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PREDICTION OF THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF FUSED SALTS

Description: A method for predicting thermal conductivities of fused salts and salt mixtures at their melting points was developed. It allows for the atomic or lattice portion arising from the short-range order present in liquids, and the ionic portion arising from a drift of ions and subsequent energy transfer between the atoms. (J.R.D.)
Date: August 10, 1956
Creator: Gambill, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HFIR HEAT-TRANSFER STUDIES OF TURBULENT WATER FLOW IN THIN RECTANGULAR CHANNELS

Description: In support of the High Flux Isotope Reactor program, experimental determinations were made of friction factors, burnout heat fluxes, and average and local nonboiling heattransfer coefficients for forced-convection flow of water through this aluminum and nickel rectangular channels under the following conditions: heat flux = 0.1 x 10/sup 6/ to 7.4 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr - ft/sup 2/, velocity = 10 to 85 fps, Reynolds number = 9,000 to 270,000, pressure = 1 to 39 atmospheres absolute, flow gap = 0.043 to 0.057 in., and heated length = 12 and 18 in. A few tests were made to ascertain the effect of an axially oriented cylindrical spacer strip on surface temperature distribution and burnout heat flux. The results of these studies, are in reasonably good agreement with accepted ccrrelations. The friction factors are in satisfactory agreement with the Moody chart for the relative roughness of the test sections used, the burnout heat fluxes are well reproduced by the Soviet Zenkevich-Subbotin correlation, and the local and average heat-transfer coefficients are slightly larger than values predicted by the Hausen and Sieder-Tate equations. Miscellaneous experimental and analytical HFIR heat-transfer studies are included. (auth)
Date: June 19, 1961
Creator: Gambill, W.R. & Bundy, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BURNOUT HEAT FLUXES FOR LOW-PRESSURE WATER IN NATURAL CIRCULATION

Description: Twenty-nine experimental determinations of burn-out heat flux were made with water flowing by natural circulaion through electrically heated vertical tubes with and without internal twisted tapes and through rectangular cross sections of three aspect ratios. Heated lengths varied from 10 to 33 in., system pressure at the testsection flow exit from 14.7 to 26.3 psia, inlet subcooling from 36 to 170 deg F, and burn-out heat flux from 13,000 to 218,500 Btu/hr/sq ft. Tests were made with both unrestricted and restricted return flow paths. Three correlations were developed for predicting natural-circulation burn-out heat fluxes for such conditions. Two are useful for rapid estimation but the third involves a more fundamental assessment of the coolant mass velocity at burn-out by a graphical matching of the heat flux that a given flow rate can sustain to the heat flux that will produce that flow rate. For all the data, this approach gave average and maximum deviations of 15 and 38%, respectively. It was found that use of a slip ratio of unity is adequate for burnout prediction, and the reasons for this are discussed in detail. The small burn-out penalty incurred by a substantial restriction of return flow path, experimentally observed, is in complete accord with the theoretical model. (auth)
Date: December 20, 1960
Creator: Gambill, W.R. & Bundy, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF AIR FILM HEAT-TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR FREE- AND FORCED-VORTEX FLOW WITHIN TUBES

Description: The results of an experimental investigation of heat transfer to a high velocity, vortex air flow are presented. Heat-transfer coefficients have been observed for vortex flow in tubes which are larger thaa those for linear turbulent flow at a given flow power dlssipation per unit surface area. Comparisons are drawn between air in free- and forced-vortec flow within tubes having length-to-diameter ratios of 11.7 and 20.0, respectively. and linear turbulent flow in identical tubes. For the observed range of flow power disslpation, the freevortex flow system is characterized by a heat-transfer coefficieut one to two hundred per cent larger than that calculated for linear turbuleut flow at the same pumping power. The forced-vortex flow system exhibits a superiority over linear flow only at high flow powers. (auth)
Date: May 23, 1958
Creator: Greene, N.D. & Gambill, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A STUDY OF BURNOUT HEAT FLUXES ASSOCIATED WITH FORCED-CONVECTION, SUBCOOLED, AND BULK NUCLEATE BOILING OF WATER IN SOURCE-VORTEX FLOW

Description: A study of nucleate boiling of subcooled water in forcedconvection source-vortex flow in small diameter horizontal tubes is described. A measured heat flux of ll,000,000 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ was attained, a value 5 times greater than any previously reported for comparable conditions. (T.R.H.)
Date: October 29, 1957
Creator: Gambill, W.R. & Greene, N.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential applications of helium-cooled high-temperature reactors to process heat use

Description: High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTRs) permit nuclear energy to be applied to a number of processes presently utilizing fossil fuels. Promising applications of HTRs involve cogeneration, thermal energy transport using molten salt systems, steam reforming of methane for production of chemicals, coal and oil shale liquefaction or gasification, and - in the longer term - energy transport using a chemical heat pipe. Further, HTRs might be used in the more distant future as the energy source for thermochemical hydrogen production from water. Preliminary results of ongoing studies indicate that the potential market for Process Heat HTRs by the year 2020 is about 150 to 250 GW(t) for process heat/cogeneration application, plus approximately 150 to 300 GW(t) for application to fossil conversion processes. HTR cogeneration plants appear attractive in the near term for new industrial plants using large amounts of process heat, possibly for present industrial plants in conjunction with molten-salt energy distribution systems, and also for some fossil conversion processes. HTR reformer systems will take longer to develop, but are applicable to chemicals production, a larger number of fossil conversion processes, and to chemical heat pipes.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Gambill, W.R. & Kasten, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

Description: Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280/sup 0/C, LMRs up to 540/sup 0/C, and GCRs up to 950/sup 0/C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Gambill, W.R. & Kasten, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State-of-the-art review of heat-recovery processes. [76 references]

Description: A review was conducted of industrial heat-recovery processes and related equipment of potential benefit to coal-conversion complexes. Major categories of heat-exchange processes and equipment investigated included special shell-and-tube; periodic-flow and rotary regenerators; heat pipe arrays; direct phase contactors; steam and organic Rankine cycles for power generation from waste heat; and heat-pump applications to distillation. The importance of heat recovery and utilization in coal-conversion plants is widely recognized, as are the general problems associated with the design of the exchangers. A review of past experience in operating coal-conversion plants and of some proposed designs indicates that many flows will be in the laminar or transition regimes and that overall heat-transfer coefficients for exchangers involving at least one process stream will be low (less than or equal to 100 Btu/hr.ft/sup 2/./sup 0/F). Discussions with individuals knowledgeable in the process heat-transfer field revealed a relatively high degree of unanimity in that design of these exchangers would be more difficult than would their fabrication. Designs are based on the process and property data provided and construction materials specified by the buyer. No warranties are made concerning material lifetime or effect of fouling on performance. There is a clear need for more physical-property data (especially viscosities), improved heat-transfer correlations for multiphase streams (coal-oil and coal-water slurries, e.g.), and rates of fouling, corrosion, and erosion.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Gambill, W.R. & Reed, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: heat recovery and utilization. [53 references]

Description: A scoping survey of the capabilities of industrial heat recovery equipment was conducted to determine their adaptability to proposed coal-conversion complexes. Major categories of heat exchangers included shell-and-tube, periodic-flow and rotary regenerators, heat pipe arrays, direct phase contactors, and steam and organic Rankine cycles for power generation from waste heat. Primary applications encompassed feed-effluent and other process stream interchangers, combustion air preheaters, and heat recovery steam generators (waste heat boiler-superheaters). It is concluded that the single area providing the greatest potential for extending US industrial heat-recovery equipment capabilities as related to coal-conversion processes is a research, development, and testing program to acquire more physical-property and heat-transfer data and more-reliable design correlations.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Gambill, W. R. & Reed, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of very high temperature reactors in process applications

Description: In April 1974, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) authorized General Atomic Company, General Electric Company, and Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory to assess the available technology for producing process heat utilizing a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). The VHTR is defined as a gas-cooled graphite-moderated reactor. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been given a lead role in evaluating the VHTR reactor studies and potential applications of the VHTR. Process temperatures up to the 760 to 871/sup 0/C range appear to be achievable with near-term technology. The major development considerations are high temperature materials, the safety questions (especially regarding the need for an intermediate heat exchanger) and the process heat exchanger. The potential advantages of the VHTR over competing fossil energy sources are conservation of fossil fuels and reduced atmospheric impacts. Costs are developed for nuclear process heat supplied from a 3000-MW(th) VHTR. The range of cost in process applications is competitive with current fossil fuel alternatives.
Date: April 7, 1976
Creator: Jones, J. E. Jr.; Spiewak, I. & Gambill, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of very high-temperature reactors in process applications

Description: An overview is presented of the technical and economic feasibility for the development of a very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) and associated processes. A critical evaluation of VHTR technology for process temperatures of 1400 and 2000/sup 0/F is made. Additionally, an assessment of potential market impact is made to determine the commercial viability of the reactor system. It is concluded that VHTR process heat in the range of 1400 to 1500/sup 0/F is attainable with near-term technology. However, process heat in excess of 1600/sup 0/F would require considerably more materials development. The potential for the VHTR could include a major contribution to synthetic fuel, hydrogen, steel, and fertilizer production and to systems for transport and storage of high-temperature heat. A recommended development program including projected costs is presented.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Spiewak, I.; Jones, J. E. Jr.; Gambill, W. R. & Fox, E. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intense steady state neutron source. The CNR reactor

Description: The Center for Neutron Research (CNR) has been proposed in response to the needs - neutron flux, spectrum, and experimental facilities - that have been identified through workshops, studies, and discussions by the neutron-scattering, isotope, and materials irradiation research communities. The CNR is a major new experimental facility consisting of a reactor-based steady state neutron source of unprecedented flux, together with extensive facilities and instruments for neutron scattering, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other areas of research.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Difilippo, F.C.; Moon, R.M.; Gambill, W.R.; Moon, R.M.; Primm, R.T. III & West, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR PRELIMINARY DESIGN STUDY

Description: A comparison of possible types of research reactors for the production of transplutonium elements and other isotopes indicates that a flux-trap reactor consisting of a beryllium-reflecteds light-water-cooled annular fuel region surrounding a light-water island provides the required thermal neutron fluxes at minimum cost. The preliminary desigu of such a reactor was carried out on the basis of a parametric study of the effect of dimensions of the island and fuel regions heat removal rates, and fuel loading on the achievable thermal neutmn fluxes in the island and reflector. The results indicate that a 12- to 14-cm- diam. island provides the maximum flux for a given power density. This is in good agreement with the US8R critical experiments. Heat removal calculations indicate that average power densities up to 3.9 Mw/liter are achievable with H/ sub 2/O-cooled, platetype fuel elements if the system is pressurized to 650 psi to prevent surface boiling. On this basis, 100 Mw of heat can be removed from a 14-cm-ID x 36-cm-OD x 30.5-cm-long fuel regions resulting in a thermal neutron flux of 3 x 10/sup 15/ in the island after insertion of 100 g of Cm/sup 244/ or equivalent. The resulting production of Cf/sup 252/ amounts to 65 mg for a 1 1/2- year irradiation. Operation of the reactor at the more conservative level of 67 Mw, providing an irradiation flux of 2 x 10/sup 15/ in the islands will result in the production of 35 mg of Cf/sup 252/ per 18 months from 100 g of Cm/sup 244/. A development program is proposed to answer the question of the feasibility of the higher power operation. In addition to the central irradiation facility for heavyelement productions the HFIR contains ten hydraulic rabbit tubes passing through the beryllium reflector for isotope production and four beam holes for ...
Date: March 20, 1959
Creator: Lane, J.A.; Cheverton, R.D.; Claiborne, G.C.; Cole, T.E.; Gambill, W.R.; Gill, J.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

Description: A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of very high-temperature reactors in process applications. Appendix II. VHTR process heat application studies

Description: A critical review is presented of the technology and economics for coupling a very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor to a variety of process applications. It is concluded that nuclear steam reforming of light hydrocarbons for coal conversion could be a near-term alternative and that direct nuclear coal gasification could be a future consideration. Thermochemical water splitting appears to be more costly and its availability farther in the future than the coal-conversion systems. Nuclear steelmaking is competitive with the direct reduction of iron ore from conventional coal-conversion processes but not competitive with the reforming of natural gas at present gas prices. Nuclear process heat for petroleum refining, even with the necessary backup systems, is competitive with fossil energy sources. The processing with nuclear heat of oil shale and tar sands is of marginal economic importance. An analysis of peaking power applications using nuclear heat was also made. It is concluded that steam reforming methane for energy storage and production of peaking power is not a viable economic alternative, but that energy storage with a high-temperature heat transfer salt (HTS) is competitive with conventional peaking systems. An examination of the materials required in process heat exchangers is made.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Jones, J. E.; Gambill, W. R.; Cooper, R. H.; Fox, E. C.; Fuller, L. C.; Littlefield, C. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department