitat analysis

Description: Although Geographic Information Systems (GISs) have traditionally been used to analyze terrestrial animal habitats, identify migration patterns, and monitor ecosystems, they have rarely been used to understand aquatic species. The US Army Corps of Engineers is working with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other government agencies to exploit GIS technology for improving the survival of threatened and endangered salmon in the Snake River in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The customized GIS will be used to map the physical environment of the river, to map the current biological environment, and to analyze potential impacts to both of these environments from several mitigation options. Data in both digital and textual formats have been obtained from scientists across the Pacific Northwest who are analyzing the habitats, limnology, and hydrology of the Snake River. The mitigation options focus on studying the effects of lowering the reservoirs of the Snake River in an effort to speed juvenile salmon towards the ocean. The hypothesis being examined is that faster juvenile salmon travel to the ocean may result in higher juvenile survival and greater smolt-to-adult return ratios. Lowering the Snake River reservoirs is expected to have a variety of impacts to the physical environment, including changes to water velocity, temperature, dissolved gasses, and turbidity. Each of these potential changes is being examined to assess their effects on the surrounding terrestrial wildlife and on both the anadromous and resident fish of the Snake River.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Evans, B. J.; Gordon, J. V.; Mavros, W. V.; Perry, E. M. & Pinney, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department