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Conservation screening curves to compare efficiency investments topower plants: Applications to commercial sector conservationprograms

Description: This paper describes a simplified methodology to compare supply and demand-side resources. The screening curve approach supplements with load shape information the data contained in a supply curve of conserved energy. In addition, a screening curve contains information on competing supply technologies, such as annualized capital costs, variable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The information in the screening curve allows policymakers to promptly and conveniently compare the relevant parameters affecting supply and demand-side investment decisions. While many sophisticated computer models have evolved to account for the load shape impacts of energy efficiency investments, this sophistication has, by and large, not trickled down to spreadsheet-level or 'back-of-the-envelope' analyses. Our methodology allows a simple summary of load shape characteristics based on the output of the more complicated models. It offers many advantages, principal of which is clarity in analyzing supply and demand-side investment choices. This paper first describes how supply-side screening curves have been used in the past, and develops the conceptual tools needed to apply integrated supply/demand screening curves in the least-cost utility planning process. It then presents examples of supply-side technologies and commercial sector demand-side management programs, and plots them on representative screening curves.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Koomey, Jonathan; Rosenfeld, Arthur H. & Gadgil, Ashok J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ElectroChemical Arsenic Removal (ECAR) for Rural Bangladesh--Merging Technology with Sustainable Implementation

Description: Today, 35-77 million Bangladeshis drink arsenic-contaminated groundwater from shallow tube wells. Arsenic remediation efforts have focused on the development and dissemination of household filters that frequently fall into disuse due to the amount of attention and maintenance that they require. A community scale clean water center has many advantages over household filters and allows for both chemical and electricity-based technologies to be beneficial to rural areas. Full cost recovery would enable the treatment center to be sustainable over time. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) is compatible with community scale water treatment for rural Bangladesh. We demonstrate the ability of ECAR to reduce arsenic levels> 500 ppb to less than 10 ppb in synthetic and real Bangladesh groundwater samples and examine the influence of several operating parameters on arsenic removal effectiveness. Operating cost and waste estimates are provided. Policy implication recommendations that encourage sustainable community treatment centers are discussed.
Date: December 1, 2009
Creator: Addy, Susan E.A.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin & Kostecki, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

Description: Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Gadgil, Ashok J. & Derby, Elisabeth A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapidly locating sources and predicting contaminant dispersion in buildings

Description: Contaminant releases in or near a building can lead to significant human exposures unless prompt response measures are taken. However, selecting the proper response depends in part on knowing the source locations, the amounts released, and the dispersion characteristics of the pollutants. We present an approach that estimates this information in real time. It uses Bayesian statistics to interpret measurements from sensors placed in the building yielding best estimates and uncertainties for the release conditions, including the operating state of the building. Because the method is fast, it continuously updates the estimates as measurements stream in from the sensors. We show preliminary results for characterizing a gas release in a three-floor, multi-room building at the Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah, USA.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Sohn, Michael D.; Reynolds, Pamela; Gadgil, Ashok J. & Sextro, Richard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

Description: We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and ...
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Addy, Susan E. A. & Kowolik, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterizing the Response of Commercial and Industrial Facilities to Dynamic Pricing Signals from the Utility

Description: We describe a method to generate statistical models of electricity demand from Commercial and Industrial (C&I) facilities including their response to dynamic pricing signals. Models are built with historical electricity demand data. A facility model is the sum of a baseline demand model and a residual demand model; the latter quantifies deviations from the baseline model due to dynamic pricing signals from the utility. Three regression-based baseline computation methods were developed and analyzed. All methods performed similarly. To understand the diversity of facility responses to dynamic pricing signals, we have characterized the response of 44 C&I facilities participating in a Demand Response (DR) program using dynamic pricing in California (Pacific Gas and Electric's Critical Peak Pricing Program). In most cases, facilities shed load during DR events but there is significant heterogeneity in facility responses. Modeling facility response to dynamic price signals is beneficial to the Independent System Operator for scheduling supply to meet demand, to the utility for improving dynamic pricing programs, and to the customer for minimizing energy costs.
Date: July 1, 2010
Creator: Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Callaway, Duncan S.; Price, Phillip N. & Kiliccote, Sila
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CFD analysis of LLNL downdraft table

Description: This study examines the airflow and contaminant transport in an existing room (89 inch x 77 inch x 98 inch) that houses a downdraft table at LLNL. The facility was designed and built in the 1960's and is currently being considered for redesign. One objective of the redesign is to reduce airflow while maintaining or improving user safety. Because this facility has been used for many years to handle radioactive material it is impractical to conduct extensive experimental tests in it. Therefore, we have performed a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis of the facility. The study examines the current operational condition and some other cases with reduced airflow. Reducing airflow will lead to savings in operating costs (lower fan power consumption), and possible improvements in containment from reduced turbulence. In addition, we examine three design (geometry) changes. These are: (1) increasing the area of the HVAC inlet on the ceiling, (2) adding a 15{sup o} angled ceiling inlet and (3) increasing the area of the slot in the doorway. Of these three geometry modifications, only the larger doorway slot leads to improved predicted containment.
Date: October 1, 2003
Creator: Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Jayaraman, Buvana; Kristoffersen, Astrid R. & Gadgil, Ashok J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers

Description: There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision ...
Date: July 17, 2011
Creator: Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J. & Tschudi, William F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Implications of Economizer Use in California Data Centers

Description: In the US, data center operations currently account for about 61 billion kWh/y of electricity consumption, which is more than 1.5percent of total demand. Data center energy consumption is rising rapidly, having doubled in the last five years. A substantial portion of data-center energy use is dedicated to removing the heat generated by the computer equipment. Data-center cooling load might be met with substantially reduced energy consumption with the use of air-side economizers. This energy saving measure, however, has been shown to expose servers to an order-of-magnitude increase in indoor particle concentrations with an unquantified increase in the risk of equipment failure. An alternative energy saving option is the use of water-side economizers, which do not affect the indoor particle concentration but require additional mechanical equipment and tend to be less beneficial in high humidity areas. Published research has only presented qualitative benefits of economizer use, providing industry with inadequate information on which to base their design decisions. Energy savings depend on local climate and the specific building-design characteristics. In this paper, based on building energy models, we report energy savings for air-side and water-side economizer use in data centers in several climate zones in California. Results show that in terms of energy savings, air-side economizers consistently outperform water-side economizers, though the performance difference varies by location. Model results also show that conventional humidity restrictions must by relaxed or removed to gain the energy benefits of air-side economizers.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Traber, Kim; Price, Hillary; Horvath, Arpad; Nazaroff, William W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

Description: In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.
Date: December 28, 2007
Creator: Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N. & Gadgil, Ashok J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in anExperimental Atrium: Comparison Between Experiments and CFDPredictions

Description: We compare computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions using a steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model with experimental data on airflow and pollutant dispersion under mixed-convection conditions in a 7 x 9 x 11m high experimental facility. The Rayleigh number, based on height, was O(10{sup 11}) and the atrium was mechanically ventilated. We released tracer gas in the atrium and measured the spatial distribution of concentrations; we then modeled the experiment using four different levels of modeling detail. The four computational models differ in the choice of temperature boundary conditions and the choice of turbulence model. Predictions from a low-Reynolds-number k-{var_epsilon} model with detailed boundary conditions agreed well with the data using three different model-measurement comparison metrics. Results from the same model with a single temperature prescribed for each wall also agreed well with the data. Predictions of a standard k-{var_epsilon} model were about the same as those of an isothermal model; neither performed well. Implications of the results for practical applications are discussed.
Date: January 1, 2006
Creator: Jayaraman, Buvaneswari; Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Sohn, MichaelD.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Price, Phillip N.; Wood, Emily E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollutant dispersion in a large indoor space: Part 2 -Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions and comparison with ascale model experiment for isothermal flow

Description: This paper reports on an investigation of the adequacy of Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), using a standard Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) model, for predicting dispersion of neutrally buoyant gas in a large indoor space. We used CFD to predict pollutant (dye) concentration profiles in a water filled scale model of an atrium with a continuous pollutant source. Predictions from the RANS formulation are comparable to an ensemble average of independent identical experiments. Model results were compared to pollutant concentration data in a horizontal plane from experiments in a scale model atrium. Predictions were made for steady-state (fully developed) and transient (developing) pollutant concentrations. Agreement between CFD predictions and ensemble averaged experimental measurements is quantified using the ratios of CFD-predicted and experimentally measured dye concentration at a large number of points in the measurement plane. Agreement is considered good if these ratios fall between 0.5 and 2.0 at all points in the plane. The standard k-epsilon two equation turbulence model obtains this level of agreement and predicts pollutant arrival time to the measurement plane within a few seconds. These results suggest that this modeling approach is adequate for predicting isothermal pollutant transport in a large room with simple geometry.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Thatcher, Tracy L. & Sextro, Richard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coupled model for simulation of indoor airflow and pollutant transport

Description: Understanding airflow in buildings is essential for improving energy efficiency, controlling airborne pollutants, and maintaining occupant comfort. Recent research on whole-building airflow simulation has turned toward protecting occupants from threats of chemical or biological agents. Sample applications include helping design systems to reduce exposure, and selecting optimal sensor locations. Multizone models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provide complementary approaches to predicting airflows in buildings. Multizone models treat a building as a collection of well-mixed zones, connected by flow paths such as doors, windows, etc. These zone-to-zone airflows carry contaminants around the building. However, the multizone formulation assumes that pollutants mix perfectly and instantaneously within each zone. For large spaces that take a long time to mix, these models cannot assess occupant exposures, or guide decisions about sensor placement or ventilation strategy. Furthermore, since the airflow in most large spaces couples tightly to the rest of the building (through doors and ventilation systems), errors due to neglecting the room details eventually propagate to the rest of the solution.
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Jayaraman, Buvana; Lorenzetti, David M. & Gadgil, Ashok J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infiltration heat recovery in building walls: Computational fluid dynamics investigations results

Description: Conventional calculations of heating (and cooling) loads for buildings assume that conduction heat loss (or gain) through walls is independent of air infiltration heat loss (or gain). During passage through the building envelope, infiltrating air substantially exchanges heat wall insulation leading to partial recovery of heat conducted through the wall. The Infiltration Heat Recovery (IHR) factor was introduced to quantify the heat recovery and correct the conventional calculations. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics was used to calculate infiltration heat recovery under a range of idealized conditions, specifically to understand factors that influence it, and assess its significance in building heat load calculations. This study shows for the first time the important effect of the external boundary layers on conduction and infiltration heat loads. Results show (under the idealized conditions studied here) that (1) the interior details of the wall encountered in the leakage pa th (i.e., insulated or empty walls) do not greatly influence the IHR, the overall relative location of the cracks (i.e., inlet and outlet locations on the wall) has the largest influence on the IHR magnitude, (2) external boundary layers on the walls substantially contribute to IHR and (3) the relative error in heat load calculations resulting from the use of the conventional calculational method (i.e., ignoring IHR) is between 3 percent and 13 percent for infiltrating flows typically found in residential buildings.
Date: August 5, 2002
Creator: Abadie, Marc O.; Finlayson, Elizabeth U. & Gadgil, Ashok J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts

Description: In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case-study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.
Date: December 1, 2006
Creator: Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N. & Gadgil, Ashok J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

Description: Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.
Date: June 5, 2009
Creator: Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of U.S. residential air leakage database

Description: The air leakage of a building envelope can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. More than 70,000 air leakage measurements have been compiled into a database. In addition to air leakage, the database includes other important characteristics of the dwellings tested, such as floor area, year built, and location. There are also data for some houses on the presence of heating ducts, and floor/basement construction type. The purpose of this work is to identify house characteristics that can be used to predict air leakage. We found that the distribution of leakage normalized with floor area of the house is roughly lognormal. Year built and floor area are the two most significant factors to consider when predicting air leakage: older and smaller houses tend to have higher normalized leakage areas compared to newer and larger ones. Results from multiple linear regression of normalized leakage with respect to these two factors are presented for three types of houses: low-income, energy-efficient, and conventional. We demonstrate a method of using the regression model in conjunction with housing characteristics published by the US Census Bureau to derive a distribution that describes the air leakage of the single-family detached housing stock. Comparison of our estimates with published datasets of air exchange rates suggests that the regression model generates accurate estimates of air leakage distribution.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Chan, Wanyu R.; Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D. & Gadgil, Ashok J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protecting Buildings From a Biological or Chemical Attack: Actions to Take Before or During a Release

Description: This report presents advice on how to operate a building to reduce casualties from a biological or chemical attack, as well as potential changes to the building (e.g. the design of the ventilation system) that could make it more secure. It also documents the assumptions and reasoning behind the advice. The particular circumstances of any attack, such as the ventilation system design, building occupancy, agent type, source strength and location, and so on, may differ from the assumptions made here, in which case actions other than our recommendations may be required; we hope that by understanding the rationale behind the advice, building operators can modify it as required for their circumstances. The advice was prepared by members of the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group, which is part of the Indoor Environment Department at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The group's expertise in this area includes: tracer-gas measurements of airflows in buildings (Sextro, Thatcher); design and operation of commercial building ventilation systems (Delp); modeling and analysis of airflow and tracer gas transport in large indoor spaces (Finlayson, Gadgil, Price); modeling of gas releases in multi-zone buildings (Sohn, Lorenzetti, Finlayson, Sextro); and occupational health and safety experience related to building design and operation (Sextro, Delp). This report is concerned only with building design and operation; it is not a how-to manual for emergency response. Many important emergency response topics are not covered here, including crowd control, medical treatment, evidence gathering, decontamination methods, and rescue gear.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Delp, William W.; Lorenzetti, David M.; Finlayson, Elizabeth U. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling shelter-in-place including sorption on indoor surfaces

Description: Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic releases (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. As part of an emergency response plan, shelter-in-place (SIP) can be an effective response option, especially when evacuation is infeasible. Reasonably tight building envelopes provide some protection against exposure to peak concentrations when toxic release passes over an area. They also provide some protection in terms of cumulative exposure, if SIP is terminated promptly after the outdoor plume has passed. The purpose of this work is to quantify the level of protection offered by existing houses, and the importance of sorption/desorption to and from surfaces on the effectiveness of SIP. We examined a hypothetical chlorine gas release scenario simulated by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC). We used a standard infiltration model to calculate the distribution of time dependent infiltration rates within each census tract. Large variation in the air tightness of dwellings makes some houses more protective than others. Considering only the median air tightness, model results showed that if sheltered indoors, the total population intake of non-sorbing toxic gas is only 50% of the outdoor level 4 hours from the start of the release. Based on a sorption/desorption model by Karlsson and Huber (1996), we calculated that the sorption process would further lower the total intake of the population by an additional 50%. The potential benefit of SIP can be considerably higher if the comparison is made in terms of health effects because of the non-linear acute effect dose-response curve of many chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial substances.
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Chan, Wanyu R.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W.; Loosmore, Gwen A. & Sugiyama, Gayle A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department