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Schlumberger resistivity study of the Jemez Springs region of northwestern New Mexico

Description: The results of 33 Schlumberger resistivity soundings made in the Jemez Mountains of northwestern New Mexico, near the village of Jemez Springs, are presented. Three areas that have potential as low-temperature geothermal reservoirs were identified using these data. The areas are characterized by a localized zone of very low resistivity (< 10 ..cap omega..m), which represents the extent of geothermal water and correlates with the location of hot springs or recent volcanic rocks. Resistivities increase rapidly toward the margins of the anomalies, which suggests either variable porosities or variable temperatures and salinities in the reservoirs.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Pearson, C. & Goff, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the hot-dry-rock geothermal potential of an area near Mountain Home, Idaho

Description: Evaluation of an area near Mountain Home, Idaho, was performed to assess the hot dry rock (HDR) potential of the prospect. The techniques reported include telluric and gravity profiling, passive seismic, hydrology and water chemistry surveys, and lineament analysis. Gravity and telluric surveys were unsuccessful in locating fractures buried beneath recent volcanics and sediments of the plain because density and conductivity contrasts were insufficient. Gravity modeling indicated areas where granite was not likely to be within drilling depth, and telluric profiling revealed an area in the northwest part of the prospect where higher conductivity suggested the presence of fractures or water or both, thereby making it unsuitable for HDR. Water geochemistry indicated that (hot water) reservoir temperatures do not exceed 100/sup 0/C. An area in the east central part of the prospect was delineated as most favorable for HDR development. Temperature is expected to be 200/sup 0/C at 3-km depth, and granitic rock of the Idaho Batholith should be intersected at 2- to 3-km depth.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Arney, B.H. & Goff, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal investigation of spring and well waters of the Los Alamos Region, New Mexico

Description: The chemical and isotopic characters of 20 springs and wells in the Los Alamos area were investigated for indications of geothermal potential. These waters were compared with known hot and mineral springs from adjacent Valles Caldera and San Ysidro. All waters in the Los Alamos area are composed of meteoric water. Isotopic data show that the two primary aquifers beneath the Los Alamos region have different recharge areas. Relatively high concentrations of lithium, arsenic, chlorine, boron, and fluorine in some of the Los Alamos wells suggest these waters may contain a small fraction of thermal/mineral water of deep origin. Thermal water probably rises up high-angle faults associated with a graben of the Rio Grande rift now buried by the Pajarito Plateau.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Goff, F.E. & Sayer, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water geochemistry and hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer at Roosevelt Hot Springs, southern Utah: A hot dry rock prospect

Description: On the western edge of the geothermal field, three deep holes have been drilled that are very hot but mostly dry. Two of them (Phillips 9-1 and Acord 1-26 wells) have been studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) resources evaluation program. A review of data and recommendations have been formulated to evaluate the HDR geothermal potential at Roosevelt. The present report is directed toward the study of the shallow aquifer of the Milford Valley to determine if the local groundwater would be suitable for use as make-up water in an HDR system. This investigation is the result of a cooperative agreement between Los Alamos and Phillips Petroleum Co., formerly the main operator of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Unit. The presence of these hot dry wells and the similar setting of the Roosevelt area to the prototype HDR site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, make Roosevelt a very good candidate site for creation of another HDR geothermal system. This investigation has two main objectives: to assess the water geochemistry of the valley aquifer, to determine possible problems in future make-up water use, such as scaling or corrosion in the wells and surface piping, and to assess the hydrogeology of the shallow groundwaters above the HDR zone, to characterize the physical properties of the aquifer. These two objectives are linked by the fact that the valley aquifer is naturally contaminated by geothermal fluids leaking out of the hydrothermal reservoir. In an arid region where good-quality fresh water is needed for public water supply and irrigation, nonpotable waters would be ideal for an industrial use such as injection into an HDR energy extraction system. 50 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1987
Creator: Vuataz, F.D. & Goff, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogeochemistry of the Qualibou Caldera Geothermal System, St. Lucia, West Indies

Description: Interpretation of hydrogeochemical data and supporting geologic and electric resistivity data have been used to define the basic structure of the Qualibou Caldera geothermal system and propose a model of hydrologic flow. The geothermal system at Sulphur Springs consists of three layers: (1) an upper steam condensate zone; (2) an intermediate vapor zone, which may be restricted to the Sulphur Springs area only; and (3) a lower brine zone. Four lines of evidence suggest that temperatures of the brine layer may exceed 230/sup 0/C at depths of perhaps 1 km. Outlying thermal springs along the northwest side of the caldera do not indicate derivation from underlying high-temperature sources. It is suggested that the main reservoir upflows in the Belfond-Sulphur Springs area and flows laterally in the subsurface toward the northwest caldera wall.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Goff, F. & Vuataz, F.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Candidate sites for future hot-dry-rock development in the United States

Description: Generalized geologic and other data are tabulated for 24 potential hot dry rock (HDR) sites in the contiguous United States. The data show that HDR resources occur in many geologic and tectonic settings. Potential reservoir rocks at each prospect are described and each system is cateogrized accoridng to inferred heat sources. The Fenton Hill area in New Mexico is discussed in detail because this region may be considered ideal for HDR development. Three other prospectively valuable localities are described: The Geysers-Clear lake region in California, the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah, and the White Mountains region in New Hampshire. These areas are singled out to illustrate the roles of significantly different geology and geophysics, reservoir rocks, and reservoir heat contents in possible HDR developments.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Goff, F. & Decker, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field trip guide to the Valles Caldera and its geothermal systems

Description: This field trip guide has been compiled from extensive field trips led at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years. The original version of this guide was designed to augment a workshop on the Valles Caldera for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). This workshop was held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 5-7 October 1982. More stops were added to this guide to display the volcanic and geothermal features at the Valles Caldera. The trip covers about 90 miles (one way) and takes two days to complete; however, those who wish to compress the trip into one day are advised to use the designated stops listed in the Introduction. Valles Caldera and vicinity comprise both one of the most exciting geothermal areas in the United States and one of the best preserved Quaternary caldera complexes in the world.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Goff, F.E. & Bolivar, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

Description: Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Goff, F. & Nielson, D.L. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical, petrographic, and K-Ar age data to accompany reconnaissance geologic strip map from Kingman to south of Bill Williams Mountain, Arizona

Description: As part of a reconnaissance mapping project, 40 chemical analyses and 13 potassium-argon age dates were obtained for Tertiary volcanic and Precambrian granitic rocks between Kingman and Bill Williams Mountain, Arizona. The dated volcanic rocks range in age from 5.5 +- 0.2 Myr for basalt in the East Juniper Mountains to about 25 Myr for a biotite-pyroxene andesite. The date for Picacho Butte, a rhyodacite in the Mt. Floyd volcanic field, was 9.8 +- 0.07 Myr, making it the oldest rhyodacite dome in that volcanic field. Dated rocks in the Fort Rock area range from 20.7 to 24.3 Myr. No ages were obtained on the Precambrian rocks. Compositionally, the volcanic rocks analyzed range from alkali basalt to rhyolite, but many rocks on the western side of the map area are unusually potassic. The granites chosen for analysis include syenogranite from the Hualapai Mountains, a muscovite granite from the Picacho Butte area, and two other granites. The chemical and K-Ar age data and petrographic descriptions included in this report accompany the reconnaissance geologic strip map published as LA-9202-MAP by Goff, Eddy, and Arney. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Arney, B.; Goff, F. & Eddy, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

Description: The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Heiken, G.; Goff, F. & Cremer, G. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic map of the Sulphur Springs Area, Valles Caldera Geothermal System, New Mexico

Description: The geologic and tectonic setting and geology of Sulphur Springs Area are described. Geologic faults, sheared or brecciated rock, volcanic vents, geothermal wells, hydrothermal alteration, springs, thermal springs, fumaroles, and geologic deposits are indicated on the map. (MHR)
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Goff, F.E. & Gardner, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continental Scientific Drilling Program thermal regimes: comparative site assessment geology of five magma-hydrothermal systems

Description: The geology and salient aspects of geophysics and hydrogeochemistry of five high-grade geothermal systems in the USA are reviewed. On the basis of this information, a target location is suggested for a deep (5- to 8-km) borehole that will maximize the amount of scientific information to be learned at each of the five geothermal areas.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Goff, F. & Waters, A.C. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of potential participant scientists and development of procedures for a national inventory of selected biological monitoring programs: a mail questionnaire survey

Description: Procedural details of how the National Biological Monitoring Inventory was conducted are described. Results of a nationwide telephone campaign to identify principal investigators and also of a nationwide questionnaire mailing to the investigators identified are presented. On the basis of percentage of questionnaire returns (nearly 50 percent), the Inventory was judged to be successful. The communication procedures, guidelines, and formats developed may be useful to others engaged in this type of research.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Kemp, H.T.; Goff, F.G. & Ross, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collection and analysis of geothermal gases

Description: Rapid, reliable procedures are described for the collection and analysis of geothermal gases at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Gases covered are H/sub 2/, He, Ar, O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/S. The methods outlined are suitable for geothermal exploration. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Gritzo, L. & Trujillo, P.E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithologic descriptions and temperature profiles of five wells in the southwestern Valles caldera region, New Mexico

Description: The subsurface stratigraphy and temperature profiles of the southern and western Valles caldera region have been well constrained with the use of data from the VC-1, AET-4, WC 23-4, PC-1 and PC-2 wells. Data from these wells indicate that thermal gradients west of the caldera margin are between 110 and 140)degrees)C/km, with a maximum gradient occurring in the bottom of PC-1 equal to 240)degrees)C/km as a result of thermal fluid flow. Gradients within the caldera reach a maximum of 350)degrees)C/km, while the maximum thermal gradient measured southwest of the caldera in the thermal outflow plume is 140)degrees)C/km. The five wells exhibit high thermal gradients (>60)deghrees)C/km) resulting from high conductive heat flow associated with the Rio Grande rift and volcanism in the Valles caldera, as well as high convective heat flow associated with circulating geothermal fluids. Gamma logs run in four of the five wells appear to be of limited use for stratigraphic correlations in the caldera region. However, stratigraphic and temperature data from the five wells provide information about the structure and thermal regime of the southern and western Valles caldera region. 29 refs., 9 figs. 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Miles, D.; Waibel, A. & Swanberg, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Downhole fluid sampling at the SSSDP (Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project) California State 2-14 well, Salton Sea, California

Description: In situ fluid sampling activities were conducted at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) well during late December 1985 and late March 1986 to obtain unflashed samples of Salton Sea brine. In late December, three sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 1800 m and temperatures of 300/sup 0/C. In late March, 10 sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 3150 m and temperatures of 350/sup 0/C. In brief, the Los Alamos tool obtained samples from four of eight runs; the Lawrence Berkeley tool obtained samples from one of one run; the Leutert Instruments, Inc., tool obtained samples from zero of three runs; and the USGS quartz crystal experiment was lost in the well. The most complete sample was obtained from run No. 11, using the Los Alamos sampler and Sandia battery pack/controller on a wireline. About 1635 ml of brine, two noble gas samples, and two bulk gas samples were collected from this run. Samples of brine and gas from productive runs have been distributed to about 15 researchers for various types of analyses. Chemical analyses by the Los Alamos and US Geological Survey analytical teams are presented in this report, although they are not corrected for flashing and precipitation.
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Grigsby, C.O. & Dennis, B. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot dry rock geothermal prospects, 1981

Description: The hot dry rock (HDR) site selection and resource evaluation team has been assessing roughly 24 sites within the USA as candidates for development of a second HDR geothermal system. Potential sites examined fall broadly into three categories according to the nature of their thermal anomalies: (1) Quaternary magmahydrothermal (volcanic or igneous) systems such as The Geysers-Clear Lake region, California; (2) regional thermal anomalies of tectonic origin such as the Basin and Range Province of the Southwest; and (3) pre-Quaternary plutonic and metamorphic complexes such as the Conway Granite, New Hampshire. Although sites with both electrical generation and direct use potential have been considered, efforts were concentrated on electrical sites. Criteria for a successful HDR electrical generation site utilizing current technology require temperatures greater than or equal to 200/sup 0/C, depths less than or equal to 5/km, and impermeable reservoir rocks. Sites with these characteristics only exist in the western USA. The significance of other criteria such as environmental issues, water rights, public visability, and pre-existing power networks have not yet been evaluated.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Goff, F.E.; Laughlin, A.W. & Aldrich, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prospects for the commercial development of hot dry rock geothermal energy in New Mexico

Description: A vast store of energy is available to the world in the form of hot dry rock (HDR) which exists almost everywhere beneath the surface of the earth. The Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed technology to mine the heat from HDR by using techniques developed in the petroleum industry. In practice, an artificial reservoir is created in the hot rock and water is circulated through the reservoir to extract the thermal energy and bring it to the surface. There are virtually no adverse environmental effects from an HDR plant when the system is operated in a closed-loop mode with the process water continually recirculated. An experimental plant at Fenton Hill, NM is now undergoing long-term testing to demonstrate that energy can be obtained from HDR on a sustained basis with operational procedures which are readily adaptable to industry. Significant HDR resources exist in the state of New Mexico. Resources in the Valles Caldera, Zuni Uplift, and Rio Grande Rift have been evaluated in detail. Studies indicate that it should be possible to economically develop high grade HDR resources with technology available today. As advanced concepts for developing and operating HDR systems are investigated, even more widespread utilization of the technology will be commercially feasible.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Duchane, D.V. & Goff, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-temperature geothermal potential of the Ojo Caliente warm springs area, northern New Mexico

Description: A detailed geochemical investigation of 17 waters (thermal and cold, mineralized and dilute) was performed in the Ojo Caliente-La Madera area. Two types of thermomineral waters have separate and distinctive geologic, geochemical, and geothermal characteristics. The water from Ojo Caliente Resort emerges with temperatures less than or equal to 54/sup 0/C from a Precambrian metarhyolite. Its chemistry, typically Na-HCO/sub 3/, has a total mineralization of 3600 mg/l. Isotopic studies have shown that the thermal water emerges from the springs and a hot well without significant mixing with the cold shallow aquifer of the valley alluvium. However, the cold aquifer adjacent to the resort does contain varying amounts of thermal water that originates from the warm spring system. Geothermometry calculations indicate that the thermal water may be as hot as 85/sup 0/C at depth before its ascent toward surface. Thermodynamic computations on the reaction states of numerous mineral phases suggest that the thermal water will not cause major scaling problems if the hot water is utilized for direct-use geothermal applications. By means of a network of very shallow holes, temperature and electrical conductivity anomalies have been found elsewhere in the valley around Ojo Caliente, and resistivity soundings have confirmed the presence of a plume of thermal water entering the shallow aquifer. The group of lukewarm springs around La Madera, with temperatures less than or equal to 29/sup 0/C, chemical type of NaCaMg-HCO/sub 3/Cl and with a total mineralization less than or equal to 1500 mg/l behaves as a different system without any apparent relation to the Ojo Caliente system. Its temperature at depth is not believed to exceed 35 to 40/sup 0/C.
Date: May 1, 1984
Creator: Vuataz, F.D.; Stix, J.; Goff, F. & Pearson, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

History and results of VC-1, the first CSDP corehole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

Description: Valles Caldera No. 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) corehole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored hole in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring-fracture zone and the pre-caldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian, 0.13 Ma). VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera-fill ignimbrites, 35 m of pre-caldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones and shales, with over 95% core recovery. Hydrothermal alterations are concentrated in sheared, brecciated and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alterations consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite has been identified as high as 518 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at various intervals from about 510 m on down. 11 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Pisto, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

Description: This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G. & Ramos, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geochemistry of summit fumarole vapors and flanking thermal/mineral waters at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

Description: Popocatepetl Volcano is potentially devastating to populations living in the greater Mexico City area. Systematic monitoring of fumarole gases and flanking thermal/mineral springs began in early 1994 after increased fumarolic and seismic activity were noticed in 1991. These investigations had two major objectives: (1) to determine if changes in magmatic conditions beneath Popocatepetl might be reflected by chemical changes in fumarolic discharges and (2) to determine if thermal/mineral spring waters in the vicinity of Popocatepetl are geochemically related to or influences by the magmatic system. This report summarizes results from these two discrete studies.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Werner, C.; Goff, F. & Janik, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department