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SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

Description: SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Eudy, L. & Chandler, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infrastructure Analysis Tools: A Focus on Cash Flow Analysis (Presentation)

Description: NREL has developed and maintains a variety of infrastructure analysis models for the U.S. Department of Energy. Business case analysis has recently been added to this tool set. This presentation focuses on cash flow analysis. Cash flows depend upon infrastructure costs, optimized spatially and temporally, and assumptions about financing and revenue. NREL has incorporated detailed metrics on financing and incentives into the models. Next steps in modeling include continuing to collect feedback on regional/local infrastructure development activities and 'roadmap' dynamics, and incorporating consumer preference assumptions on infrastructure to provide direct feedback between vehicles and station rollout.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Melaina, M. & Penev, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)

Description: This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Melaina, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) Template for California Hydrogen Dispensing Stations

Description: This report explains the Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) requirements for hydrogen dispensing stations in the State of California. The reports shows the basic components of a hydrogen dispensing station in a simple schematic drawing; the permits and approvals that would typically be required for the construction and operation of a hydrogen dispensing station; and a basic permit that might be employed by an Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).
Date: November 1, 2012
Creator: Rivkin, C.; Blake, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W. & Post, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of PEMFC System Contaminants on the Performance of Pt Catalyst via Cyclic Voltammetry: Preprint

Description: Using electrochemical cyclic voltammetry as a quick ex-situ screening tool, the impact of the extracted solution and the individual leachable constituents from prospective BOP component materials on the performance and recoverability of the platinum catalyst were evaluated. Taking an extract from Zytel{trademark} HTN51G35HSLR (PPA) as an example, the major leachable organic components are caprolactam and 1,6 hexanediol. While these organic compounds by themselves do poison the Pt catalyst to some extent, such influence is mostly recoverable by means of potential holding and potential cycling. The extracted solution, however, shows a more drastic poisoning effect and it was not recoverable. Therefore the non-recoverable poisoning effect observed for the extracted solution is not from the two organic species studied. This demonstrates the complexity of such a contaminant study. Inorganic compounds that are known poisons like sulfur even in very low concentrations, may have a more dominant effect on the Pt catalyst and the recoverability.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Wang, H.; Macomber, C. & Dinh, H. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

Description: The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Melaina, M.; Bremson, J. & Solo, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

Description: This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C. & Saur, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests

Description: Automobile manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Asia project a 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell powered light-duty road vehicles. These vehicles will be for general consumer applications, albeit initially in select markets but with much broader market penetration expected by 2025. To assure international harmony, North American, European, and Asian regulatory representatives are striving to base respective national regulations on an international safety standard, the Global Technical Regulation (GTR), Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle, which is part of an international agreement pertaining to wheeled vehicles and equipment for wheeled vehicles.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Post, M. B.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; O'Malley, K. & Ruiz, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

Description: Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.
Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J. & Smith, K. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State-of-the-Art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: Spring 2013 Composite Data Products

Description: This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2013 for state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability status.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.; Peters, M.; Post, M. & Ainscough, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spring 2013 Composite Data Products - Backup Power

Description: This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes 21 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Spring 2013 for fuel cell backup power systems.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steering Committee Progress Report on Hydrogen Sensor Performance Testing and Evaluation under the Memorandum of Agreement between NREL, U.S. DOE and JRC-IET, EC

Description: This progress report is a programmatic summary of a formal MOA between NREL and the European Union Joint Research Center, Institute for Energy and Transport to be presented at the Steering Committee Meeting, December 3, 2012.
Date: December 1, 2012
Creator: Buttner, W.; Post, M.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Boon-Brett, L.; Palmisano, V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

Description: Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).
Date: October 4, 2011
Creator: Mahadevan, Kathyayani
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Description: Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy'™s Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will determine how fuel cells ”taken as systems behave over periods of time that should show how their reformers and other subsystems deteriorate with time.
Date: May 9, 2012
Creator: McCloskey, John; Douglas, Jay; Young, Trevor; Snyder, Mark; Gurney, Stuart & Peters, Brian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real-World Hydrogen Technology Validation: Preprint

Description: The Department of Energy, the Department of Defense's Defense Logistics Agency, and the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration have funded learning demonstrations and early market deployments to provide insight into applications of hydrogen technologies on the road, in the warehouse, and as stationary power. NREL's analyses validate the technology in real-world applications, reveal the status of the technology, and facilitate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, manufacturing, and operations. This paper presents the maintenance, safety, and operation data of fuel cells in multiple applications with the reported incidents, near misses, and frequencies. NREL has analyzed records of more than 225,000 kilograms of hydrogen that have been dispensed through more than 108,000 hydrogen fills with an excellent safety record.
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Eudy, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Materials for RSOFC Dual Operation with Low Degradation

Description: Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs) are energy conversion devices. They are capable of operating in both power generation mode (SOFC) and electrolysis modes (SOEC). RSOFC can integrate renewable production of electricity and hydrogen when power generation and steam electrolysis are coupled in a system, which can turn intermittent solar and wind energy into "firm power." In this DOE EERE project, VPS continuously advanced RSOFC cell stack technology in the areas of endurance and performance. Over 20 types of RSOFC cells were developed in the project. Many of those exceeded performance (area specific resistance less than 300 mohmcm2) and endurance (degradation rate less than 4% per 1000 hours) targets in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes at 750C. One of those cells, RSOFC-7, further demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Ultra high current electrolysis over 3 A/cm2 at 75% water electrolysis efficiency voltage of 1.67 V. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of over 600 days with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Over 6000 SOFC/SOEC cycles in an accelerated 20-minute cycling with degradation less than 3% per 1000 cycles. In RSOFC stack development, a number of kW-class RSOFC stacks were developed and demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis operation of over 5000 hours. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of 100 cycles. Scale up capability of using large area cells with 550 cm2 active area showing the potential for large-scale RSOFC stack development in the future. Although this project is an open-ended development project, this effort, leveraging Versa Power Systems' years of development experience, has the potential to bring renewable energy RSOFC storage systems significantly closer to commercial viability through improvements in RSOFC durability, performance, and cost. When unitized and deployed in renewable solar and wind installations, an RSOFC system can enable higher availability ...
Date: December 27, 2012
Creator: Tang, Eric; Wood, Tony; Benhaddad, Sofiane; Brown, Casey; He, Hongpeng; Nelson, Jeff et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department