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Electron and Photon Interactions in the Regime of Strong LPM Suppression

Description: Most searches for ultra-high energy (UHE) astrophysical neutrinos look for radio emission from the electromagnetic and hadronic showers produced in their interactions. The radio frequency spectrum and angular distribution depend on the shower development, so are sensitive to the interaction cross sections. At energies above about 1016 eV (in ice), the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect significantly reduces the cross sections for the two dominant electromagnetic interactions: bremsstrahlung and pair production. At higher energies, above about 1020 eV, the photonuclear cross section becomes larger than that for pair production, and direct pair production and electronuclear interactions become dominant over bremsstrahlung. The electron interaction length reaches a maximum around 1021 eV, and then decreases slowly as the electron energy increases further. In this regime, the growth in the photon cross section and electron energy loss moderates the rise in nu e shower length, which rises from ~;;5 m at 1016 eV to ~;;40 m at 1019 eV and ~;;100 m at 1020 eV, but only to ~;;300 m at 1024 eV. In contrast, without photonuclear and electronuclear interactions, the shower length would be over 10 km at 1024 eV.
Date: June 10, 2010
Creator: Gerhardt, L. & Klein, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

I Shall Walk Proudly

Description: Sheet music for "I Shall Walk Proudly;" the poem was written by Arthur Sampley and the music is by Gerhardt Dorn. The lyrics say "I shall/ walk proudly through these lonely/ ways because I once walked proudly by your side/ not even death can rob me of the bride whose beauty/ made man love and woman praise. I wear with pride the/ splendor that you shed upon my days./ So walks a warrior's steed behind the pall and so the aide behind the/ nation's head and so the bridesmaid to the wedding strain,/ and so I walk, who, having lost my all,/ go with the valiant bearing of the dead and wear, like her, the/ smile above the pain."
Date: March 1955
Creator: Sampley, Arthur & Dorn, Gerhardt
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

Description: This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E. & Gerhardt, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamics of the Disruption Halo Current Toroidal Asymmetry in NSTX

Description: This paper describes the dynamics of disruption halo current non-axisymmetries in the lower divertor of the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. While. The halo currents typically have a strongly asymmetric structure where they enter the divertor floor, and this asymmetry has been observed to complete up to 7 toroidal revolutions over the duration of the halo current pulse. However, the rotation speed and toroidal extend of the asymmetry can vary significantly during the pulse. The rotation speed, halo current pulse duration, and total number of revolutions tend to be smaller in cases with large halo currents. The halo current pattern is observed to become toroidally symmetric at the end of the halo current pulse. It is proposed that this symmeterization is due to the loss of most or all of the closed field line geometry in the final phase of the vertical displacement event.
Date: September 27, 2012
Creator: Gerhardt, S.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of High pT Muons in IceCube

Description: Muons with a high transverse momentum (p{sub T}) are produced in cosmic ray air showers via semileptonic decay of heavy quarks and the decay of high p{sub T} kaons and pions. These high p{sub T} muons have a large lateral separation from the shower core muon bundle. IceCube is well suited for the detection of high p{sub T} muons. The surface shower array can determine the energy, core location and direction of the cosmic ray air shower while the in-ice array can reconstruct the energy and direction of the high p{sub T} muon. This makes it possible to measure the decoherence function (lateral separation spectrum) at distances greater than 150 meters. The muon p{sub T} can be determined from the muon energy (measured by dE/dx) and the lateral separation. The high p{sub T} muon spectrum may also be calculated in a perturbative QCD framework; this spectrum is sensitive to the cosmic-ray composition.
Date: June 1, 2009
Creator: Collaboration, IceCube; Gerhardt, Lisa & Klein, Spencer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of the Works for Solo Trumpet by Alan Hovhaness

Description: The purpose of this study is to determine the general style characteristics of the works for solo trumpet by Alan Hovhaness, viz., Khrimian Hairig, Overture to Avak, Prayer of Saint Gregory, and Haroutiun. The musical elements of form, melody, harmony, tonality, rhythm, texture, and counterpoint are examined objectively in order to determine the essential features of the music. Further consideration is given to the idiomatic use of the solo trumpet in these compositions. Each composition is examined separately, the conclusions and generalizations of the style features being reserved for the final chapter.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Tull, Fisher Aubrey
Partner: UNT Libraries

Music and Information

Description: The application of information theory to music may provide both a means for measuring the information content of the messages .of the system and for studying the effects of such messages in the field of psychology of music (e.g., the group at Iowa University which is carrying on work commenced by Carl Seashore 3 ). Before the techniques of information theory may be applied to a study of music much statistical data about the music system must be compiled. Masking data must be compiled dealing with many simultaneous tones as are encountered in music; the effects of timbre in overcoming or adding to masking effects must be investigated; the effects of masking on and by the singing voice must be tabulated; and similar data must be compiled dealing with the effects of other types of tonal interactions. This data of the effects of tonal interactions may be used both to reduce the effects of such auditory phenomena and to determine which components of a message pass through the communication channel (i.e., the ear). The masking problem, as illustrated in Figures 19 and 20, may be so acute in some compositions that the part of the signal carrying the information content may be obliterated. These illustrations indicate, however, that effects of masking and other forms of tonal interactions may be reduced This study has indicated, further, that elimination of the effects of tonal interactions is impossible if a wide range of dynamic intensities is used, but that these effects are limitations of the transmission channel and thus restrict the choice of tones of the musical system which may be used at one time.
Date: August 1956
Creator: Lawes, Robert Clement
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Concert Arias of Mozart for the Bass and Tenor Voices

Description: The concert arias of Mozart are probably among the least known works of this genius among composers, yet they represent no small part of his musical output and are scattered throughout every period of his life. He composed a total of fifty-seven in all, the first when he was only nine years old and the last one in the final year of his life. Mozart's fifty-seven concert arias are divided among the four voice groupings as follows: one for alto, eight for bass, ten for tenor and thirty-eight for soprano. Of these soprano arias one (K. 569)l is lost and two (K. 307 and K. 308) are merely ariettas on French texts. It is with the eighteen arias for normal male voice that this discussion will be primarily concerned; arias for the castrati voice will not be considered.
Date: August 1955
Creator: Smith, Charles Temple
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modality in Three of the Choral Works of Ralph Vaughan Williams: Mass in G Minor, Five Tudor Portraits and Te Deum in E Minor

Description: To summarize in general the use of modes by Vaughan Williams, it could be said that the works that have been analyzed are characterized by frequent use of the traditional modes, but in a very free manner. The "Kyrie" of the Mass, "Pretty Bess," "Jolly Rutterkin" and Te Deum are confined somewhat closely to given modes, with some changes of mode, changes of tonality and use of altered chords. The "Gloria," "Credo," "Sanctus," "Osanna I," "Benedictus," "Osanna II" and "Agnus Dei" of the Mass, however, contain many striking chromaticisms. These chromaticisms are the result of use of many altered chords, a good deal of modulation and much combining of modes, often with startling cross-relations. The use of seventh chords in "Pretty Bess," "Jolly Rutterkin" and Te Deum further complicates the picture from that of the sixteenth century.
Date: August 1957
Creator: McCain, Eula Louise
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Anthems of William Byrd

Description: The sacred anthem has had a unique conception and development that compares readily to that of other major forms of sacred music. Since an abundance of this music is used in our services, it is the purpose of this study to trace the history of the anthem from its origin in the early Tudor period to its culmination in the works of William Byrd. A special study will be made of the anthems by this master of the form.
Date: January 1955
Creator: Propst, Fred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Beethoven's Choral Fugal Technique

Description: It is the purpose of this thesis to offer some pertinent information in the form of a documentary symposium and analytical study in which historical and technical matters relative to Beethoven's fugal techniques in his choral compositions will be presented. References to specific musical examples in this composer's works will be illustrated by diagrammatic and verbal analyses, and correlated with the pagination of the scores of his complete works as published by Breitkopf and Hartel.
Date: January 1958
Creator: Doering, Harold Owen
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of William Walton's Concerto for Violin and Orchestra

Description: The rhythmic analyses (derived from the rhythm tables of Chapter II) reveal: 1. Walton used rhythms sparingly. 2. Walton's rhythms constitute an evolutionary state of re-creation, i. e., Walton's rhythms are in empathy with each other. The harmonic analyses (derived from the harmonic fluctuation tables of Chapter II) reveal: 1. The most frequent chords of any classification occur in groups III and IV (chords of the highest tension). 2. The most frequent dissonant interval used is that of the major seventh.
Date: January 1957
Creator: Pipkin, Robert Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Study of Three Sonatas for Solo Brass Instruments and Piano by Paul Hindemith

Description: In the years during the writing of The Craft of Musical Composition, and for the next few years afterwards, Hindemith was engaged in writing a solo sonata for each of the instruments of the orchestra. Muser states that this series of sonatas continues a definite policy of providing music for people who want to play music, and not merely to listen to it. The three sonatas for solo brass instruments and piano were written during this period. The sonatas, written for trumpet, horn, and trombone, were written in the following order: Sonata for Trumpet and Piano—1939; Sonata for Horn and Piano—1939; Sonata for Trombone and Piano—1941. These sonatas, being written rather closely together, should have certain stylistic characteristics in common, and there should also be certain features peculiar to each sonata. To study these sonatas and compare them with each other structurally and stylistically is the purpose of this work.
Date: June 1957
Creator: Alley, Edward Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Organ Works of Healey Willan

Description: Although Willan is first and foremost a musician of the church, it is obvious that he has not cloistered himself in the organ and choir loft, as it were. As a composer he has written significantly in many fields, and as a teacher he has had a major influence in shaping the musical thought of a boundless number of Canadian musicians. As a musician of the church he has kept alive the great English traditions and made his own laudable and abundant contributions to church music practices. One of the first Canadian musicians of wide eminence, he has set an example worthy of the attention of younger Canadians who will contribute to the musical development of the nation.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Massingham, Robert Louis
Partner: UNT Libraries

Piano Sonatas Six, Seven and Eight of Prokofiev

Description: The Sixth, Seventh, and E Piano Sonatas of Prokofiev illustrate the composer's more mature style. In these works there is a definite return to the classic forms and contrapuntal devices which have been called Neo-classicism. Prokofiev, himself, has said that form is one of the basic elements of his style. It is the purpose of this thesis to discover the' formal organization and make a comparison of these sonatas with the works of Beethoven and his contemporaries.
Date: January 1956
Creator: Allen, Daniel Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries

Transcriptions and Editions for Harp by Carlos Salzedo

Description: Anyone concerned with the harp in this century knows of the genius of Carlos Salzedo. His pedagogical, compositional and professional activities have had a tremendous impact on the harp world. With this in mind, the present study considers his transcriptions for harp from other works and his editings of other composers' harp compositions. It is the purpose of this study to find in what ways his work in this area has been helpful to harpists.
Date: January 1956
Creator: Thornberry, Johne Buddington
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Characterstücke of Johannes Brahms

Description: With the advent of the Ballades, Intermezzi, Cappriccios and Rhapsodies of Johannes Brahms the musical world was to witness the apex of a development of a particular style of pianoforte composition which began in the nineteenth century with the publication in 1803 of a group of seven pieces called Bagatelles, opus 33 by Ludwig van Beethoven. This style thus originated was the Caracterstücke.
Date: August 1955
Creator: Guerry, Jack, 1931-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploration of the Equilibrium Operating Space For NSTX-Upgrade

Description: This paper explores a range of high-performance equilibrium scenarios available in the NSTX-Upgrade device [J.E. Menard, submitted for publication to Nuclear Fusion]. NSTX-Upgrade is a substantial upgrade to the existing NSTX device [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], with significantly higher toroidal field and solenoid capabilities, and three additional neutral beam sources with significantly larger current drive efficiency. Equilibria are computed with freeboundary TRANSP, allowing a self consistent calculation of the non-inductive current drive sources, the plasma equilibrium, and poloidal field coil current, using the realistic device geometry. The thermal profiles are taken from a variety of existing NSTX discharges, and different assumptions for the thermal confinement scalings are utilized. The no-wall and idealwall n=1 stability limits are computed with the DCON code. The central and minimum safety factors are quite sensitive to many parameters: they generally increases with large outer plasmawall gaps and higher density, but can have either trend with the confinement enhancement factor. In scenarios with strong central beam current drive, the inclusion of non-classical fast ion diffusion raises qmin, decreases the pressure peaking, and generally improves the global stability, at the expense of a reduction in the non-inductive current drive fraction; cases with less beam current drive are largely insensitive to additional fast ion diffusion. The non-inductive current level is quite sensitive to the underlying confinement and profile assumptions. For instance, for BT=1.0 T and Pinj=12.6 MW, the non-inductive current level varies from 875 kA with ITER-98y,2 thermal confinement scaling and narrow thermal profiles to 1325 kA for an ST specific scaling expression and broad profiles. This sensitivity should facilitate the determination of the correct scaling of transport with current and field to use for future fully non-inductive ST devices. Scenarios are presented which can be sustained for 8-10 seconds, or (20-30)τCR, at ...
Date: April 25, 2012
Creator: Gerhardt, S. P.; Andre, R. & Menard, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Disruption Halo Currents in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

Description: This paper describes the general characteristics of disruptions halo currents in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. The commonly observed types of vertical motion and resulting halo current patterns are described, and it is shown that plasma discharges developing between components can facilitate halo current flow. The halo current fractions and toroidal peaking factors at various locations in the device are presented. The maximum product of these two metrics for localized halo current measurements is always significantly less than the worst-case expectations from conventional aspect ratio tokamaks (which are typically written in terms of the total halo current). The halo current fraction and impulse is often largest in cases with the fastest plasma current quenches and highest quench rates. The effective duration of the halo current pulse is comparable to or shorter than the plasma current quench time. The largest halo currents have tended to occur in lower β and lower elongation plasmas. The sign of the poloidal halo current is reversed when the toroidal field direction is reversed.
Date: April 25, 2012
Creator: Gerhardt, S. P.; Menard, J.; Sabbagh, S. & Scotti, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department