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Plasma rotation and the radial electric field during off-axis NBI in the DIII-D tokamak

Description: Experiments have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak to investigate whether off-axis NBI can: (a) drive significant perpendicular flow to lead to increased suppression of turbulence and improved confinement, and (b) be used to control the radial electric field profile. Measurements of both impurity ion poloidal and toroidal rotation profiles were made using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. These experiments used a low current, low elongation (I{sub p} = 0.5 MA, {kappa} = 1.2) plasma whose magnetic axis was shifted 36 cm vertically upward from the vessel midplane and then shifted downward to be centered on the midplane later in the discharge. 10.7 MW of beam power was applied to maximize NBI effect while operating at low target densities and high temperature to minimize poloidal damping. Results from these experiments show a slight increase in impurity ion poloidal rotation velocity during the vertical shifted phase of off-axis NBI discharge. The toroidal rotation profile is more peaked during off-axis NBI. Both these effects lead to a change in the V x B contribution to the radial electric field during off-axis NBI.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H. & Hassam, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High spatial and temporal resolution visible spectroscopy of the plasma edge in DIII-D

Description: In DIII-D, visible spectroscopic measurements of the He II 468.6 nm and C VI 529.2 nm Doppler broadened spectral lines, resulting from charge exchange recombination interactions between beam neutral atoms and plasma ions, are performed to determine ion temperatures, and toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities. The diagnostics system comprises 32 viewing chords spanning a typical minor radius of 63 cm across the midplane, of which 16 spatial chords span 11 cm of the plasma edge just within the separatrix. A temporal resolution of 260 {mu}s per time slice can be obtained as a result of using MCP phosphors with short decay times and fast camera readout electronics. Results from this system will be used in radial electric field comparisons with theory at the L-H transition and ion transport analysis. 6 refs., 3 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J. & Seraydarian, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectroscopic study of edge poloidal rotation and radial electric fields in the DIII-D tokamak

Description: Doppler-shift spectroscopy has shown that finite values of poloidal rotation velocity {upsilon}{sub {theta}} and of radial electric field E{sub r} exist at the edge of a tokamak plasma and that dramatic increases occur in these parameters at an L-H transition. E{sub r} is negative in the L-mode and becomes more negative in the H-mode; {upsilon}{sub {theta}} increases in magnitude at the transition. In addition, the radial gradients (shear) of {upsilon}{sub {theta}} and E{sub r} are large and these gradients also increase at the L-H transition. These results are based on measurements of Doppler shifts of light emitted by He II ions, located in a region about 1--3 cm inside the separatrix. These observations have been made with horizontally-viewing and vertically-viewing spectrometer systems on the DIII-D tokamak. The nearly orthogonal views of these systems are used to determine the plasma's flow velocity in terms of the orthogonal sets {upsilon}{sub {theta}} and {upsilon}{sub {phi}} or of {upsilon}{sub {perpendicular}} and {upsilon}{sub {parallel}}. Knowledge of {upsilon}{sub {perpendicular}} is used to calculate E{sub r} from the force balance equation for a single ion species. The existing results impose constraints on theories of the L-H transition. More detailed studies of the spatial profiles and temporal evolution of {upsilon}{sub {theta}} and E{sub r} will be made with upgraded instrumentation, which is now coming on-line. 28 refs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Groebner, R.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P. & Seraydarian, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutralization of a fast negative-ion beam

Description: Neutralization of a fast negative-ion beam, primarily H/sup -/, is discussed in terms of competing one- and two-electron detachment processes in a variety of media: gas (vapor), plasma, liquid sheet, solid foil.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Schlachter, A.S.; Mowat, J.R.; Stearns, J.W.; Gohil, P. & Pyle, R.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental survey of the L-H transition conditions in the DIII-D tokamak

Description: We present the global analysis of a recent survey of the H-mode power threshold in DIII-D using D{sup o} {yields} D{sup +} NBI after boronization of the vacuum vessel. Single parameter scans of B{sub T}, I{sub p}, density, and plasma shape have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak for neutral beam heated single-null and double-null diverted plasmas. In single-null discharges, the power threshold is found to increase approximately linearly with B{sub T} and n{sub e} but remains independent of I{sub p}. In double-null discharges, the power threshold is found to be approximately independent of both B{sub T} and n{sub e}. Various shape parameters such as plasma-wall gaps had only a weak effect on the power threshold. Imbalancing the double null configuration resulted in a large increase in the threshold power.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Carlstrom, T. N.; Gohil, P. & Watkins, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A fast CCD detector for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the DIII-D tokamak

Description: Charge Exchange Recombination (CER) spectroscopy has become a standard diagnostic for tokamaks. CER measurements have been used to determine spatially and temporally resolved ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal ion rotation speed, impurity density and radial electric field. Knowledge of the spatial profile and temporal evolution of the electric field shear in the plasma edge is crucial to understanding the physics of the L to H transition. High speed CER measurements are also valuable for Edge Localized Mode (ELM) studies. Since the 0.52 ms minimum time resolution of our present system is barely adequate to study the time evolution of these phenomena, we have developed a new CCD detector system with about a factor of two better time resolution. In addition, our existing system detects sufficient photons to utilize the shortest time resolution only under exceptional conditions. The new CCD detector has a quantum efficiency of about 0.65, which is a factor of 7 better than our previous image intensifier-silicon photodiode detector systems. We have also equipped the new system with spectrometers of lower f/number. This combination should allow more routine operation at the minimum integration time, as well as improving data quality for measurements in the divertor-relevant region outside of the separatrix. Construction details, benchmark data and initial tokamak measurements for the new system will be presented.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Thomas, D. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Groebner, R. J. & Gohil, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extraction of Poloidal Velocity from Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy Measurements

Description: A novel approach has been implemented on DIII-D to allow the correct determination of the plasma poloidal velocity from charge exchange spectroscopy measurements. Unlike usual techniques, the need for detailed atomic physics calculations to properly interpret the results is alleviated. Instead, the needed atomic physics corrections are self-consistently determined directly from the measurements, by making use of specially chosen viewing chords. Modeling results are presented that were used to determine a set of views capable of measuring the correction terms. We present the analysis of a quiescent H-mode discharge, illustrating that significant modifications to the velocity profiles are required in these high ion temperature conditions. We also present preliminary measurements providing the first direct comparison of the standard cross-section correction to the atomic physics calculations.
Date: July 16, 2004
Creator: Solomon, W.M.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J. & Baylor, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross-calibrating Spatial Positions of Light-viewing Diagnostics using Plasma Edge Sweeps in DIII-D

Description: An experimental technique is presented that permits diagnostics viewing light from the plasma edge to be spatially calibrated relative to one another. By sweeping the plasma edge, each chord of each diagnostic sweeps out a portion of the light emission profile. A nonlinear least-squares fit to such data provides superior cross-calibration of diagnostics located at different toroidal locations compared with simple surveying. Another advantage of the technique is that it can be used to monitor the position of viewing chords during an experimental campaign to ensure that alignment does not change over time. Moreover, should such a change occur, the data can still be cross-calibrated and its usefulness retained.
Date: July 7, 2003
Creator: Solomon, W.M.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R. & Kaplan, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Edge Plasma Perturbation During ELM Control Using One vs Two Toroidal Rows of RMP Coils in ITER Similar Shaped Plasmas on DIII-D

Description: Large Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) were suppressed by n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) from a set of internal coils (I-coil) in plasmas with an ITER similar shape at the ITER pedestal collisionality, {nu}*{sub e} {approx} 0.1 and low edge safety factor (q{sub 95} {approx} 3.6), with either a single toroidal row of the internal RMP coils or two poloidally separated rows of coils. ELM suppression with a single row of internal coils was achieved at approximately the same q{sub 95} surface-averaged perturbation field as with two rows of coils, but required higher current per coil. Maintaining complete suppression of ELMs using n = 3 RMPs from a single toroidal row of internal coils was less robust to variations in input neutral beam injection torque than previous ELM suppression cases using both rows of internal coils. With either configuration of RMP coils, maximum ELM size is correlated with the width of the edge region having good overlap of the magnetic islands from vacuum field calculations.
Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: Fenstermacher, M E; Evans, T E; Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; deGrassie, J S; Gohil, P et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-electron capture and loss in fast highly charged ion-atom collisions

Description: Two-electron capture and loss processes have been investigated for highly charged ions colliding with gas targets in the energy range 0.5 to 9.0 MeV/u. Ionic species used for projectiles were S(13+), Ar(15+), Ca(12-19+), and V(18-22+); target gases used were H2, He, and Ne. Double-electron capture decreases very rapidly with increasing beam energy, and the cross sections are typically 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the single-electron capture cross sections over the energy range studied. Loss of two projectile electrons varies with the beam energy and charge state, and depends strongly on whether L- or K-shell electrons are removed. 11 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Tanis, J.A.; Bernstein, E.M.; Clark, M.W.; Graham, W.G.; McFarland, R.H.; Morgan, T.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: It is known that the toroidal angular momentum and the ion thermal energy are correlated in tokamak discharges heated by neutral beam injection. Here, data from ten years of measurements on DIII-D are considered, for representative discharges from all types and all conditions. The ratio of simple replacement times for momentum and energy is found to order this correlation indicating that these times are approximately equal, across the minor radius. Representative discharges of several types are discussed in more detail, as well as transport analysis results for the momentum and thermal ion diffusivities.
Date: August 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: OAK-B135 High confinement mode (H-mode) operation is a leading scenario for burning plasma devices due to its inherently high energy-confinement characteristics. The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) offers these same advantages with the additional attraction of more steady edge conditions where the highly transient power loads due to edge localized mode (ELM) activity is replaced by the steadier power and particle losses associated with an edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). With the addition of an internal transport barrier (ITB), the capability is introduced for independent control of both the edge conditions and the core confinement region giving potential control of fusion power production for an advanced tokamak configuration. The quiescent double barrier (QDB) conditions explored in DIII-D experiments exhibit these characteristics and have resulted in steady plasma conditions for several confinement times ({approx} 26 {tau}{sub E}) with moderately high stored energy, {beta}{sub N}H{sub 89} {approx} 7 for 10 {tau}{sub E}.
Date: July 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Comparison of Fueling with Deuterium Pellet Injection from Different Locations on the DIII-D Tokamak

Description: Initial pellet injection experiments on DIII-D with high field side (HFS) injection have demonstrated that deeper pellet fuel deposition is possible even with HFS injected pellets that are significantly slower than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) (outer midplane) location. A radial displacement of the pellet mass shortly after or during the ablation process is consistent with the observed mass deposition profiles measured shortly after injection. Vertical injection inside the magnetic axis shows some improvement in fueling efficiency over LFS injection and may provide an optimal injection location for fueling with high speed pellets.
Date: June 14, 1999
Creator: Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Gohil, P.; Houlberg, W. A.; Hsieh, C.; Jernigan, T. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wavelength calibration of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system on the DIII-D tokamak

Description: A wavelength calibration of all the detectors on the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) system is performed after every plasma discharge on the DIII-D tokamak. This is done to insure that the rest wavelength position of the C VI 5290.5 {angstrom} charge exchange line on the detector is accurately known so that the Doppler shift of the spectral line emitted during the discharge can be used for measurements of plasma rotation. In addition, this calibration provides a check on the spectral dispersion needed to determine the ion temperature. The reference spectra for the calibration are Ne I lines created by neon capillary discharge lamps contained within specially designed, diffuse reflectors. The Ne I lines at 3520.4720 {angstrom}, 5274.0393 {angstrom}, 5280.0853 {angstrom}, 5298.1891 {angstrom}, and 5304.7580 {angstrom} are used in this work. The location of these lines on the linear detectors can be determined to an accuracy of 0.1 pixel, which corresponds to a plasma rotation accuracy of 1.2 km/s and 0.7 km/s for the central and edge rotation measurements, respectively. Use of oppositely directed views of the plasma at the same major radius have been used to verify that the nominal 5290.5 {angstrom} wavelength of the C VI (n = 8 {r_arrow} 7) multiplet is the correct wavelength for the line emitted owing to charge exchange excitation.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Holtrop, K.; Kaplan, K.H. & Monier-Garbet, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of H-Mode Plasmas Produced Directly by Pellet Injection in the DIII-D Tokamak

Description: A key issue for the physics of H-mode plasmas is to determine which plasma quantities are critical for the formation of the edge transport barrier. One approach is to directly perturb the edge plasma and observe the subsequent changes. In DIII-D, pellet injection has been used to directly change the edge plasma conditions and produce H-mode transitions. One hypothesis for the H-mode transition is that the attainment of a critical edge electron temperature is required for the transition [1-3]. This hypothesis is disproved in this paper. H-mode transitions were produced by injecting frozen deuterium pellets of diameter 2.7 mm from the inner wall of the DIII-D vessel into the high toroidal field side (HFS) and from the outer wall into the low field side (LFS) of the plasma. Both the HFS and LFS pellets produced significant increases in the edge electron density, which led to substantial reductions in the edge electron and ion temperatures. However, H-mode transitions were still produced with the lowered edge temperatures, implying that a critical edge temperature is not necessary for H-mode transitions. The pellet induced H-mode plasma exhibited clear pedestals in electron density and electron and ion temperatures at the plasma edge and persisted for the duration of the applied neutral beam power. The HFS pellet's penetration and deposition profiles were substantially deeper (up to {rho} {approx} 0.2) than that of the LFS pellet (up to {rho} {approx} 0.7). However, since both HFS and LFS pellets produced H-mode transitions, this implies that pellet penetration depth is not important the important factor is the large increase in the electron density right at the plasma edge produced by both types of pellets. The values of the edge plasma quantities at the H-mode transition were expressed in the parametric terms described in several theories and models of the ...
Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Gohil, P.; Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.; McKee, G.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The tokamak plasmas utilized in magnetic fusion research provide access to some of the longest duration, highest temperature plasmas on earth. For example, on the DIII-D tokamak, plasmas lasting up to 10 seconds have been produced with ion temperatures up to 27 keV and electron temperatures up to 15 keV in toroidal plasmas with 1.7 m major radius, 0.65 m half width and 2.5 m vertical height. Typical particle densities in these plasmas are in the range of 2.0 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} through 2.0 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. Spectroscopic measurements of line radiation from highly ionized atoms provide one of the key techniques for determining the plasma parameters in tokamak discharges.
Date: June 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlated electron capture and inner-shell excitation measurements in ion-atom collisions

Description: In an ion-atom collision projectile excitation and charge transfer (electron capture) may occur together in a single encounter. If the excitation and capture are correlated, then the process is called resonant transfer and excitation (RTE); if they are uncorrelated, then the process is termed nonresonant transfer and excitation (NTE). Experimental work to date has shown the existence of RTE and provided strong evidence for NTE. Results presented here provide information on the relative magnitudes of RTE and NTE, the charge state dependence of RTE, the effect of the target momentum distribution on RTE, the magnitude of L-shell RTE compared to K-shell RTE, and the target Z dependences of RTE and NTE. 15 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Tanis, J.A.; Bernstein, E.M.; Clark, M.W.; Graham, W.G.; McFarland, R.H.; Morgan, T.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The charge exchange recombination diagnostic system on the DIII-D tokamak

Description: The charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic system on the DIII-D tokamak is used to make spatially and temporally resolved measurements of the ion temperature and toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities. This is performed through visible spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler broadened and Doppler shifted HE II 468.6 nm, the CVI 529.1 nm, and the BV 494.5 nm spectral lines which have been excited by charge exchange recombination interactions between the fully stripped ions and the neutral atoms from the heating beams. The plasma viewing optics comprises 32 viewing chords spanning a typical plasma minor radius of 63 cm across the midplane, of which 15 spatial chords span 4.2 cm at the plasma edge just within the separatrix and provide a chord-to-chord spatial resolution of 0.3 cm. Fast camera readout electronics can provide a temporal resolution of 260 {mu}s per time slice, but the effective minimum integration time, at present, is 1 ms which is limited by the detected photon flux from the plasma and the decay times of the phosphors used on the multichannel plate image intensifiers. Significant changes in the edge plasma radial electric field at the L-H transition have been observed, as determined from the CER measurements, and these results are being extensively compared to theories which consider the effects of sheared electric fields on plasma turbulence. 13 refs., 10 figs.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Kim, J.; Martin, W.C.; McKee, E.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel ion rotation measurement and its implications on H-mode theories

Description: Poloidal and toroidal rotation of the fuel ions (He{sup 2+}) and the impurity ions (C{sup 6+} and B{sup 5+}) in H-mode helium plasmas have been investigated in the DIII-D tokamak by means of charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, resulting in the discovery that the fuel ion poloidal rotation is in the ion diamagnetic drift direction while the impurity ion rotation is in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. The radial electric field obtained from radial force balance analysis of the measured pressure gradients and rotation velocities is shown to be the same regardless of which ion species is used and therefore is a more fundamental parameter than the rotation flows in studying H-mode phenomena. It is shown that the three contributions to the radial electric field (diamagnetic, poloidal rotation, and toroidal rotation terms) are comparable and consequently the poloidal flow does not solely represent the E {times} B flow. In the high-shear edge region, the density scale length is comparable to the ion poloidal gyroradius, and thus neoclassical theory is not valid there. In view of this new discovery that the fuel and impurity ions rotate in opposite sense, L-H transition theories based on the poloidal rotation may require improvement.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Kim, J.; Burrell, K. H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R. J.; Hinton, F. L.; Kim, Y. B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational Enhancements in DIII-D Quiescent H-Mode Plasmas

Description: In recent DIII-D experiments, we concentrated on extending the operating range and improving the overall performance of quiescent H-mode (QH) plasmas. The QH-mode offers an attractive, high-performance operating mode for burning plasmas due to the absence of pulsed edge-localized-mode-driven losses to the divertor (ELMs). Using counter neutral-beam injection (NBI), we achieve steady plasma conditions with the presence of an edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) replacing the ELMs and providing control of the edge pedestal density. These conditions have been maintained for greater than 4s ({approx}30 energy confinement times, {tau}{sub E}, and 2 current relaxation times, {tau}{sub R} [1]), and often limited only by the duration of auxiliary heating. We discuss results of these recent experiments where we use triangularity ramping to increase the density, neutral beam power ramps to increase the stored energy, injection of rf power at the electron cyclotron (EC) frequency to control density profile peaking in the core, and control of startup conditions to completely eliminate the transient ELMing phase.
Date: June 27, 2005
Creator: Casper, T A; Burrell, K H; Doyle, E J; Gohil, P; Lasnier, C J; Leonard, A W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Density and Temperature Profile Modifications with Electron Cyclotron Power Injection in Quiescent Double Barrier Discharges on DIII-D

Description: Quiescent double barrier (QDB) conditions often form when an internal transport barrier is created with high-power neutral-beam injection into a quiescent H-mode (QH) plasma. These QH-modes offer an attractive, high-performance operating scenario for burning plasma experiments due to their quasi-stationarity and lack of edge localized modes (ELMs). Our initial experiments and modeling using ECH/ECCD in QDB shots were designed to control the current profile and, indeed, we have observed a strong dependence on the q-profile when EC-power is used inside the core transport barrier region. While strong electron heating is observed with EC power injection, we also observe a drop in the other core parameters; ion temperature and rotation, electron density and impurity concentration. These dynamically changing conditions provide a rapid evolution of T{sub e} T{sub i} profiles accessible with 0.3 < (T{sub e} T{sub i}){sub axis} < 0.8 observed in QDB discharges. We are exploring the correlation and effects of observed density profile changes with respect to these time-dependent variations in the temperature ratio. Thermal and particle diffusivity calculations over this temperature ratio range indicate a consistency between the rise in temperature ratio and an increase in transport corresponding to the observed change in density.
Date: October 11, 2005
Creator: Casper, T A; Burrell, K H; Doyle, E J; Gohil, P; Lasnier, C J; Leonard, A W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department