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MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier. [In LRLTRAN for CDC 7600]

Description: MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Gavel, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of the Keck telescope`s segmented primary on the performance on the Keck adaptive optics system

Description: The 349 degree of freedom Keck adaptive optics system will be mapped on to the 36 segment Keck primary mirror. Each telescope segment is independently controlled in piston and tilt by an active control system and each segment also has its own set of aberrations. This presents a unique set of problems for the Keck adaptive optics system, not encountered with continuous primaries. To a certain extent the low order segment aberrations, beginning with focus, can be corrected statically by the adaptive optic system. However, the discontinuous surface at the segment edges present special problems in sensing and correcting wavefront with laser guide stars or natural guide stars.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Gavel, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance predictions for the Keck telescope adaptive optics system

Description: The second Keck ten meter telescope (Keck-11) is slated to have an infrared-optimized adaptive optics system in the 1997--1998 time frame. This system will provide diffraction-limited images in the 1--3 micron region and the ability to use a diffraction-limited spectroscopy slit. The AO system is currently in the preliminary design phase and considerable analysis has been performed in order to predict its performance under various seeing conditions. In particular we have investigated the point-spread function, energy through a spectroscopy slit, crowded field contrast, object limiting magnitude, field of view, and sky coverage with natural and laser guide stars.
Date: August 7, 1995
Creator: Gavel, D.T. & Olivier, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real time loss detection for SNM in process

Description: This paper discusses the basis of a design for real time special nuclear material (SNM) loss detectors. The design utilizes process measurements and signal processing techniques to produce a timely estimate of material loss. A state estimator is employed as the primary signal processing algorithm. Material loss is indicated by changes in the states or process innovations (residuals). The design philosophy is discussed in the context of these changes.
Date: March 20, 1980
Creator: Candy, J.V.; Dunn, D.R. & Gavel, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical design for the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) Petite on the Thirty Meter Telescope

Description: We describe an exploratory optical design for the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics (AO) System (NFIRAOS) Petite, a proposed adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope Project. NFIRAOS will feed infrared spectrograph and wide-field imaging instruments with a diffraction limited beam. The adaptive optics system will require multi-guidestar tomographic wavefront sensing and multi-conjugate AO correction. The NFIRAOS Petite design specifications include two small 60 mm diameter deformable mirrors (DM's) used in a woofer/tweeter or multiconjugate arrangement. At least one DM would be a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) DM. The AO system would correct a 10 to 30 arcsec diameter science field as well as laser guide stars (LGS's) located within a 60 arcsec diameter field and low-order or tip/tilt natural guide stars (NGS's) within a 60 arcsec diameter field. The WFS's are located downstream of the DM's so that they can be operated in true closed-loop, which is not necessarily a given in extremely large telescope adaptive optics design. The WFS's include adjustable corrector elements which correct the static aberrations of the AO relay due to field position and LGS distance height.
Date: August 2, 2005
Creator: Bauman, B; Gavel, D; Dekany, R & Ellerbroek, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amplitude variations on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed

Description: High-contrast adaptive optics systems, such as those needed to image extrasolar planets, are known to require excellent wavefront control and diffraction suppression. At the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed, we have already demonstrated wavefront control of better than 1 nm rms within controllable spatial frequencies. Corresponding contrast measurements, however, are limited by amplitude variations, including those introduced by the micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror. Results from experimental measurements and wave optic simulations of amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed are presented. We find systematic intensity variations of about 2% rms, and intensity variations with the MEMS to be 6%. Some errors are introduced by phase and amplitude mixing because the MEMS is not conjugate to the pupil, but independent measurements of MEMS reflectivity suggest that some error is introduced by small non-uniformities in the reflectivity.
Date: August 14, 2007
Creator: Evans, J; Thomas, S; Dillon, D; Gavel, D; Phillion, D & Macintosh, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of keck adaptive optics with sodium laser guide star

Description: The Keck telescope adaptive optics system is designed to optimize performance in he 1 to 3 micron region of observation wavelengths (J, H, and K astronomical bands). The system uses a 249 degree of freedom deformable mirror, so that the interactuator spacing is 56 cm as mapped onto the 10 meter aperture. 56 cm is roughly equal to r0 at 1.4 microns, which implies the wavefront fitting error is 0.52 ({lambda}/2{pi})({ital d}/{ital r}{sub 0}){sup 5/6} = 118 nm rms. This is sufficient to produce a system Strehl of 0.74 at 1.4 microns if all other sources of error are negligible, which would be the case with a bright natural guidestar and very high control bandwidth. Other errors associated with the adaptive optics will however contribute to Strehl degradation, namely, servo bandwidth error due to inability to reject all temporal frequencies of the aberrated wavefront, wavefront measurement error due to finite signal-to-noise ratio in the wavefront sensor, and, in the case of a laser guidestar, the so-called cone effect where rays from the guidestar beacon fail to sample some of the upper atmosphere turbulence. Cone effect is mitigated considerably by the use of the very high altitude sodium laser guidestar (90 km altitude), as opposed to Rayleigh beacons at 20 km. However, considering the Keck telescope`s large aperture, this is still the dominating wavefront error contributor in the current adaptive optics system design.
Date: March 8, 1996
Creator: Gavel, D.T.; Olivier, S. & Brase, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact on Jupiter from Lick Obseravtory using a high resolution speckle imaging camera

Description: During the week of the impacts of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into Jupiter, we used a speckle imaging camera mounted on the Lick Observatory 3 meter Telescope to record a continuous stream of images of the planet. Because the speckle imaging technique compensates for atmospheric blurring, the resulting images were most likely the highest resolution of any taken from the ground. These images compliment the Hubble Space Telescope data by covering time periods when Hubble was not observing Jupiter. We collected full planet 1024 by 1024 pixel CCD images taken 20 per minute for 4 hours per night over 6 nights July 15 to 22. Only a portion of this raw data has been reduced to high resolution images to date.
Date: March 15, 1996
Creator: Max, C.; Gavel, D.; Johansson, E.; Sherwood, B.; Liu, M. & Bradford, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wide baseline optical interferometry with Laser Guide Stars

Description: Laser guide stars have been used successfully as a reference source for adaptive optics systems. We present a possible method for utilizing laser beacons as sources for interferometric phasing. The technique would extend the sky coverage for wide baseline interferometers and allow interferometric measurement and imaging of dim objects.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Gavel, D. T., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of the Lick Observatory Sodium Laser Guide Star

Description: The Lick Observatory guide star laser has provided a beacon sufficient to close the adaptive optics loop and produce corrected images during runs in 1996 and 1997. This report summarizes measurements of the wavefront quality of the outgoing beam, photoreturn signal from the sodium beacon, and radiance distribution of the guide star on the sky, and follows with an analysis of the impact of the laser on adaptive optics system performance.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Gavel, D. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An impulse radar array for detecting land mines

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed radar and imaging technologies with potential application in demining efforts. A patented wideband (impulse) radar that is very compact, very low cost, and very low power, has been demonstrated in test fields to be able to detect and image nonmetallic land mines buried in 2-10 cm of soil. The scheme takes advantage of the very short radar impulses and the ability to form a large synthetic aperture with many small individual units, to generate high resolution 2-D or 3-D tomographic images of the mine and surrounding ground. Radar range calculations predict that a vehicle-mounted or man-carried system is quite feasible using this technology. This paper presents the results of field tests using a prototype unit and describes practical mine detection system concepts. Predicted capabilities in terms of stand-off range and radiated power requirements are discussed.
Date: April 3, 1995
Creator: Gavel, D.T.; Mast, J.E.; Warhus, J. & Azevedo, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Shane telescope aberration before and after collimation

Description: The Shane 3 meter telescope was recollimated in August 1998 to remove aberrations that were perceived to affect image quality in good seeing conditions. The Lick Adaptive Optics system is capable, indirectly, of measuring the static aberrations introduced by the telescope primary and secondary mirror pair. Since A0 runs were scheduled both before and after the collimation, this allowed a comparison of the pre and post collimation telescope aberrations. The absolute calibration of the wavefront measurement is complicated by the indirect measurement technique, which uses the shape of the deformable mirror in its closed-loop corrected position as an indicator of telescope wavefront. The shape of the deformable mirror is not measured directly, but is inferred from the voltages applied to its piezoelectric actuators. The actuators are known to have temperature-dependent hysteresis and is thus a source of error in this technique. In November, an interferometer was added to the A0 system which will allow more direct measurements of corrected wavefront in future tests. Data from six measurements in July (pre-collimation) and nine measurements in September and November (post-collimation) were analyzed. The resulting phase maps show a slight difference in the wavefront with some improvement in the coma and spherical zernike terms but essentially no change (except for rotation) in astigmatism and some degradation in tricoma.
Date: January 26, 1999
Creator: Gavel, D T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statement of capabilities: Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology applied to mine detection and imaging

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed radar and imaging technologies with potential applications in mine detection by the armed forces and other agencies involved in demining efforts. These new technologies use a patented ultra-wideband (impulse) radar technology that is compact, low-cost, and low power. Designated as Micropower Impulse Radar, these compact, self-contained radars can easily be assembled into arrays to form complete ground penetrating radar imaging systems. LLNL has also developed tomographic reconstruction and signal processing software capable of producing high-resolution 2-D and 3-D images of objects buried in materials like soil or concrete from radar data. Preliminary test results have shown that a radar imaging system using these technologies has the ability to image both metallic and plastic land mine surrogate targets buried in 5 to 10 cm of moist soil. In dry soil, the system can detect buried objects to a depth of 30 cm and more. This report describes LLNL`s unique capabilities and technologies that can be applied to the demining problem.
Date: March 13, 1995
Creator: Azevedo, S.G.; Gavel, D.T.; Mast, J.E. & Warhus, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lick sodium laser guide star: performance during the 1998 LGS observing campaign

Description: The performance of a sodium laser guide star adaptive optics system depends crucially on the characteristics of the laser guide star in the sodium layer. System performance is quite sensitive to sodium layer spot radiance, that is, return per unit sterradian on the sky, hence we have been working to improve projected beam quality via improvements to the laser and changes to the launched beam format. The laser amplifier was reconfigured to a ''bounce-beam'' geometry, which considerably improves wavefront quality and allows a larger round instead of square launch beam aperture. The smaller beacon makes it easier to block the unwanted Rayleigh light and improves the accuracy of Hartmann sensor wavefront measurements in the A0 system. We present measurements of the beam quality and of the resulting sodium beacon and compare to similar measurements from last year.
Date: July 19, 1999
Creator: Bauman, B; Friedman, H & Gavel, D T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

Description: A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, and LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Gavel, D.T.; Pittenger, L.C.; McDonald, J.S.; Cramer, P.G. & Herget, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observing techniques for astronomical laser guide star adaptive optics

Description: We discuss astronomical observing requirements and their implementation using sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics. Specific issues requiring implementation include the ability to place the astronomical object at different locations within the field of view; reliable subtraction of Rayleigh-scattered light; efficient focusing; and stable point-spread-function characterization.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Max, C.E.; Macintosh, B.; Olivier, S.S.; Gavel, D.T. & Friedman, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A practical comparison of phase diversity to interferometry in measuring the aberrations in an adaptive optics system

Description: Any adaptive optics system must be calibrated with respect to internal aberrations in order for it to properly correct the starlight before it enters the science camera. Typical internal calibration consists of using a point source stimulus at the input to the AO system and recording the wavefront at the output. Two methods for such calibration have been implemented on the adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory. The first technique, Phase Diversity, consists of taking out of focus images with the science camera and using an iterative algorithm to estimate the system wavefront. A second technique uses a newly installed instrument, the Phase-Shifting Diffraction Interferometer, which has the promise of providing very high accuracy wavefront measurements. During observing campaigns in 1998, both of these methods were used for initial calibrations. In this paper we present results and compare the two methods in regard to accuracy and their practical aspects.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Bauman, B; Campbell, G; Carrano, C; Gavel, D T & Olivier, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptive Optics Views of the Hubble Deep Fields Final report on LLNL LDRD Project 03-ERD-002

Description: We used laser guide star adaptive optics at the Lick and Keck Observatories to study active galactic nuclei and galaxies, with emphasis on those in the early Universe. The goals were to observe large galaxies like our own Milky Way in the process of their initial assembly from sub-components, to identify central active galactic nuclei due to accreting black holes in galaxy cores, and to measure rates of star formation and evolution in galaxies. In the distant universe our focus was on the GOODS and GEMS fields (regions in the Northern and Southern sky that include the Hubble Deep Fields) as well as the Extended Groth Strip and COSMOS fields. Each of these parts of the sky has been intensively studied at multiple wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the XMM Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and several ground-based telescopes including the Very Large Array radio interferometer, in order to gain an unbiased view of a significant statistical sample of galaxies in the early universe.
Date: February 17, 2007
Creator: Max, C E; Gavel, D; Pennington, D; Gibbard, S; van Dam, M; Larkin, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed: Performance and Characterization of a 1024 Deformable Mirror

Description: We have demonstrated that a microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror can be flattened to < 1 nm RMS within controllable spatial frequencies over a 9.2-mm aperture making it a viable option for high-contrast adaptive optics systems (also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics). The Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed at UC Santa Cruz is being used to investigate and develop technologies for high-contrast imaging, especially wavefront control. A phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) measures wavefront errors with sub-nm precision and accuracy for metrology and wavefront control. Consistent flattening, required testing and characterization of the individual actuator response, including the effects of dead and low-response actuators. Stability and repeatability of the MEMS devices was also tested. An error budget for MEMS closed loop performance will summarize MEMS characterization.
Date: October 30, 2005
Creator: Evans, J W; Morzinski, K; Severson, S; Poyneer, L; Macintosh, B; Dillon, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser Guide Star Based Astrophysics at Lick Observatory

Description: The resolution of ground-based telescopes is typically limited to {approx}1 second of arc because of the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) technology senses and corrects for the optical distortions due to turbulence hundreds of times per second using high-speed sensors, computers, deformable mirror, and laser technology. The goal of this project is to make AO systems widely useful astronomical tools providing resolutions up to an order of magnitude better than current, ground-based telescopes. Astronomers at the University of California Lick Observatory at Mt. Hamilton now routinely use the LLNL developed AO system for high resolution imaging of astrophysical objects. We report here on the instrument development progress and on the science observations made with this system during this 3-year ERI project.
Date: March 10, 2000
Creator: Max, C; Gavel, D.; Friedman, H.; Olivier, S.; Macintosh, B.; Brase, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct imaging of extra-solar planets

Description: Direct imaging of extra-solar planets may be possible with the new generation of large ground-based telescopes equipped with state- of- the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth`s atmosphere. The first of these systems is scheduled to begin operation in 1998 on the 10 in Keck II telescope. In this paper, general formulas for high-contrast imaging with AO systems are presented and used to calculate the sensitivity of the Keck AO system. The results of these calculations show that the Keck AO system should achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect giant planets around several nearby bright stars.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Olivier, S.S.; Max, V.E.; Brase, J.M.; Caffano, C.J.; Gavel, D.T. & Macintosh, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near infra-red astronomy with adaptive optics and laser guide stars at the Keck Observatory

Description: A laser guide star adaptive optics system is being built for the W. M. Keck Observatory`s 10-meter Keck II telescope. Two new near infra-red instruments will be used with this system: a high-resolution camera (NIRC 2) and an echelle spectrometer (NIRSPEC). The authors describe the expected capabilities of these instruments for high-resolution astronomy, using adaptive optics with either a natural star or a sodium-layer laser guide star as a reference. They compare the expected performance of these planned Keck adaptive optics instruments with that predicted for the NICMOS near infra-red camera, which is scheduled to be installed on the Hubble Space Telescope in 1997.
Date: August 3, 1995
Creator: Max, C.E.; Gavel, D.T. & Olivier, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department