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Technical basis for storage of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel in inert gases

Description: This report summarizes the technical bases to establish safe conditions for dry storage of Zircaloy-clad fuel. Dry storage of fuel with zirconium alloy cladding has been licensed in Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Switzerland. In addition, dry storage demonstrations, hot cell tests, and modeling have been conducted using Zircaloy-clad fuel. The demonstrations have included irradiated boiling water reactor, pressurized heavy-water reactor, and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. Irradiated fuel has been emplaced in and retrieved from metal casks, dry wells, silos, and a vault. Dry storage tests and demonstrations have involved {similar_to}5,000 fuel rods, and {similar_to}600 rods have been monitored during dry storage in inert gases with maximum cladding temperatures ranging from 50 to 570{sup 0}C. Although some tests and demonstrations are still in progress, there is currently no evidence that any rods exposed to inert gases have failed (one PWR rod exposed to an air cover gas failed at {similar_to}70{sup 0}C). Based on this favorable experience, it is concluded that there is sufficient information on fuel rod behavior, storage conditions, and potential cladding failure mechanisms to support licensing of dry storage in the United States. This licensing position includes a requirement for inert cover gases and a maximum cladding temperature guideline of 380{sup 0}C for Zircaloy-clad fuel. Using an inert cover gas assures that even if fuel with cladding defects were placed in dry storage, or if defects develop during storage, the defects would not propagate. Tests and demonstrations involving Zircaloy-clad rods and assemblies with maximum cladding temperatures above 400{sup 0}C are in progress. When the results from these tests have been evaluated, the viability of higher temperature limits should be examined. Acceptable conditions for storage in air and dry storage of consolidated fuel are issues yet to be resolved.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Johnson, A.B. Jr. & Gilbert, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methodology for determining criteria for storing spent fuel in air

Description: Dry storage in an air atmosphere is a method being considered for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel as an alternative to storage in an inert gas environment. However, methods to predict fuel integrity based on oxidation behavior of the fuel first must be evaluated. The linear cumulative damage method has been proposed as a technique for defining storage criteria. Analysis of limited nonconstant temperature data on nonirradiated fuel samples indicates that this approach yields conservative results for a strictly decreasing-temperature history. On the other hand, the description of damage accumulation in terms of remaining life concepts provides a more general framework for making predictions of failure. Accordingly, a methodology for adapting remaining life concepts to UO/sub 2/ oxidation has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Both the linear cumulative damage and the remaining life methods were used to predict oxidation results for spent fuel in which the temperature was decreased with time to simulate the temperature history in a dry storage cask. The numerical input to the methods was based on oxidation data generated with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets. The calculated maximum allowable storage temperatures are strongly dependent on the temperature-time profile and emphasize the conservatism inherent in the linear cumulative damage model. Additional nonconstant temperature data for spent fuel are needed to both validate the proposed methods and to predict temperatures applicable to actual spent fuel storage.
Date: November 1, 1986
Creator: Reid, C.R. & Gilbert, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of composition on the in-reactor creep of AISI 316

Description: In-reactor tests designed to provide information on the relationship between compositional variations and irradiation-induced swelling and creep have achieved an exposure of 4.6 x 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV) at 450/sup 0/C. Postirradiation diametral measurements of pressurized tube specimens have indicated that irradiation-induced creep of 316 stainless steel can be modified by compositional variations of minor alloying elements. There is a general trend for specimens with higher swelling to exhibit higher creep. Silicon, phosphorus and molybdenum all retard in-reactor creep and inhibit irradiation-induced swelling as well. However, the relationship between creep and swelling is strongly composition dependent. The data suggest that carbon and nitrogen act synergistically the major influence being the nitrogen concentration. The irradiation-induced creep is insensitive to cobalt variations to the fluences investigated.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Bates, J.F. & Gilbert, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-sodium creep behavior of alloys M-813 and Nimonic PE16

Description: The in-sodium biaxial creep deformation of internally pressurized tube specimens of alloys M-813 and Nimonic PE16 was measured at 650/sup 0/C under constant stress conditions after 4000 hours of sodium exposure. Each alloy had specimens at two different stress levels, viz., 0 and 165 MPa (24,000 psi). The data showed negative diameter changes at zero stress, which were attributed to material densification associated with precipitation. Although material densification was also seen in comparable in-argon experiments, the in-sodium creep strains at 165 MPa and 650/sup 0/C were much lower than the corresponding in-argon values. The higher creep strains in argon are explained on the basis of two parallel mechanisms involving oxygen, which is present at a low level in sodium (1 ppM) as compared with approximately 1000 ppM in the argon environment. The trends in the current data are consistent with observations by earlier authors. Sodium exposure of Nimonic PE16 also resulted in 4 ..mu..m deep intergranular penetration, which did not have any apparent effect on its biaxial creep behavior.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Anantatmula, R.P. & Gilbert, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DATING: A computer code for determining allowable temperatures for dry storage of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gases

Description: The DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) code can be used to calculate allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel. The calculations are based on the life fraction rule using both measured data and mechanistic equations as reported by Chin et al. (1986). The code is written in FORTRAN and utilizes an efficient numerical integration method for rapid calculations on IBM-compatible personal computers. This report documents the technical basis for the DATING calculations, describes the computational method and code statements, and includes a user's guide with examples. The software for the DATING code is available through the National Energy Software Center operated by Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439. 5 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1988
Creator: Simonen, E.P. & Gilbert, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stress-enhanced swelling of metal during irradiation

Description: Data are available which show that stress plays a major role in the development of radiation-induced void growth in AISI 316 and many other alloys. Earlier experiments came to the opposite conclusion and are shown to have investigated stress levels which inadvertantly cold-worked the material. Stress-affected swelling spans the entire temperature range in fast reactor irradiations and accelerates with increasing irradiatin temperature. It also appears to operate in all alloy starting conditions investigated. Two major microstructural mechanisms appear to be causing the enhancement of swelling, which for tensile stresses is manifested primarily as a decrease in the incubation period. These mechanisms are stress-induced changes in the interstitial capture efficiency of voids and stress-induced changes in the vacancy emission rate of various microstructural components. There also appears to be an enhancement of intermetallic phase formation with applied stress and this is shown to increase swelling by accelerating the microchemical evolution that precedes void growth at high temperature. This latter consideration complicates the extrapolation of these data to compressive stress states.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Garner, F.A.; Gilbert, E.R. & Porter, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of nitrogen as an atmosphere for dry storage of spent LWR fuel

Description: Interim dry storage of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel is being developed as a licensed technology in the United States. Because it is anticipated that license agreements will specify dry storage atmospheres, the behavior of spent LWR fuel in a nitrogen atmosphere during dry storage was investigated. In particular, the thermodynamics of reaction of nitrogen compounds (expected to form in the cover gas during dry storage) and residual impurities (such as moisture and oxygen) with Zircaloy cladding and with spent fuel at sites of cladding breaches were examined. The kinetics of reaction were not considered it was assumed that the 20 to 40 years of interim dry storage would be sufficient for reactions to proceed to completion. The primary thermodynamics reactants were found to be NO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, and O/sub 2/. The evaluation revealed that the limited inventories of these reactants produced by the source terms in hermetically sealed dry storage systems would be too low to cause significant spent fuel degradation. Furthermore, the oxidation of spent fuel to degrading O/U ratios is unlikely because the oxidation potential in moist nitrogen limits O/U ratios to values less than UO/sub 2.006/ (the equilibrium stoichiometric form in equilibrium with moist nitrogen). Tests were performed with bare spent UO/sub 2/ fuel and nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets (with no Zircaloy cladding) in a nitrogen atmosphere containing moisture concentrations greater than encountered under dry storage conditions. These tests were performed for at least 1100 h at temperatures as high as 380/sup 0/C, where oxidation reactions proceed in a matter of minutes. No visible degradation was detected, and weight changes were negligible.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Gilbert, E.R.; Knox, C.A. & White, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage. Revision 1

Description: Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom; organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel (clad with a zirconium alloy) in silos in Canada; and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel (clad with Zircaloy) in a metal storage cask in Germany. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from BWRs, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions. 110 refs., 22 figs., 28 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R. & Guenther, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of cover gas impurities and their effects on the dry storage of LWR (light-water reactor) spent fuel

Description: The purposes of this report are to (1) identify the sources of impurity gases in spent fuel storage casks; (2) identify the expected concentrations and types of reactive impurity gases from these sources over an operating lifetime of 40 years; and (3) determine whether these impurities could significantly degrade cladding or exposed fuel during this period. Four potential sources of impurity gases in the helium cover gas in operating casks were identified and evaluated. Several different bounding cases have been considered, where the reactive gas inventory is either assumed to be completely gettered by the cladding or where all oxygen is assumed to react completely with the exposed fuel. It is concluded that the reactive gas inventory will have no significant effect on the cladding unless all available oxygen reacts with the UO/sub 2/ fuel to produce U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at one or two cladding breaches. Based on Zircaloy oxidation data, the oxygen inventory in a fully loaded pressurized water reactor cask such as the Castor-V/21 will be gettered by the Zircaloy cladding in about 1 year if the peak cladding temperature within the task is greater than or equal to300/sup 0/C. Only a negligible decrease in the thickness of the cladding would result. 24 refs., 4 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1987
Creator: Knoll, R.W. & Gilbert, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Develop of the climb induced glide concept to describee in-reactor creep of FCC materials

Description: The Climb Induced Glide model (CIG) for irradiation creep is developed using a plastic flow law which has been successfully applied in the correlation of Type 316 stainless steel rupture data. This model is used to predict the stress and temperature dependence of irradiation creep and the transition from irradiation to thermal creep. The predictions of this model are compared and found to be qualitatively consistent with experimental data and microstructural information. This model allows prediction of deformation behavior covering strain rates from 1 x 10/sup -13/ sec /sup -1/ to 1 sec /sup -1/.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Chin, B. A.; Straalsund, J. L. & Gilbert, E. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage.

Description: Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R. & Guenther, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power Histories for Fuel Codes

Description: Computations of power history effects on the pre-loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions of generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rods were performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory using the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) code FRAPCON-2. Comparisons were made between cases where the fuel operated at a high ( 11 LOCA-limited") power throughout life (20,000 MWd/MTU) and those where the fuel was at a lower power for most of its burnup and ramped to the high power at 10,000 or 20,000 MWd/MTU burnup. The PWR rod was calculated to have more cladding creepdown during the lower power cases, which resulted in slightly lower centerline temperatures (as much as 100{degrees}C). This result was insensitive to the method used to increase the power during the ramps (i.e., by increasing the average rod power or by changing the peak-to-average (P/A} ratio of the axial power shape). The calculations also indicate that the highest fuel centerline temperatures were reached at startup. The BWR rod, however, demonstrated a substantial dependence on the power history. In this case, the constant high-power rod released considerably more fission gas than the lower power cases (21% versus 0.4%), which resulted in temperature differences of up to 350°C. The hiqhest temperature was reached at end-of-life (EOL) in the constant high-power case.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Gilbert, E. R.; Rausch, W. N. & Panisko, F. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of the data bases for making decisions regarding Trojan steam generator replacement options

Description: The central focus for this assessment has been to compare the corrosion behavior of two steam generator (SG) tube materials: Inconel 600 TT and Inconel 690 TT from (a) SG operating experience, and (b) laboratory data. The scope and results of the comparisons are summarized in this section. They provide the basis for projecting SG longevity.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Johnson, A.B. Jr. & Gilbert, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of temperature changes on swelling and creep of AISI 316

Description: A number of previous publications have shown that the swelling of cold-worked AISI 316 is quite sensitive to changes in temperature which occur during irradiation. In this report those data are expanded and reanalyzed to show that the concurrent irradiation creep is also quite sensitive to changes in irradiation temperature. An explanation is advanced to explain this behavior in terms of the sensitivity to temperture history of the radiation-induced microchemical evolution of this steel. In particular, the sensitivity to temperature history of the radiation-stabilized gamma prime phase is invoked to explain the enhanced creep and swelling behavior of AISI 316 components which experienced either gradual or abrupt decreases in temperature. The phase development observed in this steel in response to temperature changes during irradiation is also compared to the similar behavior found in aged specimens subjected to isothermal irradiation.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Garner, F.A.; Gilbert, E.R.; Gelles, D.S. & Foster, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations of in-reactor strain for fueled and unfueled FTR cladding

Description: It has been demonstrated that equations derived from in-reactor creep and swelling in unfueled pressurized tubes of 20% CW AISI 316 stainless steel can be used to predict strains in prototypic FTR mixed-oxide (UO/sub 2/--PuO/sub 2/) fuel pins. For fast neutron fluences below 6 x 10/sup 22/n/cm/sup 2/ the strains were small (less than one percent) and good agreement was found (within 0.1 percent diametral strain) between the equations and the fuel pin strains. This paper describes an extension of the earlier study to fast neutron fluences up to 11 x 10/sup 22/n/cm/sup 2/.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Gilbert, E. R.; Makenas, B. J. & Wilson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

Description: This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.
Date: October 1995
Creator: Ankrum, A. R.; Bohlander, K. L.; Gilbert, E. R.; Pawlowski, R. A. & Spiesman, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparisons of ANSI standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

Description: This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANSI standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.
Date: November 1995
Creator: Ankrum, A. R.; Bohlander, K. L.; Gilbert, E. R.; Pawlowski, R. A. & Spiesman, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

Description: The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L. & Gilbert, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

Description: This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.
Date: November 1995
Creator: Ankrum, A. R.; Bohlander, K. L.; Gilbert, E. R. & Spiesman, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim results from UO/sub 2/ fuel oxidation tests in air

Description: An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to extend the characterization of spent fuel oxidation in air. To characterize oxidation behavior of irradiated UO/sub 2/, fuel oxidation tests were performed on declad light-water reactor spent fuel and nonirradited UO/sub 2/ pellets in the temperature range of 135 to 250/sup 0/C. These tests were designed to determine the important independent variables that might affect spent fuel oxidation behavior. The data from this program, when combined with the test results from other programs, will be used to develop recommended spent fuel dry-storage temperature limits in air. This report describes interim test results. The initial PNL investigations of nonirradiated and spent fuels identified the important testing variables as temperature, fuel burnup, radiolysis of the air, fuel microstructure, and moisture in the air. Based on these initial results, a more extensive statistically designed test matrix was developed to study the effects of temperature, burnup, and moisture on the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Oxidation tests were initiated using both boiling-water reactor and pressurized-water reactor fuels from several different reactors with burnups from 8 to 34 GWd/MTU. A 10/sup 5/ R/h gamma field was applied to the test ovens to simulate dry storage cask conditions. Nonirradiated fuel was included as a control. This report describes experimental results from the initial tests on both the spent and nonirradiated fuels and results to date on the tests in a 10/sup 5/ R/h gamma field. 33 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1987
Creator: Campbell, T.K.; Gilbert, E.R.; Thornhill, C.K.; White, G.D.; Piepel, G.F. & Griffin, C.W.j
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommended temperature limits for dry storage of spent light water reactor Zircaloy-clad fuel rods in inert gas

Description: It is concluded that the recommendation of a single-valued temperature limit of 380/sup 0/C should be replaced by multiple limits to account for variations in fuel design, burnup level, spent fuel age, and storage cask design. A single-valued limit to account for these factors would, in some situations, impose unnecessary conservatisms and, potentially, economic penalties for utilities and storage cask vendors. The technical validity and conservatism of the CSFM model should assure acceptance by the NRC for utility and cask vendor use.
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Levy, I.S.; Chin, B.A.; Simonen, E.P.; Beyer, C.E.; Gilbert, E.R. & Johnson, A.B. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department