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Design of Tunable/Reconfigurable and Compact Microwave Devices

Description: With the rapid development of the modern technology, radio frequency and microwave systems are playing more and more important roles. Since the time the first microwave device was invented, they have been leading not only the military but also our daily life to a new era. In order to make the devices have more practical applications, more and more strict requirements have been imposed. For example, good adaptability, reduced cost and shrank size are highly required. In this thesis, three devices are designed based on this requirement. At first, a symmetric four-port microwave varactor based 90-degree directional coupler with tunable coupling ratios and reconfigurable responses is presented. The proposed coupler is designed based on the modified structure of a crossover, where varactors are loaded. Then, a novel reconfigurable 3-dB directional coupler is presented. Varactors and inductors are loaded to the device to realize the reconfigurable performance. By adjusting the voltage applied to the varactors, the proposed coupler can be reconfigured from a branch-line coupler (90-degree coupler) to a rat-race coupler (180 degree coupler) and vice versa. At last, two types (Type-I and Type-II) of microwave baluns with generalized structures are presented. Different from the conventional transmission-line-based baluns where λ/2 transmission lines or λ/4 coupled lines are used, the proposed baluns are constructed by transmission lines with arbitrary electrical lengths.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Zhou, Mi
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Low-cost Wireless Sensor Network System Using Raspberry Pi and Arduino for Environmental Monitoring Applications

Description: Sensors are used to convert physical quantity into numerical data. Various types of sensors can be coupled together to make a single node. A distributed array of these nodes can be deployed to collect environmental data by using appropriate sensors. Application of low powered short range radio transceivers as a communication medium between spatially distributed sensor nodes is known as wireless sensor network. In this thesis I build such a network by using Arduino, Raspberry Pi and XBee. My goal was to accomplish a prototype system so that the collected data can be stored and managed both from local and remote locations. The system was targeted for both indoor and outdoor environment. As a part of the development a controlling application was developed to manage the sensor nodes, wireless transmission, to collect and store data using a database management service. Raspberry Pi was used as base station and webserver. Few web based application was developed for configuring the network, real time monitoring, and database management. Whole system functions as a single entity. The use of open source hardware and software made it possible to keep the cost of the system low. The successful development of the system can be considered as a prototype which needs to be expanded for large scale environmental monitoring applications.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Ferdoush, Sheikh Mohammad
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Lego Mindstorms Nxt Based Test Bench for Multiagent Exploratory Systems and Distributed Network Partitioning

Description: Networks of communicating agents require distributed algorithms for a variety of tasks in the field of network analysis and control. For applications such as swarms of autonomous vehicles, ad hoc and wireless sensor networks, and such military and civilian applications as exploring and patrolling a robust autonomous system that uses a distributed algorithm for self-partitioning can be significantly helpful. A single team of autonomous vehicles in a field may need to self-dissemble into multiple teams, conducive to completing multiple control tasks. Moreover, because communicating agents are subject to changes, namely, addition or failure of an agent or link, a distributed or decentralized algorithm is favorable over having a central agent. A framework to help with the study of self-partitioning of such multi agent systems that have most basic mobility model not only saves our time in conception but also gives us a cost effective prototype without negotiating the physical realization of the proposed idea. In this thesis I present my work on the implementation of a flexible and distributed stochastic partitioning algorithm on the Lego® Mindstorms’ NXT on a graphical programming platform using National Instruments’ LabVIEW™ forming a team of communicating agents via NXT-Bee radio module. We single out mobility, communication and self-partition as the core elements of the work. The goal is to randomly explore a precinct for reference sites. Agents who have discovered the reference sites announce their target acquisition to form a network formed based upon the distance of each agent with the other wherein the self-partitioning begins to find an optimal partition. Further, to illustrate the work, an experimental test-bench of five Lego NXT robots is presented.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Patil, Riya Raghuvir
Partner: UNT Libraries

Design and Application of a New Planar Balun

Description: The baluns are the key components in balanced circuits such balanced mixers, frequency multipliers, push–pull amplifiers, and antennas. Most of these applications have become more integrated which demands the baluns to be in compact size and low cost. In this thesis, a new approach about the design of planar balun is presented where the 4-port symmetrical network with one port terminated by open circuit is first analyzed by using even- and odd-mode excitations. With full design equations, the proposed balun presents perfect balanced output and good input matching and the measurement results make a good agreement with the simulations. Second, Yagi-Uda antenna is also introduced as an entry to fully understand the quasi-Yagi antenna. Both of the antennas have the same design requirements and present the radiation properties. The arrangement of the antenna’s elements and the end-fire radiation property of the antenna have been presented. Finally, the quasi-Yagi antenna is used as an application of the balun where the proposed balun is employed to feed a quasi-Yagi antenna. The antenna is working in the S-band radio frequency and achieves a measured 36% fractional bandwidth for return loss less than -10 dB. The antenna demonstrates a good agreement between its measurement and simulation results. The impact of the parasitic director on the antenna’s performance is also investigated. The gain and the frequency range of the antenna have been reduced due to the absence of this element. This reduction presents in simulation and measurement results with very close agreement.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Mohamed, Younes
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Implementation of Consensus Through Bluetooth Communication

Description: This thesis provides an implementation of consensus of multi-agent networked systems. Consensus problem is an important issue of distributed computing and has various algorithms and applications in the field of electronical and computer science. The consensus requests all nodes of a network reach an agreement over a certain measurement. An algorithm of convergent consensus problem is implemented through a small network of Bluetooth communication in the thesis. The connections of the Bluetooth devices are wireless, and the device nodes of the network are driven by C++ software and Winsock API. The simulation results show that the implementation completes all the requirements of the distributed consensus algorithm.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Wang, Yinan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Optimal Sensor Placement for Structural Health Monitoring

Description: In large-scale civil structures, a limited number of sensors are placed to monitor the health of civil structures to reduce maintenance, communication and energy costs. In this thesis, the problem of optimal sensor location placement to infer the health of civil structures is explored. First, a comparative study of approaches from the fields of control engineering and civil engineering is conducted . The widely used civil engineering approaches such as effective independence (EI) and modal assurance criterion (MAC) have limitations because of the negligence of modes and damping parameters. On the other hand, control engineering approaches consider the entire system dynamics using impulse response-type sensor measurement data. Such inference can be formulated as an estimation problem, with the dynamics formulated as a second-order differential equation. The comparative study suggests that damping dynamics play significant impact to the selection of best sensor location---the civil engineering approaches that neglect the damping dynamics lead to very different sensor locations from those of the control engineering approaches. In the second part of the thesis, an initial attempt to directly connect the topological graph of the structure (that defines the damping and stiffness matrices) and the second-order dynamics is conducted.
Date: December 2014
Creator: Movva, Gopichand
Partner: UNT Libraries

Networking and Decentralized Control in Layered Networks: a Theoretical Study and Test-bed Development

Description: Layered structures are commonly used in communication systems, but their roles in decentralized control are not understood well. In the first part of this thesis, a theoretical study of consensus (a typical decentralized control task) in layered structures is conducted. The unique graph topology approach permits explicit characterization of consensus performance based on simple graphical characteristics of MLMG structures. In the second part of this thesis, a generic LEGO test-bed to mimic multi-domain communication with layered structures is described. A search-and-rescue scenario is implemented to demonstrate the use of the test-bed.
Date: December 2014
Creator: Sheth, Vardhman Jayeshkumar
Partner: UNT Libraries

Matlab Implementation of a Tornado Forward Error Correction Code

Description: This research discusses how the design of a tornado forward error correcting channel code (FEC) sends digital data stream profiles to the receiver. The complete design was based on the Tornado channel code, binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation on a Gaussian channel (AWGN). The communication link was simulated by using Matlab, which shows the theoretical systems efficiency. Then the data stream was input as data to be simulated communication systems using Matlab. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the audience to a simulation technique that has been successfully used to determine how well a FEC expected to work when transferring digital data streams. The goal is to use this data to show how FEC optimizes a digital data stream to gain a better digital communications systems. The results conclude by making comparisons of different possible styles for the Tornado FEC code.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Noriega, Alexandra
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Bidirectional Two-Hop Relay Network Using GNU Radio and USRP

Description: A bidirectional two-hop relay network with decode-and-forward strategy is implemented using GNU Radio (software) and several USRPs (hardware) on Ubuntu (operating system). The relay communication system is comprised of three nodes; Base Station A, Base Station B, and Relay Station (the intermediate node). During the first time slot, Base Station A and Base Station B will each transmit data, e.g., a JPEG file, to Relay Station using DBPSK modulation and FDMA. For the final time slot, Relay Station will perform a bitwise XOR of the data, and transmit the XORed data to Base Station A and Base Station B, where the received data is decoded by performing another XOR operation with the original data.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Le, Johnny
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development Of A Testbed For Multimedia Environmental Monitoring

Description: Multimedia environmental monitoring involves capturing valuable visual and audio information from the field station. This will permit the environmentalists and researchers to analyze the habitat and vegetation of a region with respect to other environmental specifics like temperature, soil moisture, etc. This thesis deals with the development of a test bed for multimedia monitoring by capturing image information and making it available for the public. A USB camera and a Single board computer are used to capture images at a specified frequency. A web-client is designed to display the image data and establish a secured remote access to reconfigure the field station. The development includes two modes of image acquisition including a basic activity recognition algorithm. Good quality images are captured with the cost for development of the system being less than 2 hundred dollars.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Kandula, Harsha
Partner: UNT Libraries

Communication System over Gnu Radio and OSSIE

Description: GNU Radio and OSSIE (Open-Source SCA (Software communication architecture) Implementation-Embedded) are two open source software toolkits for SDR (Software Defined Radio) developments, both of them can be supported by USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral). In order to compare the performance of these two toolkits, an FM receiver over GNU Radio and OSSIE are tested in my thesis, test results are showed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Results showed that the FM receiver over GNU Radio has better performance, due to the OSSIE is lack of synchronization between USRP interface and the modulation /demodulation components. Based on this, the SISO (Single Input Single Output) communication system over GNU Radio is designed to transmit and receive sound or image files between two USRP equipped with RFX2400 transceiver at 2.45G frequency. Now, GNU Radio and OSSIE are widely used for academic research, but the future work based on GNU Radio and OSSIE can be designed to support MIMO, sensor network, and real time users etc.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Cheng, Zizhi
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparison of Source Diversity and Channel Diversity Methods on Symmetric and Fading Channels.

Description: Channel diversity techniques are effective ways to combat channel fading and noise in communication systems. In this thesis, I compare the performance of source and channel diversity techniques on fading and symmetric continuous channels. My experiments suggest that when SNR is low, channel diversity performs better, and when SNR is high, source diversity shows better performance than channel diversity.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Li, Li
Partner: UNT Libraries

FPGA Implementation of Low Density Party Check Codes Decoder

Description: Reliable communication over the noisy channel has become one of the major concerns in the field of digital wireless communications. The low density parity check codes (LDPC) has gained lot of attention recently because of their excellent error-correcting capacity. It was first proposed by Robert G. Gallager in 1960. LDPC codes belong to the class of linear block codes. Near capacity performance is achievable on a large collection of data transmission and storage.In my thesis I have focused on hardware implementation of (3, 6) - regular LDPC codes. A fully parallel decoder will require too high complexity of hardware realization. Partly parallel decoder has the advantage of effective compromise between decoding throughput and high hardware complexity. The decoding of the codeword follows the belief propagation alias probability propagation algorithm in log domain. A 9216 bit, (3, 6) regular LDPC code with code rate ½ was implemented on FPGA targeting Xilinx Virtex 4 XC4VLX80 device with package FF1148. This decoder achieves a maximum throughput of 82 Mbps. The entire model was designed in VHDL in the Xilinx ISE 9.2 environment.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Vijayakumar, Suresh
Partner: UNT Libraries

Integrating environmental data acquisition and low cost Wi-Fi data communication.

Description: This thesis describes environmental data collection and transmission from the field to a server using Wi-Fi. Also discussed are components, radio wave propagation, received power calculations, and throughput tests. Measured receive power resulted close to calculated and simulated values. Throughput tests resulted satisfactory. The thesis provides detailed systematic procedures for Wi-Fi radio link setup and techniques to optimize the quality of a radio link.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Gurung, Sanjaya
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Interactive Tool to Investigate the Inference Performance of Network Dynamics From Data

Description: Network structure plays a significant role in determining the performance of network inference tasks. An interactive tool to study the dependence of network topology on estimation performance was developed. The tool allows end-users to easily create and modify network structures and observe the performance of pole estimation measured by Cramer-Rao bounds. The tool also automatically suggests the best measurement locations to maximize estimation performance, and thus finds its broad applications on the optimal design of data collection experiments. Finally, a series of theoretical results that explicitly connect subsets of network structures with inference performance are obtained.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Veenadhar, Katragadda
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Smooth-turn Mobility Model for Airborne Networks

Description: In this article, I introduce a novel airborne network mobility model, called the Smooth Turn Mobility Model, that captures the correlation of acceleration for airborne vehicles across time and spatial coordinates. E?ective routing in airborne networks (ANs) relies on suitable mobility models that capture the random movement pattern of airborne vehicles. As airborne vehicles cannot make sharp turns as easily as ground vehicles do, the widely used mobility models for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks such as Random Waypoint and Random Direction models fail. Our model is realistic in capturing the tendency of airborne vehicles toward making straight trajectory and smooth turns with large radius, and whereas is simple enough for tractable connectivity analysis and routing design.
Date: August 2012
Creator: He, Dayin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reconfigurable Aerial Computing System: Design and Development

Description: In situations where information infrastructure is destroyed or not available, on-demand information infrastructure is pivotal for the success of rescue missions. In this paper, a drone-carried on-demand information infrastructure for long-distance WiFi transmission system is developed. It can be used in the areas including emergency response, public event, and battlefield. In years development, the Drone WIFI System has developed from single-CPU platform, twin-CPU platform, Atmega2560 platform to NVIDIA Jetson TX2 platform. By the upgrade of the platform, the hardware shows more and more reliable and higher performance which make the application of the platform more and more exciting. The latest TX2 platform can provide real time and thermal video transmission, also application of deep learning of object recognition and target tracing. All these up-to-date technology brings more application scenarios to the system. Therefore, the system can serve more people in more scenarios.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Gu, Yixin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Data Transmission in Quantized Consensus

Description: In the world of networked system, average consensus is an important dimension of co-ordinate control and cooperation. Since the communication medium is digital, real value cannot be transmitted and we need to perform quantization before data transmission. But for the quantization, error is introduced in exact value and initial average is lost. Based on this limitation, my 16 bit quantization method (sending MSB in 1-4 cycle and MSB+LSB in 5th cycle) reduces error significantly and preserves initial average. Besides, it works on all types of graphs (star, complete, ring, random geometric graph). My other algorithm, distributing averaging algorithm (PQDA) with probabilistic quantization also works on random geometric graph, star, ring and slow co-herency graph. It shows significant reduced error and attain strict consensus.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Parvez, Imtiaz
Partner: UNT Libraries

Design of a Dual Band Gan Pa Utilizing Dual Band Impedance Transformers

Description: This thesis discusses the design, fabrication, and testing of a high efficiency, dual band radio frequency power amplifier. While it is difficult to demonstrate an exact mode of operation for power amplifiers at radio frequencies, based on the characteristics of the transistor itself, the argument can be made that our high efficiency performance is due to an approximation to class E operation. The PA is designed around a CGH40025 transistor manufactured by Cree, Inc, which has developed a very useful nonlinear model of its transistor, which allows use of software load/source pull methods to determine optimum impedances to be presented to the gate and drain (hereafter referred to as source and load) of the transistor at each band of operation. A recent work on dual-band impedance matching is then used to design distributed element networks in order to present conjugate matches of these impedances to the transistor. This is followed by a careful layout, after which the PA is then fabricated on a low-impedance substrate using a LPKF Protomat S63 rapid prototyping machine. Measurements of gain and drain current provide values for power-added-efficiency. Simulated gains were 21 and 18 dB at 800 MHz and 1.85 GHz, respectively, with PAE around 63% for both bands. Measurements taken from the fabricated PA showed gains of 20 and 16 dB at each band, but PAE of 80% at 800 MHz and 43% at 1.85 GHz.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Poe, David R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Parameter Estimation Using Consensus Building Strategies with Application to Sensor Networks

Description: Sensor network plays a significant role in determining the performance of network inference tasks. A wireless sensor network with a large number of sensor nodes can be used as an effective tool for gathering data in various situations. One of the major issues in WSN is developing an efficient protocol which has a significant impact on the convergence of the network. Parameter estimation is one of the most important applications of sensor network. In order to model such large and complex networks for estimation, efficient strategies and algorithms which take less time to converge are being developed. To deal with this challenge, an approach of having multilayer network structure to estimate parameter and reach convergence in less time is estimated by comparing it with known gossip distributed algorithm. Approached Multicast multilayer algorithm on a network structure of Gaussian mixture model with two components to estimate parameters were compared and simulated with gossip algorithm. Both the algorithms were compared based on the number of iterations the algorithms took to reach convergence by using Expectation Maximization Algorithm.Finally a series of theoretical and practical results that explicitly showed that Multicast works better than gossip in large and complex networks for estimation in consensus building strategies.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Dasgupta, Kaushani
Partner: UNT Libraries

Implementation of Turbo Codes on GNU Radio

Description: This thesis investigates the design and implementation of turbo codes over the GNU radio. The turbo codes is a class of iterative channel codes which demonstrates strong capability for error correction. A software defined radio (SDR) is a communication system which can implement different modulation schemes and tune to any frequency band by means of software that can control the programmable hardware. SDR utilizes the general purpose computer to perform certain signal processing techniques. We implement a turbo coding system using the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a widely used SDR platform from Ettus. Detail configuration and performance comparison are also provided in this research.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Talasila, Mahendra
Partner: UNT Libraries

Design and Application of Phased Array System

Description: Since its invention, phased array has been extensively applied in both military and civil areas. The applications include target detecting and tracking, space probe communication, broadcasting, human-machine interfaces, and remote sensing. Although the phased array applications show a broad range of potential market, there are some limitations of phased array's development: high cost, complex structure, narrow bandwidth, and high power consumption. Therefore, novel ideas are needed to reduce these constraints. In this thesis, several new approaches about the design and application of phased array are presents. First, the principle of phased array and fundamental design equations are introduced. Second, a new application of phased array antenna for radar respiration measurement is presented. By integrating a 4×4 Butler matrix with four-element antenna array, there will be four distinct main beams in radiation pattern. This new approach can improve the measurement accuracy and realize a high detecting rate. Third, a compact phased array antenna system based on dual-band operations is introduced. Dual-band function can make N-antenna system obtain 2N unique radiation beams (N is an integer) and achieve a significant size reduction compared to the conventional single-band system. To verify the design concept, a four-element phased array antenna working at 5GHz and 8GHz is designed and fabricated. The measurement results make a good agreement with the simulations. Finally, a novel architecture of steering phase feeding network by using bi-directional series-fed topology is presented. This bi-directional series-fed network needs less phase shifters and realizes steering phase function by applying control voltage.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Ren, Han
Partner: UNT Libraries

Timing and Congestion Driven Algorithms for FPGA Placement

Description: Placement is one of the most important steps in physical design for VLSI circuits. For field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the placement step determines the location of each logic block. I present novel timing and congestion driven placement algorithms for FPGAs with minimal runtime overhead. By predicting the post-routing timing-critical edges and estimating congestion accurately, this algorithm is able to simultaneously reduce the critical path delay and the minimum number of routing tracks. The core of the algorithm consists of a criticality-history record of connection edges and a congestion map. This approach is applied to the 20 largest Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC) benchmark circuits. Experimental results show that compared with the state-of-the-art FPGA place and route package, the Versatile Place and Route (VPR) suite, this algorithm yields an average of 8.1% reduction (maximum 30.5%) in the critical path delay and 5% reduction in channel width. Meanwhile, the average runtime of the algorithm is only 2.3X as of VPR.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Zhuo, Yue
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development and Analysis of a Mobile Node Tracking Antenna Control System

Description: A wireless communication system allows two parties to exchange information over long distances. The antenna is the component of a wireless communication system that allows information to be converted into electromagnetic radiation that propagates through the air. A system using an antenna with a highly directional beam pattern allows for high power transmission and reception of data. For a directional antenna to serve its purpose, it must be accurately pointed at the object it is communicating with. To communicate with a mobile node, knowledge of the mobile node's position must be gained so the directional antenna can be regularly pointed toward the moving target. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides an accurate source of three-dimensional position information for the mobile node. This thesis develops an antenna control station that uses GPS information to track a mobile node and point a directional antenna toward the mobile node. Analysis of the subsystems used and integrated system test results are provided to assess the viability of the antenna control station.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Hensley, Phillip Hayden
Partner: UNT Libraries