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Health Risk Assessment for Area 514 RCRA Closure

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a USDOE research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security. The specific area that is the subject of this document, Area 514, was the location of active LLNL waste treatment facilities until November 2003, and the operations there were authorized under interim status. The site is being closed pursuant to the requirements of the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. The DTSC-approved ''Closure Plan for Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility, LLNL 2004'', states clean closure concentrations for certain organic compounds, metals and metalloids. if all soil samples contained measured concentrations less than these levels, it was agreed that the site would meet the requirements for clean closure. However, if the samples had measured concentrations greater than the clean closure levels, a more detailed risk assessment could be prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the actual measured levels. Soil samples collected from 33 locations in Area 514 were analyzed for 37 constituents of potential concern, as identified by the Closure Plan. Many of these compounds and elements were not detected. However, 10 metals or metalloids were present at levels above the clean closure requirements, and 19 organic compounds were identified as contaminants of potential concern. Following the guidance in the Closure Plan, a health risk assessment is presented in this document to demonstrate the low level of potential health effects from the remaining constituents and to support clean closure of the site. Three types of hypothetical receptors were identified: an intrusive construction worker conducting trenching in the area, a bystander worker in a nearby building, and a future resident. Of the worker receptors, the intrusive construction worker was found to have the greater overall chronic exposure, with a theoretical calculated carcinogenic risk of 4 x 10{sup -8}, a chronic hazard index ...
Date: May 26, 2005
Creator: Gallegos, G M & Hall, L C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Possible differences in biological availability of isotopes of plutonium: Report of a workshop

Description: This paper presents the results of a workshop conducted on the apparent different bioavailability of isotopes {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu. There is a substantial body of evidence that {sup 238}Pu as commonly found in the environment is more biologically available than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Trinity Site, Nevada Test Site from nonnuclear and nuclear events, Rocky Flats, Enewetak and Bikini, and the arctic tundra support this conclusion and indicate that the bioavailability of {sup 238}Pu is more than an order of magnitude greater than that of {sup 239}Pu. Plant and soil studies from controlled environments and from Savannah River indicate no isotopic difference in availability of Pu to plants; whereas studies at the Trinity Site do suggest a difference. While it is possible that these observations can be explained by problems in the experimental procedure and analytical techniques, this possibility is remote given the ubiquitous nature of the observations. Studies of solubility of Pu in the stomach contents of cattle grazing at the Nevada Test Site and from fish from Bikini Atoll both found that {sup 238}Pu was more soluble than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Los Alamos effluent stream indicate that as particle size decreases, the content of {sup 238}Pu relative to {sup 239}Pu increases.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Kercher, J. R. & Gallegos, G. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Volume 1: Report of Results

Description: Human health and ecological risk assessments are required as part of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal process for waste treatment units. This risk assessment is prepared in support of the RCRA permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The human health risk assessment is based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved emissions factors and on California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment and air dispersion models. The risk assessment identifies receptors of concern and evaluates carcinogenic risk, and acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard. The carcinogenic risk to a 30-year resident at the maximum offsite receptor location is 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. The carcinogenic risk to a 25-year worker at the maximum bystander on-site receptor location is also 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. Any risk of less than 1 in a million is below the level of regulatory concern. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 30-year resident is 0.02 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.01. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 25-year worker is 0.3 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.2. The point of comparison for acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 1.0, an estimate less than 1.0 is below the level of regulatory concern. The estimates of health effects are based on health conservative assumptions and represent an upper bound of the possible exposures to the receptors. For the ecological risk assessment, four receptor species were evaluated for potential detrimental effects; none were found to be adversely affected because for each species the predicted ecological hazard quotients are always less than one. Based on these results, emissions from the operations of the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility should not be considered to be of concern ...
Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Gallegos, G M; Daniels, J I & Wegrecki, A M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

Description: This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A. & Gallegos, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL NESHAPs project 1997 annual report

Description: NESHAP`s limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 ({mu}Sv) to any member of the public The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site- wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1997 operations were Livermore site. 0 097 mrem (0 97 {mu}Sv) (80% from point-source emissions), 20% from diffuse-source emissions), Site 300 0 014 mrem (O 14 {mu}Sv) (38% from point-source emissions, 62% from diffuse-source emissions) The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air- dispersion/dose-assessment model Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Gallegos, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL NESHAPs 1995 annual report

Description: This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem to any member of the public. This document contains the EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1995 operations.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Gallegos, G.M.; Harrach, R.J.; Biermann, A.H. & Tate, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL NESHAPs 1996 Annual Report

Description: This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (10 microsieverts) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1996 operations were (1) Livermore site: 0. 093 mrem (0.93 microsievert) (52% from point-source emissions, 48% from diffuse-source emissions); (2) Site 300: 0.033 mrem (0.33 microsievert) (99% from point-source, 1% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air-dispersion/dose-assessment model. Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source. 5 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: January 6, 1997
Creator: Gallegos, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

Description: This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A. & Gallegos, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Report 1994, Volume No. 1

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability. The Laboratory`s mission focuses on nuclear weapons and national security, and over the years has been broadened to include areas such as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, technology transfer, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this multifaceted mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring and analysis, hazardous waste management, environmental restoration, and ensuring compliance with environmental laws and regulations. LLNL comprises two sites: the Livermore site and Site 300. The Livermore site occupies an area of 3.28 square kilometers on the eastern edge of Livermore, California. Site 300, LLNL`s experimental testing site, is located 24 kilometers to the east in the Altamont Hills, and occupies an area of 30.3 square kilometers. Environmental monitoring activities are conducted at both sites as well as in surrounding areas. This summary provides an overview of LLNL`s environmental activities in 1994, including radiological and nonradiological sampling and surveillance monitoring, remediation, assessment of radiological releases and doses, and determination of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and public health.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Rath, K.S.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M. & Failor, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental report 1993

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability with a special focus on national security. Over the years, the Laboratory`s mission has been broadened to encompass such areas as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements and takes measures to ensure that its operations do not adversely affect the environment or public health. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, hazardous waste management, and ensuring environmental compliance. During 1993, the Environmental Protection Department conducted sampling of air, sewage effluent, ground water, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuffs, and took measurements of environmental radiation. It performed more than 190,000 analyses of environmental samples. The analytical results are summarized along with evaluations of the impact of radioactive and nonradioactive materials, a discussion of the effects of LLNL operations on the environment, and a summary of the activities undertaken to comply with local, state, and federal environmental laws.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Wilt, G. C.; Gallegos, G. M.; Tate, P. J. & Balke, B. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental report 1992

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a US Department of Energy facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability with a special focus on national security. During 1992, the Environmental Protection Department conducted sampling of air, sewage effluent, ground water, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuffs, and took measurements of environmental radiation. It performed more than 150,000 analyses of environmental samples. The analytical results are summarized in the chapters that follow, along with evaluations of the impact of radioactive and nonradioactive materials, a discussion of the effects of LLNL operations on the environment, and a summary of the activities undertaken to comply with local, state, and federal environmental laws.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Wilt, G. C.; Gallegos, G. M. & Wander, S. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental report 1994. Volume No. 2

Description: This volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1994 is a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable, along with some summary data and more detailed accounts of sample collection and analytical methods. Six chapters have information on monitoring of air, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, and environmental radiation; two other chapters cover compliance sel-monitoring and quality assurance.
Date: September 1995
Creator: Rath, Karen S.; Harrach, R. J.; Gallegos, G. M.; Failor, R. A. & Christofferson, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL NESHAPs 2003 Annual Report

Description: This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2003 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.044 mrem (0.44 {micro}Sv) (55% from point-source emissions, 45% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.017 mrem (0.17 {micro}Sv) (98% from point-source emissions, 2% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.
Date: June 23, 2004
Creator: Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S; Wilson, K R; Althouse, P E; Larson, J M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL NESHAPs 2004 Annual Report

Description: This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities.
Date: June 27, 2005
Creator: Harrach, R; Gallegos, G; Peterson, R; Wilson, K; Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL NESHAPs 2001 Annual Report

Description: NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2001 are summarized here: (1) Livermore site: 0.017 mrem (0.17 {micro}Sv) (34% from point-source emissions, 66% from diffuse-source emissions), The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes; and (2) Site 300: 0.054 mrem (0.54 {micro}Sv) (93% from point-source emissions, 7% from diffuse-source emissions); The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose assessment model, except for doses for three diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.
Date: June 18, 2002
Creator: Harrach, R.J.; Peterson, S.-R.; Gallegos, G.M.; Tate, P.J.; Bertoldo, N.A. & Althouse, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental report for 1989

Description: This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and presents summary information about environmental compliance efforts for 1989. To enable evaluation of the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements were made at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300 of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, and foodstuff. Evaluations were made of LLNL's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological emissions to the environment. The monitoring data demonstrate that LLNL was in compliance with environmental laws and regulations concerning emission and discharge of materials to the environment. In addition, the monitoring data demonstrate that the environmental impacts of LLNL are minimal and pose no threat to the public or the environment. 98 refs., 40 figs., 77 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Sims, J.M.; Surano, K.A.; Lamson, K.C.; Brown, M.G. & Gallegos, G.M. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

Description: The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. LLNL prepares the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that environmental monitoring work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, which require the publication of an annual report that characterizes the site's environmental management performance. To summarize, the general regulatory drivers for this environmental monitoring plan are ISO 14001, DOE Order 458.1, and DOE Order ...
Date: March 2, 2012
Creator: Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

Description: The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. Specifically, in conformance with DOE Order 450.1A, Attachment 1, paragraph 1(b)(5), environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring also serves to demonstrate compliance with permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality. (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work. (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until its cancellation in January 2003, DOE Order 5400.1 required the preparation of an environmental monitoring plan. Neither DOE Order 450.1A nor the ISO 14001 standard are as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, in that neither expressly requires an EMP. However, LLNL continues to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that this work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order ...
Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site Annual Environmental Report for 1997 - Data Supplement

Description: This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1997 (called Volume 2 in previous years) was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Not all of the data in the Data Supplement tables have been reduced to the proper number of significant figures; however, summary data in both volumes are expressed using the proper number of significant figures. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other four chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup {minus}11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Biermann, A.H.; Althouse, P.E.; Brandstetter, E.R.; Christofferson, E.C.; Fields, B.C.; Gallegos, G.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site Annual Environmental Report for 1997 - Executive Summary

Description: The Environmental Report 1997 is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as required by DOE Order 5400.1 and DOE Order 231.1, by the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The results of LLNL's environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public are presented in this publication.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Biermann, A.H.; Althouse, P.E; Brandstetter, E.R.; Christofferson, E.C.; Fields, B.C.; Gallegos, G.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site Annual Environmental Report for 1997 (SAER)

Description: The Environmental Report 1997 is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as required by DOE Order 5400.1 and DOE Order 231.1, by the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The results of LLNL's environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public are presented in this publication.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Biermann, A.H.; Althouse, P.E; Brandstetter, E.R.; Christofferson, E.C.; Fields, B.C.; Gallegos, G.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department