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Using artificial neural networks to predict the performance of a liquid metal reflux solar receiver: Preliminary results

Description: Three and four-layer backpropagation artificial neural networks have been used to predict the power output of a liquid metal reflux solar receiver. The networks were trained using on-sun test data recorded at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The preliminary results presented in this paper are a comparison of how different size networks train on this particular data. The results give encouragement that it will be possible to predict output power of a liquid metal receiver under a variety of operating conditions using artificial neural networks.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Fowler, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy methanes (mass-20 and -21) as atmospheric tracers. A new research initiatives project

Description: Products from the stable isotope production project (ICONS) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) have had applications in a number of practical problems. Fully deuterated methanes, using /sup 12/C and /sup 13/C (mass-20 and -21, respectively), are detectable in the atmosphere at very low concentrations. The detection limits are due to an almost zero background and a distinct mass-spectrometric line. These properties, coupled with long lifetimes in the atmosphere, make the heavy methanes strong candidates for tracers of atmospheric transport and turbulence on regional to global scales. Three field tests have been conducted to assess the feasibility and to demonstrate the desirable properties of heavy methanes as atmospheric tracers. In the first test in May 1974, heavy methane released at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was sampled and detected in several midwestern cities up to 2500 km downstream. These results agree with trajectories estimated from observed meteorological data. A second experiment, conducted in December 1975 at the Savannah River Plant, compared two heavy methanes with SF/sub 6/ and /sup 85/Kr over a transport distance of 100 km. Increased detail in meteorological support data and ground-level sampling offered options of data interpretation unavailable in the first test. Qualitative patterns of tracer concentrations show good agreement among the four tracers and are verified by the meteorological inputs. The third experiment, performed in April 1977 at INEL, built on the experience of the previous two. Detailed ground-level sampling arrays at 3, 50, and 90 km from the release point were supplemented by aircraft and a crude sampling line across the Continental Divide at 300-km distance. Two new perfluorocarbon tracers were included for comparison.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Guthals, P.R. & Fowler, M.M. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective transport velocity and plume elongation in nocturnal valley wind fields

Description: Using three atmospheric tracers the effective transport velocity and plume elongation produced by nocturnal drainage wind in three different valleys were investigated. Tracer was released in each valley in a well defined drainage wind field and sequentially sampled at downvalley locations. The effective transport velocity (V-eff) was determined from the elapsed time from the start of the release to the time when the plume concentration reached 10% of its peak value and the distance from the release site. The plume elongation factor was determined from the ratio of the width (time) of the plume at 10% of its peak value to the duration of the release. This method was chosen as an objective analysis scheme. Mean measured winds (V) were computed from surface wind instruments along the drainage flow path with values weighted by the estimated time the plume was in the wind field best represented by a measurement. The values used were from the start of release to the time of arrival at the sampler in question. V is compred to V-eff to see how reasonable an estimate of plume transport in valleys can be made from a few surface measurements in the valley. The simple tracer technique used in the studies has proven to be a good one in accomplishing the stated objective of investigating effective transport velocity and plume elongation in nocturnal valley drainage winds.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Clements, W.E.; Barr, S. & Fowler, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption and desorption of cesium and strontium on TA-2 and TA-41 soils and sediments

Description: Current environmental monitoring has detected radioactive contaminants in alluvial groundwater, soils, and sediments in the TA-2 and TA-41 areas along the north central edge of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Because of this contamination, this study was initiated. The objective of this study is to quantify the sorptivity of cesium and strontium onto TA-2 and TA-41 site specific soil samples under a controlled environment in the laboratory. The purposes of this work are to determine cesium and strontium sorption coefficient for these sit specific soils and to evaluate the potential transport of cesium and strontium. Based on this information, a risk assessment and remediation strategy can be developed.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Kung, K. Stephen; Li, Benjamin W.; Longmire, P.A. & Fowler, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a low-level, in-line alpha counter (LLILAC)

Description: This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). With the increasing awareness of water contamination issues and the rising consequences of any form of contamination, real-time continuous monitoring is rapidly becoming a necessity. In particular, monitoring for the presence of any radioactive material is paramount. The most difficult of such monitoring tasks is that of detecting alpha-emitting radionuclides in water. Our development of the Low Level In-Line Alpha Counter (LLILAC) addresses the need for on-line, near real-time monitoring of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aqueous streams in a wide variety of applications. Although primarily designed as an on-line instrument for real-time applications, the detector can also be used for long-term in situ/post-closure monitoring. This detection system operates by allowing the stream to be monitored to come in contact with a large number of small rods or tubes made of scintillation material. By maximizing the surface to volume ratio of the scintillator, the response to alpha particles is favored over other types of radiation. Several configurations of scintillator and light collection schemes have been investigated to optimize the detection efficiency. We have also written several Monte Carlo codes to help to predict and understand the detector performance.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Gritzo, R.E.; Farnham, J.E.; Fowler, M.M. & Wouters, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a real-time monitor for airborne alpha emissions. First quarter report, TTP AL 142003

Description: This is the first quarterly report for Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 for TTP AL 142003, Development of a Real-Time Monitor for Airborne Alpha Emissions. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is developing a new technology for on-line, real-time monitoring of incinerator stacks for low levels of airborne alpha activity. While initially developed for incinerators, this new technology may well find other applications in continuous air monitoring, process monitoring, and monitoring during remediation activities. Referred to as the Large-Volume Flow Thru Detector System (LVFTDS), this technology responds directly to the need for fast responding, high sensitivity effluent monitoring systems. With DOE EM-50 funding, LANL has fabricated a bench-top proof of concept detector system and is conducting tests to evaluate its performance. A second- generation prototype is being designed, based on requirements driven by potential field test sites. An industrial partner is being solicited to license the technology. Field trials of a full-scale detector system are planned for FY 95. Accomplishments during the first quarter of FY 94 are chronicled in this report, including budgetary data. A schedule for the remainder of the fiscal year is also provided.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Gritzo, R. E. & Fowler, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of mixed proton/neutron fluences in the LANSCE irradiation environment

Description: In support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program, several materials were exposed to a high-energy proton and spallation neutron environments. Large differences in mechanical property changes in this environment are expected compared to the typical fusion or fission systems. To make proper dose correlations, it is important to accurately quantify the fluences. Activation foils consisting of a stack of disks of Co, Ni, Fe, Al, Nb and Cu were irradiated concurrent with mechanical testing samples in the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facility. The irradiation consisted of an 800 MeV, 1 mA proton beam and a W target in the beam provided a source of spallation neutrons. The maximum proton fluence was around 3 {times} 10{sup 21} p/cm{sup 2} and the maximum neutron fluence approximately 3 {times} 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2}. After irradiation, the foils were withdrawn and the radioactive isotopes analyzed using gamma spectroscopy. From initial estimates for the fluences and spectra derived from the Los Alamos High-Energy Transport (LAHET) Code System (LCS), comparisons to the measured levels of activation products were made. The Na-22 activation products in the Al foils were measured from different regions of the target in order to profile the spatial levels of the fluences. These tests gave empirical confirmation of the proton and neutron fluences of the irradiated samples throughout the target region.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: James, M.R.; Maloy, S.A; Sommer, W.F.; Ferguson, P.; Fowler, M.M. & Corzine, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using artificial neural networks to predict the performance of a liquid sodium reflux pool boiler solar receiver

Description: Liquid metal reflux receivers (LMRRs) have been designed to serve as the interface between the solar concentrator dish and the Stirling engine of a dish Stirling power system. Such a receiver has undergone performance testing at Sandia National Laboratory to determine cold- and hot-start characteristics, component temperatures, throughput power, and thermal efficiency, for various times of day and year. Performance modeling will play an important role in the future commercialization of these systems since it will be necessary to predict overall energy production for potential installation sites based on available meteorological data. As a supplement to numerical thermal modeling, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been investigated for their effectiveness in predicting long-term energy production of a LMRR. Two types of data were used to train ANNs, actual on-sun test data, and ersatz data. ANNs were trained on both the raw on-sun test data and on pre-formatted versions of the data to determine if pre-formatting of the input data would improve network training efficiency and predictive abilities. Usable on-sun test data were available for only a few days of performance testing. Therefore, a set of year-long ersatz data was generated using a transient numerical model driven by one-minute meteorological data from the Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Sites (SEMRTS) data base for Davis, CA. The ersatz data were used to train ANNs based on warm-month data, cool-month data, and year-long data to investigate the impact of using seasonal test data on long-term predictive capabilities. The findings indicated that a network trained on data from a limited time span could successfully predict annual energy output of a liquid metal receiver.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Fowler, M.M.; Klett, D.E.; Moreno, J.B. & Heermann, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of proton and neutron spectra in the LANSCE spallation irradiation facility

Description: Materials samples were recently irradiated in the Los Alamos Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to provide data for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project on the effect of irradiation on the mechanical and physical properties of materials. The targets were configured to expose samples to a variety of radiation environments including, high-energy protons, mixed protons and high-energy neutrons, and low-energy neutrons. The samples were irradiated for approximately six months during a ten month period using an 800 MeV proton beam with a circular Gaussian shape of approximately 2{sigma} = 3.0 cm. At the end of this period, the samples were extracted and tested. Activation foils were also extracted that had been placed in proximity to the materials samples. These were used to quantify the fluences in various locations.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: James, M.R.; Maloy, S.A.; Sommer, W.F.; Fowler, M.M.; Dry, D.; Ferguson, P.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for superradiant emission states in nuclear isomer crystals

Description: This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective was to verify the stimulated emission of gamma rays from {sup 125m}Te, as claimed by Russian scientists. The reported cross section for stimulated emission was sufficiently large to allow gain in a single-pass gamma-ray laser. The stimulated emission of gamma rays from a nuclear isomer is expected to result in collinear photons and, therefore, should be observable as a sum peak in the gamma-ray spectrum. Skorobogatov and Dzevitskii reported an increase of an order of magnitude in the sum peak (218.56 keV) when a sample of beryllium telluride containing {sup 125m}Te was cooled from room temperature to near-liquid-helium temperatures. The authors have repeated their experiment and have observed no increase in the sum peak above accidental summing. The upper limit for the stimulated-emission cross section based on the three-standard-deviation statistical error is 6.8 x 10 {sup {minus}21} cm{sup 2}. This result is one order of magnitude lower than the cross section reported by Skorobogatov and Dzevitskii. The cross section would not allow gain in a single-pass gamma-ray laser. Their results support the position of Baldwin and Solem rather than that of Kamenov.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Rundberg, R.S.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Taylor, R.D.; Solem, J.C.; Fowler, M.M.; Miller, G.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

Description: A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50--100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: the reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicity of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

Description: A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50--100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components--intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: the reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicity of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. 15 refs., 7 figs.
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar Neutrino Physics

Description: With its heavy water target, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) offers the unique opportunity to measure both the 8B flux of electron neutrinos from the Sun and, independently, the flux of all active neutrino species reaching the Earth. A model-independent test of the hypothesis that neutrino oscillations are responsible for the observed solar neutrino deficit can be made by comparing the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) rates. This LDRD proposal supported the research and development necessary for an assessment of backgrounds and performance of the SNO detector and the ability to extract the NC/CC-Ratio. Particular emphasis is put upon the criteria for deployment and signal extraction from a discrete NC detector array based upon ultra-low background 3He proportional counters.
Date: July 15, 1999
Creator: Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Esch, E.-I.; Fowler, M.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutral-current detection in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

Description: The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) will have the capability of detecting all active species of neutrinos with energies greater than 2.2 MeV by the neutral-current disintegration of deuterium. The comparison of this rate with the rate of inverse beta decay of the deuteron will yield a nearly model-independent answer to the question of whether electron neutrinos from the sun oscillate into mu or tau neutrinos. The signal of a neutral-current interaction is the liberation of a free neutron in the heavy-water detector, and we discuss a technique employing [sup 3]He proportional counters for registering these neutrons, particularly from the standpoint of the ultra-low backgrounds needed.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Bowles, T.J.; Doe, P.J.; Fowler, M.M.; Hime, A.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Thornewell, P.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An array of low-background 3He proportional counters for theSudbury Neutrino Observatory

Description: An array of Neutral-Current Detectors (NCDs) has been builtin order to make a unique measurement of the total active ux of solarneutrinos in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Data in the thirdphase of the SNO experiment were collected between November 2004 andNovember 2006, after the NCD array was added to improve theneutral-current sensitivity of the SNO detector. This array consisted of36 strings of proportional counters lled with a mixture of 3He and CF4gas capable of detecting the neutrons liberated by the neutrino-deuteronneutral current reaction in the D2O, and four strings lled with a mixtureof 4He and CF4 gas for background measurements. The proportional counterdiameter is 5 cm. The total deployed array length was 398 m. The SNO NCDarray is the lowest-radioactivity large array of proportional countersever produced. This article describes the design, construction,deployment, and characterization of the NCD array, discusses theelectronics and data acquisition system, and considers event signaturesand backgrounds.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Amsbaugh, J.F.; Anaya, J.M.; Banar, J.; Bowles, T.J.; Browne,M.C.; Bullard, T.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the nue and Total 8B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with theSudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I Data Set

Description: This article provides the complete description of resultsfrom the Phase I data set of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). ThePhase I data set is based on a 0.65 kt-year exposure of heavy water tothe solar 8B neutrino flux. Included here are details of the SNO physicsand detector model, evaluations of systematic uncertainties, andestimates of backgrounds. Also discussed are SNO's approach tostatistical extraction of the signals from the three neutrino reactions(charged current, neutral current, and elastic scattering) and theresults of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the ?e flux. Under theassumption that the 8B spectrum is undistorted, the measurements fromthis phase yield a solar ?e flux of ?(?e) =1.76+0.05?0.05(stat.)+0.09?0.09 (syst.) x 106 cm?2 s?1, and a non-?ecomponent ?(? mu) = 3.41+0.45?0.45(stat.)+0.48?0.45 (syst.) x 106 cm?2s?1. The sum of these components provides a total flux in excellentagreement with the predictions of Standard Solar Models. The day-nightasymmetry in the ?e flux is found to be Ae = 7.0 +- 4.9 (stat.)+1.3?1.2percent (sys.), when the asymmetry in the total flux is constrained to bezero.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Aharmim, B.; Ahmad, Q.R.; Ahmed, S.N.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen,T.C.; Anglin, J.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

Description: The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.
Date: September 24, 2001
Creator: Ahmad, Q.R.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen, T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Barton,J.C.; Beier, E.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department