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Preliminary examination of the impacts of repository site characterization activities and facility construction and operation activities on Hanford air quality

Description: Air quality impacts that would result from site characterization activities and from the construction and operation of a high-level nuclear wste repository at Hanford are estimated using two simple atmospheric dispersion models, HANCHI and CHISHORT. Model results indicate that pollutant concentrations would not exceed ambient air quality standards at any point outside the Hanford fenceline or at any publicly accessible location within the Hanford Site. The increase in pollutant concentrations in nearby communities due to site activities would be minimal. HANCHI and CHISHORT are documented in the appendices of this document. Further study of the repository's impact on air quality will be conducted when more detailed project plans and work schedules are available.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Glantz, C.S. & Ramsdell, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The data collection component of the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program

Description: An intensive program of meteorological monitoring is in place at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program involves the measurement, observation, and storage of various meteorological data; continuous monitoring of regional weather conditions by a staff of professional meteorologists; and around-the-clock forecasting of weather conditions for the Hanford Site. The objective of this report is to document the data collection component of the program. In this report, each meteorological monitoring site is discussed in detail. Each site's location and instrumentation are described and photographs are presented. The methods for processing and communicating data to the Hanford Meteorology Station are also discussed. Finally, the procedures followed to maintain and calibrate these instruments are presented. 2 refs., 83 figs., 15 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Glantz, C.S. & Islam, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User`s guide for PLTWIND Version 1.0: PC-based software for generating plots of monitored wind data and gridded wind fields for Hanford emergency response applications

Description: This document is a user`s guide for the PLoT Near-Surface WIND (PLTWIND) modeling system. PLTWIND is a personal-computer-based software product designed to produce graphical displays of Hanford wind observations and model-generated wind fields. The real-time wind data processed by PLTWIND are acquired from the mainframe computer system at the Hanford Meteorology Station and copied to PLTWIND systems by the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN). PLTWIND is designed fbr operation on an IBM-compatible PC with a connection to the HLAN. An HP-compatible pen plotter or laser printer (with a minimum of 1.5 megabytes of memory and a Plotter-in-a-Cartridge hardware) is required to generate hardcopies of PLTWTND`s graphical products. PLTWM`s products are intended for use by emergency response personnel in evaluating atmospheric dispersion characteristics in the near-surface environment. Model products provide important atmospheric information to hazard evaluators; however, these products are only tools for assessing near-surface atmospheric transport and should not be interrupted as providing definitive representation of atmospheric conditions.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Glantz, C.S. & Burk, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The air quality monitoring program for the 1100-EM-1 remedial investigation

Description: Air quality monitoring for the remedial investigation of the Hanford Site's 1100-EM-1 operable unit was conducted in the spring and fall of 1989 and during January 1990. The monitoring program was divided into two phases. The first phase examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions at three of the operable unit's waste sites before the beginning of intrusive remedial investigation activities. The second phase of monitoring examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions from two of the operable unit's waste sites during intrusive remedial investigation activities. Each phase of the program consisted of a series of monitoring events that measured pollutant concentrations at key locations upwind and downwind of individual waste sites. During each monitoring event, sampling was conducted to determine the air concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds and semivolatile organic compounds. Monitoring for heavy metals and asbestos was also conducted during some monitoring events. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Glantz, C.S. & Laws, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MESOI Version 2. 0: an interactive mesoscale Lagrangian puff dispersion model with deposition and decay

Description: MESOI Version 2.0 is an interactive Lagrangian puff model for estimating the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of effluents released to the atmosphere. The model is capable of treating simultaneous releases from as many as four release points, which may be elevated or at ground-level. The puffs are advected by a horizontal wind field that is defined in three dimensions. The wind field may be adjusted for expected topographic effects. The concentration distribution within the puffs is initially assumed to be Gaussian in the horizontal and vertical. However, the vertical concentration distribution is modified by assuming reflection at the ground and the top of the atmospheric mixing layer. Material is deposited on the surface using a source depletion, dry deposition model and a washout coefficient model. The model also treats the decay of a primary effluent species and the ingrowth and decay of a single daughter species using a first order decay process. This report is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the theoretical and mathematical bases upon which MESOI Version 2.0 is based. The second part contains the MESOI computer code. The programs were written in the ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and were developed on a VAX 11/780 computer. 43 references, 14 figures, 13 tables.
Date: November 1, 1983
Creator: Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F. & Glantz, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

Description: This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y. & Chapman, E.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIONS for systemic change in mathematics, science, and technology education: Scientist/teacher partnerships

Description: Options is a US Department of Energy/Pacific Northwest Laboratory (DOE/PNL) project whose goal is to assist Washington and Oregon middle schools having high percentages of students historically underrepresented in mathematics, science, and technology. The goal is to ensure that all students receive high-quality mathematics, science, and technology education throughout their middle school years. Teams of scientists work with teams of teachers from participating OPTIONS schools to initiate significant change in the manner in which science, mathematics, and technology are taught. As part of this effort, PNL scientists team up with teachers to develop curricula.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Glantz, C. S. & Fayette, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The framework and tools for the Western Area Power Administration`s Environmental Risk Management Program

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is working with various government agencies to develop and implement environmental risk management programs. One such program is being developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration (Western). In this paper, we describe the risk framework and assessment tools being developed by Western and PNL to help Western`s management staff make effective and defensible decisions on issues that involve environmental risk.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Di Massa, F.V.; Glantz, C.S. & Roybal, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User's guide to a data base of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

Description: This document describes how to use a data base of current transboundary region environmental monitoring projects. The data base was prepared from data provided by Glantz et al. (1986) and Concord Scientific Corporation (1985), and contains information on 226 projects with monitoring stations located within 400 km (250 mi) of the US-Canadian border. The data base is designed for use with the dBASE III PLUS data management systems on IBM-compatible personal computers. Data-base searches are best accomplished using an accompanying command file called RETRIEVE or the dBASE command LIST. The user must carefully select the substrings on which the search is to be based. Example search requests and subsequent output are presented to illustrate substring selections and applications of the data base. 4 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1987
Creator: Ballinger, M.Y.; Defferding, J.; Chapman, E.G.; Bettinson, M.D. & Glantz, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford atmospheric dispersion data: 1960 through June 1967

Description: This volume presents dispersion and supporting meteorological data from experiments conducted over relatively flat terrain at Hanford, Washington from January 1960 through June 1967. The nature of the experiments, the sampling grids, and the tracer techniques used are described in the narrative portion of the document. Appendices contain the time-integrated concentrations for samplers within the plumes, summaries of the concentration distributions across the plumes, and wind and temperature profile data for each release period. 18 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.
Date: November 1, 1983
Creator: Nickola, P.W.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Glantz, C.S. & Kerns, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bringing meteorology ``alive`` through the use of immersion-based learning activities that emphasize role playing and problem solving

Description: Current research and emerging standards in teaching and learning say that students learning best when information is presented in a meaningful context and when the students are involved in things they care about. At the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), science education programs have been developed that incorporate these concepts. To help students and teachers understand the process of ``doing`` science, we provide immersion-based programs in such technical areas as meteorology, marine sciences, wetland ecology, groundwater hydrology, robotics, lasers materials science, biology, and archaeology. This paper focuses on a meteorology program the authors developed in recent years to support this immersion experience approach. We will discuss how we link meteorology with other subject matter, how we show the relevance of meteorology to real-world problems, and how we immerse student`s and teachers in activities that help them understand how scientists uncover knowledge and solve problems.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Glantz, C. S.; Estes, J. C. & Andrews, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air quality implications associated with the selection of power plants in the Pacific Northwest

Description: This assessment models emission inventories and pollutant emission rates for fossil fuel power plants. Ground-level air concentration of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and TSP are predicted. Pollutant deposition, non-acidic deposition, acidic deposition, ozone impacts, and visibility attenuation are considered. Human health effects, wildlife effects, effects on plants and crops, and residual environmental impacts are estimated from predicted emissions.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Baechler, M. C.; Glantz, C. S. & Edelmen, P. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climatological summary of wind and temperature data for the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Network

Description: This document presents climatological summaries of wind and temperature data collected at the twenty-five monitoring stations operated by the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Network. The climatological analyses presented here involve hourly averaged wind data collected over an 8-year period beginning in 1982 (fewer wind data are available for the several monitoring stations that began full-time operation after 1982) and hourly averaged air temperature data collected over 2-year period beginning in mid-1988. The tables and figures presented in this document illustrate the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological parameters across the Hanford Site and the surrounding areas. This information is useful for emergency response applications, routine meteorological forecasting, planning and scheduling operations, facility design, and environmental impact studies.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Glantz, C.S.; Schwartz, M.N.; Burk, K.W.; Kasper, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W. & Perrault, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information and issues related to the quantification of environmental externalities for new powerplants

Description: This report provides background information for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its efforts to quantify the environmental externalities associated with new electricity resources. A more detailed companion document has been provided to Bonneville for internal use. This report defines what is meant by externalities, particularly in the context of electricity resources. It outlines the economics issues associated with assigning an economic value, such as cents per kilowatt hour, to the residual environmental impacts of electricity powerplants. It examines two generic theoretical approaches for estimating such values and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The report also addresses the need to include relevant stages in the fuel cycle in estimating the costs of externalities. The fuel-cycle concept is defined and its importance is discussed. The approaches used by several states to quantify externalities are described. A review of the valuation efforts of various states and utilities indicates that three states have actually developed methodologies for assigning economic values to externalities. Information that Bonneville may need to request from resource developers to quantify externalities is discussed, and an appendix presents suggested forms for obtaining the required information. Summary information also is presented on models for analyzing the dispersion of powerplant plumes for the purpose of estimating environmental externality costs. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Lee, A.D.; Callaway, J.M.; Glantz, C.S.; Baechler, M.C. & Foley, L.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

Description: The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Glantz, C. S.; DiMassa, F. V.; Pelto, P. J.; Brothers, A. J. & Roybal, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer-based tools for decision support at the Hanford Site

Description: To help integrate activities in the environmental restoration and waste management mission of the Hanford Site, the Hanford Integrated Planning Project (HIPP) was established and funded by the US Department of Energy. The project is divided into three key program elements, the first focusing on an explicit, defensible and comprehensive method for evaluating technical options. Based on the premise that computer technology can be used to support the decision-making process and facilitate integration among programs and activities, the Decision Support Tools Task was charged with assessing the status of computer technology for those purposes at the Site. The task addressed two types of tools: tools need to provide technical information and management support tools. Technical tools include performance and risk assessment models, information management systems, data and the computer infrastructure to supports models, data, and information management systems. Management decision support tools are used to synthesize information at a high' level to assist with making decisions. The major conclusions resulting from the assessment are that there is much technical information available, but it is not reaching the decision-makers in a form to be used. Many existing tools provide components that are needed to integrate site activities; however, some components are missing and, more importantly, the glue'' or connections to tie the components together to answer decision-makers questions is largely absent. Top priority should be given to decision support tools that support activities given in the TPA. Other decision tools are needed to facilitate and support the environmental restoration and waste management mission.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Doctor, P.G.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Cowley, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.; Hassig, N.L.; Brothers, J.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer-based tools for decision support at the Hanford Site

Description: To help integrate activities in the environmental restoration and waste management mission of the Hanford Site, the Hanford Integrated Planning Project (HIPP) was established and funded by the US Department of Energy. The project is divided into three key program elements, the first focusing on an explicit, defensible and comprehensive method for evaluating technical options. Based on the premise that computer technology can be used to support the decision-making process and facilitate integration among programs and activities, the Decision Support Tools Task was charged with assessing the status of computer technology for those purposes at the Site. The task addressed two types of tools: tools need to provide technical information and management support tools. Technical tools include performance and risk assessment models, information management systems, data and the computer infrastructure to supports models, data, and information management systems. Management decision support tools are used to synthesize information at a high` level to assist with making decisions. The major conclusions resulting from the assessment are that there is much technical information available, but it is not reaching the decision-makers in a form to be used. Many existing tools provide components that are needed to integrate site activities; however, some components are missing and, more importantly, the ``glue`` or connections to tie the components together to answer decision-makers questions is largely absent. Top priority should be given to decision support tools that support activities given in the TPA. Other decision tools are needed to facilitate and support the environmental restoration and waste management mission.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Doctor, P. G.; Mahaffey, J. A.; Cowley, P. J.; Freshley, M. D.; Hassig, N. L.; Brothers, J. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental settings for selected US Department of Energy installations - support information for the programmatic environmental impact statement and the baseline environmental management report

Description: This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 25 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS) and the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The common objective of the PEIS and the BEMR is to provide the public with information about the environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that radiological and hazardous contaminants pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS and BEMR schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same, time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Fosmire, C.J.; Goodwin, S.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A strategic analysis study-based approach to integrated risk assessment: Occupational health risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities at Hanford

Description: The goal of environmental restoration and waste management activities is to reduce public health risks or to delay risks to the future when new technology will be available for improved cleanup solutions. Actions to remediate the wastes on the Hanford Site will entail risks to workers, the public, and the environment that do not currently exist. In some circumstances, remediation activities will create new exposure pathways that are not present without cleanup activities. In addition, cleanup actions will redistribute existing health risks over time and space, and will likely shift health risks to cleanup workers in the short term. This report describes an approach to occupational risk assessment based on the Hanford Strategic Analysis Study and illustrates the approach by comparing worker risks for two options for remediation of N/K fuels, a subcategory of unprocessed irradiated fuels at Hanford.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Mahaffey, J.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Glantz, C.S.; Daling, P.M.; Sever, L.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department