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[DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1]

Description: The US Dapartment of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Goheen, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE SURFACE-MEDIATED UNFOLDING KINETICS OF GLOBULAR PROTEINS IS DEPENDENT ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND TEMPERATURE

Description: The adsorption and unfolding pathways of proteins on rigid surfaces are essential in numerous complex processes associated with biomedical engineering, nanotechnology, and chromatography. It is now well accepted that the kinetics of unfolding are characterized by chemical and physical interactions dependent on protein deformability and structure, as well as environmental pH, temperature, and surface chemistry. Although this fundamental process has broad implications in medicine and industry, little is known about the mechanism because of the atomic lengths and rapid time scales involved. Therefore, the unfolding kinetics of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin were investigated by adsorbing the globular proteins to non-porous cationic polymer beads. The protein fractions were adsorbed at different residence times (0, 9, 10, 20, and 30 min) at near-physiological conditions using a gradient elution system similar to that in high-performance liquid chromatography. The elution profi les and retention times were obtained by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A decrease in recovery was observed with time for almost all proteins and was attributed to irreversible protein unfolding on the non-porous surfaces. These data, and those of previous studies, fi t a positively increasing linear trend between percent unfolding after a fi xed (9 min) residence time (71.8%, 31.1%, and 32.1% of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin, respectively) and molecular weight. Of all the proteins examined so far, only myoglobin deviated from this trend with higher than predicted unfolding rates. Myoglobin also exhibited an increase in retention time over a wide temperature range (0°C and 55°C, 4.39 min and 5.74 min, respectively) whereas ovalbumin and β-glucosidase did not. Further studies using a larger set of proteins are required to better understand the physiological and physiochemical implications of protein unfolding kinetics. This study confi rms that surface-mediated unfolding can be described by experimental techniques, thereby allowing for the better elucidation of the relationships between the ...
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Patananan, A.N. & Goheen, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge

Description: Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D.E. & Heath, W.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge

Description: Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Goheen, S. C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D. E. & Heath, W. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Environmental Analytical Methods (methods as of March 1990). Volume 2, Appendix A1-O and appendix A1-I

Description: Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids, organic wastes, soils, and sediments, are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Goheen, S. C.; McCulloch, M. & Daniel, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A DOE manual: DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples

Description: Waste Management inherently requires knowledge of the waste`s chemical composition. The waste can often be analyzed by established methods; however, if the samples are radioactive, or are plagued by other complications, established methods may not be feasible. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been faced with managing some waste types that are not amenable to standard or available methods, so new or modified sampling and analysis methods are required. These methods are incorporated into DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), which is a guidance/methods document for sampling and analysis activities in support of DOE sites. It is a document generated by consensus of the DOE laboratory staff and is intended to fill the gap within existing guidance documents (e. g., the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, SW-846), which apply to low-level or non-radioactive samples. DOE Methods fills the gap by including methods that take into account the complexities of DOE site matrices. The most recent update, distributed in October 1993, contained quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), safety, sampling, organic analysis, inorganic analysis, and radioanalytical guidance as well as 29 methods. The next update, which will be distributed in April 1994, will contain 40 methods and will therefore have greater applicability. All new methods are either peer reviewed or labeled ``draft`` methods. Draft methods were added to speed the release of methods to field personnel.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Goheen, S. C.; McCulloch, M. & Riley, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990. Volume 3, Appendix A2-I

Description: This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Goheen, S. C.; McCulloch, M. & Daniel, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste Tank Safety Program. Annual status report for FY 1993, Task 3: Organic chemistry

Description: This task supports the tank-vapor project, mainly by providing organic analytical support and by analyzing Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) vapor-space samples, collected via SUMMA{trademark} canisters, by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS). In the absence of receiving tank-vapor samples, we have focused our efforts toward validating the normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) sampling and analysis methods and preparing the SUMMA{trademark} laboratory. All required milestones were met, including a report on the update of phase I sampling and analysis on August 15, 1993. This update described the work involved in preparing to analyze phase I samples (Appendix A). This report describes the analytical support provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL){sup (a)} to the Hanford Tank Safety Vapor Program.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Lucke, R. B.; Clauss, T. T. W.; Hoheimer, R. & Goheen, S. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization strategy report for the organic safety issues

Description: This report describes a logical approach to resolving potential safety issues resulting from the presence of organic components in hanford tank wastes. The approach uses a structured logic diagram (SLD) to provide a pathway for quantifying organic safety issue risk. The scope of the report is limited to selected organics (i.e., solvents and complexants) that were added to the tanks and their degradation products. The greatest concern is the potential exothermic reactions that can occur between these components and oxidants, such as sodium nitrate, that are present in the waste tanks. The organic safety issue is described in a conceptual model that depicts key modes of failure-event reaction processes in tank systems and phase domains (domains are regions of the tank that have similar contents) that are depicted with the SLD. Applying this approach to quantify risk requires knowing the composition and distribution of the organic and inorganic components to determine (1) how much energy the waste would release in the various domains, (2) the toxicity of the region associated with a disruptive event, and (3) the probability of an initiating reaction. Five different characterization options are described, each providing a different level of quality in calculating the risks involved with organic safety issues. Recommendations include processing existing data through the SLD to estimate risk, developing models needed to link more complex characterization information for the purpose of estimating risk, and examining correlations between the characterization approaches for optimizing information quality while minimizing cost in estimating risk.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Goheen, S.C.; Campbell, J.A. & Fryxell, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from in situ sample collected on March 24, 1994. Waste Tank Vapor Project

Description: This document presents the details of the organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; Fruchter, J.S. & Goheen, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste Tank Vapor Project: Enhancements to the PNL SUMMA{trademark} analytical laboratory tank organic vapor support task

Description: This report provides the status, as of the end of FY 1994, on the individual components of the SUMMA{trademark} Canister Analytical Laboratory that Pacific Northwest Laboratory has assembled to support the Hanford Tank Safety Issues Program.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: McVeety, B. D.; Lucke, R. B.; Clauss, T. R.; Fruchter, J. S. & Goheen, S. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-105: Results from samples collected on 7/7/94

Description: This report describes organic and inorganic results from vapors of the Hanford single-shell waste storage Tank 241-BY-105 (referred to as Tank BY-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Several organic analytes were quantitatively determined, but quantities of non-TO-14 analytes were only estimated. Approximately 40 tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppb, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitative determination is beyond the scope of this study. The SUMMA{trademark} Canisters were also analyzed for components listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compendium Method TO-14. Of these only a few were observed above the 2-ppb detection limits. These are summarized in Table 3.1. Estimated quantitations also determined were of tentatively identified compounds (TICs). A summary of these results shows quantities of all TICs above the concentration of ca. 10 ppb. This consists of more than 40 organic analytes. The 6 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are shown in Table 1. These 6 analytes account for approximately 45% of the total organic components in Tank BY-105. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Unlike tanks previously studied, normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPHs) did not contribute significantly to the total organic concentration of the vapor headspace of Tank BY-105. The total concentration of TICs detected in the tank headspace samples was also much lower than that seen in other reported tanks averaging 6.5 Mg/m{sup 3} for all three canisters collected.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Pool, K. H.; Ligotke, M. W.; Clauss, T. W.; Lucke, R. B.; McVeety, B. D.; McCulloch, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organic analysis of ambient samples collected near Tank 241-C-103: Results from samples collected on May 12, 1994

Description: This report describes organic analyses results from ambient samples collected both upwind and through the vapor sampling system (VSS) near Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-103 (referred to as Tank C-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Quantitative results were obtained for organic compounds. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 39. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. Dichloromethane was above the detection limits using both methods, but the result from the TO-14 method is traceable to a standard gas mixture and is considered more accurate. Organic analytes were found only in the sample collected through the VSS, suggesting that these compounds were residual contamination from a previous sampling job. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-106: Results from samples collected through the vapor sampling system on July 8, 1994

Description: This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-106. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Lucke, R.B.; Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fruchter, J.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-103 (in situ): Results from samples collected on May 5, 1994

Description: This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-103. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Ligotke, M.W.; Sharma, A.K.; McVeety, B.D.; Fruchter, J.S.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-TX-118 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 9/7/94

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TX-118 (referred to as Tank TX-118). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen cyanide (CHN), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 13 analytes. Hexane, normally included in the additional analytes, was removed because a calibration standard was not available during analysis of Tank TX-118 SUMMA{trademark} canisters. Of these, 12 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Fourteen tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 86% of the total organic components in Tank TX-118. Permanent gas analysis was not conducted on the tank-headspace samples. Tank TX-118 is on both the Ferrocyanide and Organic Watch List.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-107: Results from in situ sample collected on 3/25/94

Description: This report describes organic results from vapors of the Hanford single-shell waste storage Tank 241-BY-107 (referred to as Tank BY-107). Samples for selected inorganic compounds were obtained but not anlayzed (Section 2.0). Quantitative results were obtained for several organic analytes, but quantities of analytes not listed in US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compendium Method TO-14 were estimated. Approximately 80 tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitative determination is beyond the scope of this study. The SUMMATM canister samples were also analyzed for the 41 organic compounds listed in EPA compendium Method TO-14. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limits. These are summarized in Table 3.1. Estimated quantities were determined of tentatively identified compounds (TICs). A summary of these results shows quantities of all TICs above the concentration of ca. 10 ppbv. This consists of more than 80 organic analytes. The 12 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are shown.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Sharma, A.K.; Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fruchter, J.S. & Goheen, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

Description: DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Analytical Services Division of DOE. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types, {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes}. {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes} methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations. These methods have delineated measures of precision and accuracy.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Goheen, S. C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B. L.; Riley, R. G.; Sklarew, D. S.; Mong, G. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-106: Results from samples collected on February 15, 1994

Description: This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-C-106. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Young, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.; Goheen, S.C.; Lucke, R.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-106 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 5/4/94 and 5/5/94

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-106 (referred to as Tank BY-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HCN, and H{sub 2}O. Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty-three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1. The 10 analytes account for approximately 64% of the total organic components in Tank BY-106. Tank BY-106 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Sharma, A.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-105 (in situ): Results from samples collected on May 9, 1994

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the tank headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-105 (referred to as Tank BY-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HCN, and H{sub 2}O. Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Results of the inorganic samples were affected by sampling errors that led to an undefined uncertainty in sample volume. Consequently, tank-headspace concentrations are estimated only. Thirty-nine tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitation is beyond the scope of this study. In addition, we looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The 16 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed. These 16 analytes account for approximately 68% of the total or organic components in Tank BY-105.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Sharma, A.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-104: Results from samples collected on 2/17/94 and 3/3/94

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-104 (referred to as Tank C-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) versatile sampler (OVS) tubes were analyzed for tributyl phosphate. Twenty-four organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, two were observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. These 10 analytes account for approximately 88% of the total organic components in Tank C 104. Tank C-104 is not on any of the Watch Lists.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department