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MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier. [In LRLTRAN for CDC 7600]

Description: MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Gavel, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of the Keck telescope`s segmented primary on the performance on the Keck adaptive optics system

Description: The 349 degree of freedom Keck adaptive optics system will be mapped on to the 36 segment Keck primary mirror. Each telescope segment is independently controlled in piston and tilt by an active control system and each segment also has its own set of aberrations. This presents a unique set of problems for the Keck adaptive optics system, not encountered with continuous primaries. To a certain extent the low order segment aberrations, beginning with focus, can be corrected statically by the adaptive optic system. However, the discontinuous surface at the segment edges present special problems in sensing and correcting wavefront with laser guide stars or natural guide stars.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Gavel, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuzzy set classifier for waste classification tracking

Description: We have developed an expert system based on fuzzy logic theory to fuse the data from multiple sensors and make classification decisions for objects in a waste reprocessing stream. Fuzzy set theory has been applied in decision and control applications with some success, particularly by the Japanese. We have found that the fuzzy logic system is rather easy to design and train, a feature that can cut development costs considerably. With proper training, the classification accuracy is quite high. We performed several tests sorting radioactive test samples using a gamma spectrometer to compare fuzzy logic to more conventional sorting schemes.
Date: November 4, 1992
Creator: Gavel, D. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suppressing Anomalous Localized Waffle Behavior in Least Squares Wavefront Reconstructors

Description: A major difficulty with wavefront slope sensors is their insensitivity to certain phase aberration patterns, the classic example being the waffle pattern in the Fried sampling geometry. As the number of degrees of freedom in AO systems grows larger, the possibility of troublesome waffle-like behavior over localized portions of the aperture is becoming evident. Reconstructor matrices have associated with them, either explicitly or implicitly, an orthogonal mode space over which they operate, called the singular mode space. If not properly preconditioned, the reconstructor's mode set can consist almost entirely of modes that each have some localized waffle-like behavior. In this paper we analyze the behavior of least-squares reconstructors with regard to their mode spaces. We introduce a new technique that is successful in producing a mode space that segregates the waffle-like behavior into a few ''high order'' modes, which can then be projected out of the reconstructor matrix. This technique can be adapted so as to remove any specific modes that are undesirable in the final reconstructor (such as piston, tip, and tilt for example) as well as suppress (the more nebulously defined) localized waffle behavior.
Date: October 8, 2002
Creator: Gavel, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptive Optics Control Strategies for Extremely Large Telescopes

Description: Adaptive optics for the 30-100 meter class telescopes now being considered will require an extension in almost every area of AO system component technology. In this paper, we present scaling laws and strawman error budgets for AO systems on extremely large telescopes (ELTs) and discuss the implications for component technology and computational architecture. In the component technology area, we discuss the advanced efforts being pursued at the NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) in the development of large number of degrees of freedom deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, and guidestar lasers. It is important to note that the scaling of present wavefront reconstructor algorithms will become computationally intractable for ELTs and will require the development of new algorithms and advanced numerical mathematics techniques. We present the computational issues and discuss the characteristics of new algorithmic approaches that show promise in scaling to ELT AO systems.
Date: July 26, 2001
Creator: Gavel, D T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance predictions for the Keck telescope adaptive optics system

Description: The second Keck ten meter telescope (Keck-11) is slated to have an infrared-optimized adaptive optics system in the 1997--1998 time frame. This system will provide diffraction-limited images in the 1--3 micron region and the ability to use a diffraction-limited spectroscopy slit. The AO system is currently in the preliminary design phase and considerable analysis has been performed in order to predict its performance under various seeing conditions. In particular we have investigated the point-spread function, energy through a spectroscopy slit, crowded field contrast, object limiting magnitude, field of view, and sky coverage with natural and laser guide stars.
Date: August 7, 1995
Creator: Gavel, D.T. & Olivier, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real time loss detection for SNM in process

Description: This paper discusses the basis of a design for real time special nuclear material (SNM) loss detectors. The design utilizes process measurements and signal processing techniques to produce a timely estimate of material loss. A state estimator is employed as the primary signal processing algorithm. Material loss is indicated by changes in the states or process innovations (residuals). The design philosophy is discussed in the context of these changes.
Date: March 20, 1980
Creator: Candy, J.V.; Dunn, D.R. & Gavel, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation and analysis of laser guide star adaptive optics systems for the eight to ten meter class telescopes

Description: This paper discusses the design and analysis of laser-guided adaptive optic systems for the large, 8--10 meter class telescopes. We describe a technique for calculating the expected modulation transfer function and the point spread function for a closed loop adaptive optics system, parameterized by the degree of correction and the seeing conditions. The results agree closely with simulations and experimental data, and validate well known scaling law models even at low order correction. Scaling law.model analysis of a proposed adaptive optics system at the Keck telescope leads to the conclusion that a single laser guide star beacon will be adequate for diffraction limited imaging at wavelengths between 1 and 3 am with reasonable coverage of the sky. Cone anisoplanatism will dominate wavefront correction error at the visible wavelengths unless multiple laser guide stars are used.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Gavel, D. T. & Olivier, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of stellar speckle imaging

Description: Standard FFT-based phase screen generation methods do not accurately model low frequency turbulence characteristics. This paper introduces a new phase screen generation technique which uses low frequency subharmonic methods. The structure functions for this new method match very closely the structure functions of Kolmogorov turbulence theory.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Johansson, E. M. & Gavel, D. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toward Strehl-Optimizing Adaptive Optics Controllers

Description: A main objective of adaptive optics is to maximize closed-loop Strehl, or, equivalently, minimize the statistical mean-square wavefront residual. Most currently implemented AO wavefront reconstructors and closed-loop control laws do not take into account either the correlation of the Kolmogorov wavefronts over time or the modified statistics of the residual wavefront in closed loop. There have been a number of attempts in the past to generate ''predictive'' controllers, which utilize wind speed and Cn2 profiles and incorporate one or two previous time steps. We present here a general framework for a dynamic controller/reconstructor design where the goal is to maximize mean closed-loop Strehl ratio over time using all previous data and exploiting the spatial-temporal statistics of the Kolmogorov turbulence and measurement noise.
Date: October 8, 2002
Creator: Gavel, D & Wiberg, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical design for the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) Petite on the Thirty Meter Telescope

Description: We describe an exploratory optical design for the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics (AO) System (NFIRAOS) Petite, a proposed adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope Project. NFIRAOS will feed infrared spectrograph and wide-field imaging instruments with a diffraction limited beam. The adaptive optics system will require multi-guidestar tomographic wavefront sensing and multi-conjugate AO correction. The NFIRAOS Petite design specifications include two small 60 mm diameter deformable mirrors (DM's) used in a woofer/tweeter or multiconjugate arrangement. At least one DM would be a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) DM. The AO system would correct a 10 to 30 arcsec diameter science field as well as laser guide stars (LGS's) located within a 60 arcsec diameter field and low-order or tip/tilt natural guide stars (NGS's) within a 60 arcsec diameter field. The WFS's are located downstream of the DM's so that they can be operated in true closed-loop, which is not necessarily a given in extremely large telescope adaptive optics design. The WFS's include adjustable corrector elements which correct the static aberrations of the AO relay due to field position and LGS distance height.
Date: August 2, 2005
Creator: Bauman, B; Gavel, D; Dekany, R & Ellerbroek, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of keck adaptive optics with sodium laser guide star

Description: The Keck telescope adaptive optics system is designed to optimize performance in he 1 to 3 micron region of observation wavelengths (J, H, and K astronomical bands). The system uses a 249 degree of freedom deformable mirror, so that the interactuator spacing is 56 cm as mapped onto the 10 meter aperture. 56 cm is roughly equal to r0 at 1.4 microns, which implies the wavefront fitting error is 0.52 ({lambda}/2{pi})({ital d}/{ital r}{sub 0}){sup 5/6} = 118 nm rms. This is sufficient to produce a system Strehl of 0.74 at 1.4 microns if all other sources of error are negligible, which would be the case with a bright natural guidestar and very high control bandwidth. Other errors associated with the adaptive optics will however contribute to Strehl degradation, namely, servo bandwidth error due to inability to reject all temporal frequencies of the aberrated wavefront, wavefront measurement error due to finite signal-to-noise ratio in the wavefront sensor, and, in the case of a laser guidestar, the so-called cone effect where rays from the guidestar beacon fail to sample some of the upper atmosphere turbulence. Cone effect is mitigated considerably by the use of the very high altitude sodium laser guidestar (90 km altitude), as opposed to Rayleigh beacons at 20 km. However, considering the Keck telescope`s large aperture, this is still the dominating wavefront error contributor in the current adaptive optics system design.
Date: March 8, 1996
Creator: Gavel, D.T.; Olivier, S. & Brase, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact on Jupiter from Lick Obseravtory using a high resolution speckle imaging camera

Description: During the week of the impacts of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into Jupiter, we used a speckle imaging camera mounted on the Lick Observatory 3 meter Telescope to record a continuous stream of images of the planet. Because the speckle imaging technique compensates for atmospheric blurring, the resulting images were most likely the highest resolution of any taken from the ground. These images compliment the Hubble Space Telescope data by covering time periods when Hubble was not observing Jupiter. We collected full planet 1024 by 1024 pixel CCD images taken 20 per minute for 4 hours per night over 6 nights July 15 to 22. Only a portion of this raw data has been reduced to high resolution images to date.
Date: March 15, 1996
Creator: Max, C.; Gavel, D.; Johansson, E.; Sherwood, B.; Liu, M. & Bradford, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wide baseline optical interferometry with Laser Guide Stars

Description: Laser guide stars have been used successfully as a reference source for adaptive optics systems. We present a possible method for utilizing laser beacons as sources for interferometric phasing. The technique would extend the sky coverage for wide baseline interferometers and allow interferometric measurement and imaging of dim objects.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Gavel, D. T., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of the Lick Observatory Sodium Laser Guide Star

Description: The Lick Observatory guide star laser has provided a beacon sufficient to close the adaptive optics loop and produce corrected images during runs in 1996 and 1997. This report summarizes measurements of the wavefront quality of the outgoing beam, photoreturn signal from the sodium beacon, and radiance distribution of the guide star on the sky, and follows with an analysis of the impact of the laser on adaptive optics system performance.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Gavel, D. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An impulse radar array for detecting land mines

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed radar and imaging technologies with potential application in demining efforts. A patented wideband (impulse) radar that is very compact, very low cost, and very low power, has been demonstrated in test fields to be able to detect and image nonmetallic land mines buried in 2-10 cm of soil. The scheme takes advantage of the very short radar impulses and the ability to form a large synthetic aperture with many small individual units, to generate high resolution 2-D or 3-D tomographic images of the mine and surrounding ground. Radar range calculations predict that a vehicle-mounted or man-carried system is quite feasible using this technology. This paper presents the results of field tests using a prototype unit and describes practical mine detection system concepts. Predicted capabilities in terms of stand-off range and radiated power requirements are discussed.
Date: April 3, 1995
Creator: Gavel, D.T.; Mast, J.E.; Warhus, J. & Azevedo, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Shane telescope aberration before and after collimation

Description: The Shane 3 meter telescope was recollimated in August 1998 to remove aberrations that were perceived to affect image quality in good seeing conditions. The Lick Adaptive Optics system is capable, indirectly, of measuring the static aberrations introduced by the telescope primary and secondary mirror pair. Since A0 runs were scheduled both before and after the collimation, this allowed a comparison of the pre and post collimation telescope aberrations. The absolute calibration of the wavefront measurement is complicated by the indirect measurement technique, which uses the shape of the deformable mirror in its closed-loop corrected position as an indicator of telescope wavefront. The shape of the deformable mirror is not measured directly, but is inferred from the voltages applied to its piezoelectric actuators. The actuators are known to have temperature-dependent hysteresis and is thus a source of error in this technique. In November, an interferometer was added to the A0 system which will allow more direct measurements of corrected wavefront in future tests. Data from six measurements in July (pre-collimation) and nine measurements in September and November (post-collimation) were analyzed. The resulting phase maps show a slight difference in the wavefront with some improvement in the coma and spherical zernike terms but essentially no change (except for rotation) in astigmatism and some degradation in tricoma.
Date: January 26, 1999
Creator: Gavel, D T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statement of capabilities: Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology applied to mine detection and imaging

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed radar and imaging technologies with potential applications in mine detection by the armed forces and other agencies involved in demining efforts. These new technologies use a patented ultra-wideband (impulse) radar technology that is compact, low-cost, and low power. Designated as Micropower Impulse Radar, these compact, self-contained radars can easily be assembled into arrays to form complete ground penetrating radar imaging systems. LLNL has also developed tomographic reconstruction and signal processing software capable of producing high-resolution 2-D and 3-D images of objects buried in materials like soil or concrete from radar data. Preliminary test results have shown that a radar imaging system using these technologies has the ability to image both metallic and plastic land mine surrogate targets buried in 5 to 10 cm of moist soil. In dry soil, the system can detect buried objects to a depth of 30 cm and more. This report describes LLNL`s unique capabilities and technologies that can be applied to the demining problem.
Date: March 13, 1995
Creator: Azevedo, S.G.; Gavel, D.T.; Mast, J.E. & Warhus, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lick sodium laser guide star: performance during the 1998 LGS observing campaign

Description: The performance of a sodium laser guide star adaptive optics system depends crucially on the characteristics of the laser guide star in the sodium layer. System performance is quite sensitive to sodium layer spot radiance, that is, return per unit sterradian on the sky, hence we have been working to improve projected beam quality via improvements to the laser and changes to the launched beam format. The laser amplifier was reconfigured to a ''bounce-beam'' geometry, which considerably improves wavefront quality and allows a larger round instead of square launch beam aperture. The smaller beacon makes it easier to block the unwanted Rayleigh light and improves the accuracy of Hartmann sensor wavefront measurements in the A0 system. We present measurements of the beam quality and of the resulting sodium beacon and compare to similar measurements from last year.
Date: July 19, 1999
Creator: Bauman, B; Friedman, H & Gavel, D T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

Description: A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, and LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Gavel, D.T.; Pittenger, L.C.; McDonald, J.S.; Cramer, P.G. & Herget, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and early results of the sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics experiment at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: Adaptive optic systems promise to give diffraction limited performance to ground based telescopes operating at visible and near infrared wavelengths. However, because of the short spatial scale of atmospheric turbulence, the corrected field of view is limited to only a few arc seconds in the visible, to perhaps 10 arc seconds at L band (3.5 {mu}). A bright point source must be in this field of view as a wavefront reference, but the number density of natural stars is too small for full sky coverage at imaging wavelengths less than 3{mu}. A sufficiently bright point source can be artificially generated by a laser however, and investigations into the use of laser beacons has been proceeding for some time now. Our experiments at Livermore have concentrated on the formation of guide stars in the sodium mesospheric layer at 90 km altitude. We have also designed and built adaptive optics systems that use both artificial and natural guide stars. Experimental results to date have shown great promise for the practicality of this technique in astronomy.
Date: July 30, 1993
Creator: Gavel, D. T.; Max, C. E. & Avicola, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Issues in the design and optimization of adaptive optics and laser guide stars for the Keck Telescopes

Description: We discuss issues in optimizing the design of adaptive optics and laser guide star systems for the Keck Telescope. The initial tip-tilt system will use Keck`s chopping secondary mirror. We describe design constraints, choice of detector, and expected performance of this tip-tilt system as well as its sky coverage. The adaptive optics system is being optimized for wavelengths of I-2.2{mu}m. We are studying adaptive optics concepts which use a wavefront sensor with varying numbers of subapertures, so as to respond to changing turbulence conditions. The goal is to be able to ``gang together`` groups of deformable mirror subapertures under software control, when conditions call for larger subapertures. We present performance predictions as a function of sky coverage and the number of deformable mirror degrees of freedom. We analyze the predicted brightness several candidate laser guide star systems, as a function of laser power and pulse format. These predictions are used to examine the resulting Strehl as a function of observing wavelength and laser type. We discuss laser waste heat and thermal management issues, and conclude with an overview of instruments under design to take advantage of the Keck adaptive optics system.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Max, C. E.; Gavel, D. T. & Olivier, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tip-tilt compensation: Resolution limits for ground-based telescopes using laser guide star adaptive optics. Revision 2

Description: The angular resolution of long-exposure images from ground-based telescopes equipped with laser guide star adaptive optics systems is fundamentally limited by the the accuracy with which the tip-tilt aberrations introduced by the atmosphere can be corrected. Assuming that a natural star is used as the tilt reference, the residual error due to tilt anisoplanatism can significantly degrade the long-exposure resolution even if the tilt reference star is separated from the object being imaged by a small angle. Given the observed distribution of stars in the sky, the need to find a tilt reference star quite close to the object restricts the fraction of the sky over which long-exposure images with diffraction limited resolution can be obtained. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive performance analysis of tip-tilt compensation systems that use a natural star as a tilt reference, taking into account properties of the atmosphere and of the Galactic stellar populations, and optimizing over the system operating parameters to determine the fundamental limits to the long-exposure resolution. Their results show that for a ten meter telescope on Mauna Kea, if the image of the tilt reference star is uncorrected, about half the sky can be imaged in the V band with long-exposure resolution less than 60 milli-arc-seconds (mas), while if the image of the tilt reference star is fully corrected, about half the sky can be imaged in the V band with long-exposure resolution less than 16 mas. Furthermore, V band images long-exposure resolution of less than 16 mas may be obtained with a ten meter telescope on Mauna Kea for unresolved objects brighter than magnitude 22 that are fully corrected by a laser guide star adaptive optics system. This level of resolution represents about 70% of the diffraction limit of a ten meter telescope in the V band ...
Date: October 8, 1992
Creator: Olivier, S. S.; Max, C. E.; Gavel, D. T. & Brase, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department