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A Validity Study of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale with Autistic Adolescents: Two Methods

Description: Autistic symptoms appear to change during adolescence. This study replicates an earlier one (McCallon, 1985) which attempted to validate the use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) with adolescents. The standard observation method of administration was used. Additionally, information obtained in structured parent interviews was used to score a CARS. Subjects were nine autistic and nine nonautistic retarded adolescents from 13 to 21 years of age. Results suggested that the CARS, administered either way, validity discriminates between retarded adolescents who are diagnosed as autistic and those with other handicaps. Methodological limitations of the present study are discussed.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Rebillet, Susan Bates
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Parent Questionnaire Examining Learning Disabled and Non-Learning Disabled Children's Spatial Skills

Description: Investigations of children's spatial ability have typically looked at performance on laboratory tasks, and none have examined differences between learning disabled and non-learning disabled children. The present study surveyed sixty-seven parents of third and sixth grade children about the types of spatial activities children engage in everyday. Parents of learning disabled and non-learning disabled children were included. Results provided information about the types of spatial activities children engage in and the relationships between participation and performance. Major findings included differences between learning disabled and non-learning disabled children in navigational ability and in the strategies employed in difficult or ambiguous spatial situations. Findings were discussed in terms of the influence learning disabled children's negative self evaluations have on their performance.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Felini-Smith, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validity of Two Childhood Autism Rating Instruments for Use with Autistic Adolescents

Description: It is now known that autism is a lifelong handicapping condition. While some of the characteristic behaviors of autistic children remain unchanged in adolescence and adulthood, there is evidence that other behaviors change as a function of development. Assessment instruments for identifying autism are generally intended for use with. young children and may not accurately assess autism in adolescents. Two studies compared autistic adolescents with matched autistic children and nonautistic adolescents on two autism rating scales. The validity of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale for use with adolescents was supported while the validity of the Prescreening Checklist was questioned. The findings were discussed in relation to the age-related changes which occur in autistic adolescents.
Date: May 1986
Creator: McCallon, Denise
Partner: UNT Libraries

Criteria and Assessment Measures for Diagnosing Learning Disabled Children

Description: A total of 60 school psychologists and educational diagnosticians across Texas completed a survey to identify the instruments used to screen and diagnose learning disabled (LD) students, and to identify the criteria on which the final diagnosis and placement of LD or non-LD is made. The results of this survey indicate that consistent methods and criteria are not being used for identifying children as LD within the state. Many of the instruments currently used may not be technically adequate for use with a LD population. Implications of the use of inconsistent criteria, inadequate screening and assessment measures are discussed.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Moyer, Melynda Karol
Partner: UNT Libraries

Models of Consultation, Referral Problems and the Perceived Effectiveness of Parent and Teacher Consultation

Description: This study evaluated the school psychologist's perception of effective models of consultation based upon referral problem and parent, teacher, and student response to treatment. Analyses of covariance determined that (a) parents' receptivity and total number of teacher contacts significantly influenced the parents' response to treatment; (b) teacher receptivity and total number of parent contacts significantly affected teachers' response to treatment; (c) students' response to treatment was significantly affected by the model of teacher consultation and the average number of minutes spent with the school psychologists; and (d) students in a Mental Health consultation group responded significantly more favorably than s tudents in Behavioral or Collaborative consultation groups.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Epperson, Sidney Reins
Partner: UNT Libraries

Social Skills Training with High-Functioning Autistic Adolescents

Description: Social skills training is a need among autistic adolescents. This investigation examined a social skills training program involving several teaching strategies. Specific social skills were targeted for improvement. Attempts to decrease negative social behaviors were made. Five autistic adolescents participated in the program and five were selected for the no-treatment group. Two measures were used. A survey addressing the skills targeted in the program was completed by parents and teachers before and after the program. A test conversation with a stranger and a peer was conducted with each subject before and after the program. Anecdotal information was obtained from therapists, teachers, and parents. Results provided information on the effectiveness of this social skills program. The benefits and limitations of the program were discussed.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Eversole, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personality Correlates of Burnout in Teachers

Description: Career burnout has been recognized as a syndrome marked by mental, physical and emotional exhaustion which is especially prevalent among teachers. Teacher burnout is currently a widely researched phenomenon and controversy over its definition, causes and interventions has been great. Meanwhile, the burnout construct has gained little clarity. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether identifiable personality characteristics, as measured by the Personality Research Form, were consistently associated with burnout in teachers, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Cognitive Burnout Scale. Moderately strong relationships were found between specific personality characeristics and reported levels of burnout. However, individual factors were not concluded to be as critical as the interaction between such factors and the environment. Future directions are discussed.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Nash, Leslie Tennant
Partner: UNT Libraries

Children of Battered Women: Personality Patterns and Identification

Description: Mental health professionals have observed that children who witness interparental violence frequently display either an affrontive, demanding personality style, or a passive, compliant style. The prevalence of these personality types and their relation to identification, stress, and other variables was evaluated in a sample of 40 children (age range = 6 - 12 years old) who have witnessed parental spouse abuse. Children completed the Children's Personality Questionnaire and the Parental Identification Questionnaire. Mothers completed the Life Experiences Survey. Independent ratings of the children's personality were made. The results validated the existence of these two personality styles among both male and female witnesses, and supplied evidence for their relation to paternal identification, familial instability, and parental ineffectualness. The implications of these findings for assessment and intervention are discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Adler, Jeffrey Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries

Influence of Internal/External Instructions on Children's Moral Judgments

Description: Past research, guided by Piaget's and Kohlberg's theories of moral development, has shown that young children base their moral judgments on the consequence of the story protagonist's behavior while older children base their judgments on the protagonist's intent. Three age groups of children (144 subjects) heard four stories and were placed in three conditions to investigate whether their judgments could be influenced by asking them to pay attention either to why the protagonist did what she or he did or to what happened in the story, or given no instructions. As age increased, children's recall of stories and use of a protagonist's intention as a reason behind their judgments increased. Judgment scores followed the same pattern for all ages. Results were discussed in terms of social-emotional and cognitive development.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Parker, Deborah A. (Deborah Ann)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Social Skills Training with Verbal Autistic Adolescents: A Case Study Approach

Description: Autistic adolescents need direct, systematic training of social skills since major difficulties in communication, lack of empathy, and various changes during adolescence present major roadblocks to the acquisition of normal peer relationships and increasing independence. A case study approach was utilized to examine treatment effects of a social skills training program implemented with four autistic adolescent boys in a naturalistic setting. Findings based on objective measures and subjective reports indicated that each subject made gains in targeted social skills over the course of treatment. Treatment strategies such as modeling, coaching, roleplaying, one to one instruction, and in vivo procedures were found to be effective teaching techniques. Major benefits and limitations of the study were discussed.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Nichols, Jill Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nonverbal Power Cues

Description: Studies investigating aspects of social influence or power in counseling settings have examined the relationship between nonverbal cues and social influence or power. This study investigated perceptions of power, responsiveness, attractiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness by manipulating posture, facial expression and sex of therapist. After viewing photographs of stimulus therapists and listening to audio tapes, 96 male and 98 female undergraduates completed the Counselor Rating Form and a questionnaire measuring therapists' power and responsiveness. Results indicated that facial expression was more salient than posture. Smiling decreased ratings of power and increased ratings of attractiveness, responsiveness, and trustworthiness. Open posture was seen as more attractive and more powerful than closed posture. Surprisingly, females were viewed as more powerful than males. Other gender differences were found only in interaction with other variables.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Young, Merrie Lauren
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Premenstrual Syndrome in Teachers and Reported Classroom Misbehavior

Description: Periodic fluctuations in women's emotions during the menstrual cycle have been a continuing topic of research and discussion. The current study was designed to determine if premenstrual syndrome conditions in female teachers have any effect on reported classroom misbehavior and infractions. Subjects were twenty-one faculty members presently employed in the capacity of teachers in a public middle school. By utilizing a teacher's daily behavioral checklist, along with student misconduct reports, the changes in teachers' moods and behavioral symptoms over the menstrual cycle were studied in relation to reported student infractions. Based on the results of this study, it appears that menstrual cycle fluctuations have no recognizable impact upon a female's classroom demeanor and her ability to discipline in a professional manner.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Kerr, Jacqueline Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Siblings of Autistic Children: a Supportive Intervention Program Assessing Self-Report and Parent Measures of Coping

Description: This research project was designed to demonstrate the usefulness of a supportive intervention program for 17 nine to 14 year old siblings of autistic children. Current clinical practice has begun most recently to include the siblings of handicapped children in treatment services as a preventive measure to help maximize families' coping abilities and to increase the chances that they will be strengthened by their unique circumstances. Although research evidence suggests that most siblings are not at risk for serious psychopathology, it seems reasonable to assume that few remain unaffected by living with a handicapped brother or sister. Siblings report that they have increased responsibilities, many unanswered questions, and parents who typically are caught up in the stresses of caring for a handicapped child and have limited time to attend to their needs. It was hypothesized that an intervention program providing information about the handicapping condition, autism, and offering support through participation in a discussion group with other siblings of autistic children would effect improved coping in the participants. Three time-limited interventions (information plus support, information plus activity, and activity control) were compared under controlled conditions. Sibling coping was measured by a) a battery of self-report and parent ratings of behavior and attitudes, b) clinical observations, and c) sibling and parent anecdotal accounts. Descriptive behavioral and attitudinal data on the total sibling sample indicated more deviant individual profiles than would be expected in the normal population. Consistent with previous research and clinical practice with this subject population, children who were identified with problems were those generally thought to be at greatest risk such as older female and younger male siblings who have assumed extensive caretaking responsibilities for the autistic child. Specific group changes following intervention were confounded by individual subject reactions to the various procedures. Qualitative aspects of the siblings' participation ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Pope, Judith Auricchio
Partner: UNT Libraries

Children's Cognitive and Moral Reasoning: Expressive Versus Receptive Cognitive Skills

Description: Past research has shown that there are differences between children's ability to express verbally moral judgment or social cognitive principles (cognitive-expression) and their ability to understand and utilize these principles when making evaluations about others (cognitive-reception). This study investigated these differences.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Parker, Deborah A. (Deborah Ann)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Follow-Up Study of Autistic and Autistic-Like Children

Description: Autism is a lifelong handicapping disorder that occurs on a continuum of severity. Children who show mild autistic behaviors but do not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of autism are often called autistic-like, but it is not known if their development and functioning are similar to that of autistic children. A follow-up study was done on 35 autistic and autistic-like children who were an average of 3 years of age when initially seen. Initial test scores indicated that the children were similar on measures of intellectual/developmental functioning, receptive vocabulary, and adaptive functioning. Approximately 4 years later they were evaluated again. Using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, the children were divided at follow-up into three groups: nonautistic, mildly/moderately autistic, and severely autistic. Most children made gains on intelligence tests and displayed a diminishing number of autistic symptoms. Changes in nonverbal intelligence, adaptive functioning and receptive vocabulary scores depended on group membership. The results are discussed in relation to the reported stability of cognitive functioning in young autistic children and the implications for clinical practice, early intervention, and research on attachment. The nature of the syndrome of autism is also discussed, particularly in its relation to the milder, atypical children. The superior follow-up status of the autistic-like as compared to the autistic children raises serious questions about including the two groups in the same syndrome.
Date: August 1988
Creator: McCallon, Denise
Partner: UNT Libraries

Object Relations Correlates on the MMPI

Description: This study was undertaken to help determine the usefulness of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for providing information regarding a person's object relations. Subjects were 136 college students (56 males, 80 females) ranging in age from 18 to 48. Subjects were administered the Rorschach, the Self Object Scale (SOS), and the MMPI. The Rorschach was scored using Blatt, Brenneis, Schimek, and Glick's (1976a) manual for scoring the level of object relations (Developmental Analysis of the Concept of the Object Scale-DACOS), the SOS scored as Blatt, Chevron, Quinlan, and Wein's manual (1981) directs, and the MMPI scored in the standardized manner using college-age norms. MANOVA's on the SOS and the DACOS resulted in significant effects for sex on MMPI scales 6, 7, and 8. Sex differences on MMPI scales 6 and 4 were obtained for high/low level of object relations on the DACOS. Pearson correlations showed positive correlations for males between level of object relations on the SOS and MMPI scale 5, and negative correlations on MMPI scale 5 for females. For males positive correlations between the DACOS and MMPI scale 4 and negative correlations on MMPI scale 10 were noted. These results were discussed as pertaining to the socialization of males and females. The most puzzling finding was the lack of correlation between the DACOS and the SOS. This was discussed as possibly being a result of the effect of the Rorschach, which measures psychopathology, whereas the SOS may be a purer measure of object relations. The paucity and weakness of the results was attributed to the restricted variance of the population. Implications for future research included obtaining a larger sample from a normal population, establishing clear norms for object eolations measures, obtaining correlations between a measure of current functioning and the object relations measures as a step toward ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Rebillet, Susan Bates
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship between Selected Behaviors and Developmental Skills in Children with Autism

Description: The purpose of this exploratory study was to gain more information about the developmental skills and abnormal behaviors of children with autism. Major interests included exploring the pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses, the relationship between unusual behaviors, and the relationship of autistic behaviors to development and IQ.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Felini-Smith, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries