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Multilayer coatings for the EUVL front-end test bed

Description: Good illumination uniformity at the mask and wafer planes, and high wafer thoroughput in the EUVL front-end test bed facility at LLNL require graded period multilayer (ML) coatings on several of the optics. The ML deposition was accomplished using a newly developed deposition technique which avoids the use of {open_quotes}uniformity masks{close_quotes} to define the spatial dependence of the ML period variation. The capabilities of the process in providing the specified ML coatings are discussed for both EUVL condenser and imaging systems.
Date: January 19, 1995
Creator: Vernon, S. P.; Carey, M. J.; Gaines, D. P. & Weber, F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of SAL605 negative resist at {lambda}=13 nm

Description: We have characterized the response of the negative resist SAL605 in the extreme ultraviolet ({lambda}=13 nm). The sensitivity was found to be {approx}1 mJ/cm{sup 3} for all conditions studied. We have identified processing conditions leading to high ({gamma}{gt}4) contrast. The resist response was modeled using Prolith/2 and the development parameters were obtained from the exposure curves.
Date: May 24, 1996
Creator: La Fontaine, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Gaines, D.P. & Kania, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coating strategy for enhancing illumination uniformity in a lithographic condenser

Description: A three-element Koehler condenser system has been fabricated, characterized, and integrated into an EUV lithographic system. The multilayer coatings deposited on the optics were designed to provide optimal radiation transport efficiency and illumination uniformity. Extensive EUV characterization measurements performed on the individual optics and follow-on system measurements indicated that the condenser was operating close to design goals. Multilayer d-spacings were within 0.05 nm of specifications, and reflectances were approximately 60%. Illumination uniformity was better than {plus_minus}10%. The broadband transport efficiency was 11%.
Date: January 26, 1995
Creator: Gaines, D.P.; Vernon, S.P.; Sommargren, G.E. & Kania, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray characterization of a four-bounce projection system

Description: A four-bounce two-element projection system designed to achieve 0.14 {mu}m resolution over a 1.2 {times} 5 mm{sup 2} ring field has been fabricated. The radiation transport properties of both the individual multilayer-coated optics and the assembled system has been measured. The individual mirror measurements demonstrated that the coatings were within 0.03 nm of d-spacing specifications; however, the mirrors exhibited significant scatter which reduced reflectance below the design specification of 60%. The peak radiation transport efficiency of the assembled projector was 7% at 13.2 nm. To the best of the authors` knowledge, this represented the first measurement of the radiation transport efficiency of a multi-element optical system for EUV lithography. Experiments performed at LLNL`s front-end test bed facility were consistent with the measured transport efficiency.
Date: January 19, 1995
Creator: Gaines, D.P.; Vernon, S.P.; Sommargren, G.E. & Fuchs, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Image degradation from surface scatter in EUV optics

Description: Synchrotron-based 13 nm measurements of scatter from individual mirrors and an assembled imaging system for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography have been compared to a model of image formation in the presence of scatter. The theory uses a Power Spectral Density description of the constituent optics to describe modifications to the image due to scatter. Reasonable agreement between measurements and theory was obtained for both individual mirrors and the assembled system. 9 refs., 4 figs.
Date: May 28, 1996
Creator: Gaines, D.P.; Daly, T.P.; Stearns, D.G.; LaFontaine, B.; Sweeney, D.W. & Fuchs, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface characterization of optics for EUV lithography

Description: The surface topography of optics fabricated for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography has been measured using a combination of phase-measuring interferometry and atomic force microscopy. Power Spectral Densities were computed over spatial frequencies extending from 2.0{times}10{sup {minus}8} nm{sup {minus}1} to 7.7{times}10{sup {minus}2} nm{sup {minus}1}. Roughness values for frequencies greater than 1.0{times}10{sup {minus}6} were 0.64 nm rms for a spherical optic and 0.95 nm rms for an aspheric optic. These values are significantly larger than 0.088 nm rms, which as obtained using a spherical optic representative of current limits in surface polishing technology. 9 refs., 4 figs.
Date: May 28, 1996
Creator: Gaines, D.P.; Sweeney, D.W.; DeLong, K.W.; Vernon, S.P.; Baker, S.L.; Tichenor, D.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a two-mirror, four-reflection, ring-field optical system at {lambda}=13 nm

Description: Performance of an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) imaging optic was characterized by printing resolution test images in resist. While features as small as 0.137 {mu}m were successfully printed, a resolution of 0.175 {mu}m better represents the performance of the system over the full 0.9 mm{sup 2} image field. The contrast of the aerial image was estimated to be about 40% or less for the fine features printed. This low contrast value is attributed to a degradation of the modulation transfer function due to presence of scattered light in the image.
Date: May 24, 1996
Creator: La Fontaine, B.; Gaines, D.P.; Kania, D.R.; Sommargren, G.E.; Baker, S.L. & Ciarlo, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measuring the effect of scatter on the performance of a lithography system

Description: The distribution of scattered light at the image plane of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system was measured, in situ. These measurements revealed a significant degradation of the modulation transfer function of the imaging optic, relative to its value in the absence of scattering.
Date: May 24, 1996
Creator: La Fontaine, B.; Daly, T.P.; Chapman, H.N.; Gaines, D.P.; Stearns, D.G.; Sweeney, D.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High average power laser for EUV lithography

Description: We have demonstrated the operation of a high average power, all solid state laser and target system for EUV lithography. The laser operates at 1.06 {mu}m with a pulse repetition rate of 200 Hz. Each pulse contains up to 400 mJ of energy and is less than 10 ns in duration. The ELTV conversion efficiency measured with the laser is independent of the laser repetition rate. Operating at 200 Hz, the laser has been used for lithography using a 3 bounce Kohler illuminator.
Date: January 19, 1995
Creator: Kania, D.R.; Gaines, D.P.; Hermann, M.; Honig, J.; Hostetler, R.; Levesque, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography

Description: We have demonstrated significant advances in the production of aspheric optics for extreme ultraviolet lithography. An optic has been fabricated with an aspheric departure of 1.5 {mu}m, a figure error of 0.7 nm rms and a nanoroughness of 0.25 nm rms. Further improvements are required in the figure and nanoroughness to reach high throughput and near diffraction limited performance in an EUVL system. 8 refs., 2 figs.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Kania, D.R.; Gaines, D.P.; Sweeney, D.S.; Sommargren, G.E.; La Fontaine, B.; Vernon, S.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Broadband diffractive lens

Description: Significant progress has been made toward solving the century-old problem of chromatic aberrations in diffractive optics. Our approach exploits modern materials and microfabrication technology and is very different from the purely diffractive strategy,'' which is commonly employed and which results in multiple diffractive elements separated by a finite distance. We have developed a Fresnel zone plate lens comprised of a serial stack of patterned minus-filters which allows broadband radiation to be focused (or imaged) without longitudinal or transverse chromatic aberrations. 7 refs., 4 figs.
Date: May 28, 1991
Creator: Ceglio, N.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; London, R.A.; Seppala, L.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)) & Gaines, D.P. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department